Search results for: neutrinos-in-high-energy-and-astroparticle-physics

Neutrinos in High Energy and Astroparticle Physics

Author : Jose Wagner Furtado Valle
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This self-contained modern textbook provides a modern description of the Standard Model and its main extensions from the perspective of neutrino physics. In particular it includes a thorough discussion of the varieties of seesaw mechanism, with or without supersymmetry. It also discusses schemes where neutrino mass arises from lighter messengers, which might lie within reach of the world's largest particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider. Throughout the text, the book stresses the role of neutrinos due to the fact that neutrino properties may serve as a guide to the correct model of unification, hence for a deeper understanding of high energy physics, and because neutrinos play an important role in astroparticle physics and cosmology. Each chapter includes summaries and set of problems, as well as further reading.

Ultra high Energy Particle Astrophysics

Author : Shigeru Yoshida
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Many kinds of radiation exist in the universe, including photons and particles with a wide range of energies. Some of the radiation is produced in stars and galaxies, and some is cosmological background radiation, a relic from the history of cosmic evolution. Among all this radiation, the most energetic are cosmic ray particles: nucleons, nuclei, and even extremely energetic gamma rays. There are some observational facts about cosmic rays to give suggestions on their origin. The most important one among them is that the energy spectrum of high energy cosmic rays above 10 GeV (where the magnetic field of the sun is no longer a concern) is well represented by a power law form. This indicates cosmic ray particles are products of non-thermal processes. Their energy extends over more than 13 decades from 107 eV up to 1020 eV. In terms of its structure, the spectrum can be divided into three regions: two 'knees' and one 'ankle'. The first 'knee' appears around 3×1015 eV where the spectral power law index changes from -2.7 to -3.0. The second 'knee' is somewhere between 1017 eV and 1018 eV where the spectral slope changes from -3.0 to around -3.3. The 'ankle' is seen at or after 3×1018 eV. Above that energy the spectral slope is around -2.7, but with a large uncertainty because of poor statistics and resolution. This book deals with the final and most energetic population, the Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs).

Particle Physics and the Universe

Author : Claes Fransson
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It is generally felt in the cosmology and particle astrophysics community that we have just entered an era which later can only be looked back upon as a golden age. Thanks to the rapid technical development, with powerful new telescopes and other detectors taken into operation at an impressive rate, and the accompanying advancement of theoretical ideas, the picture of the past, present and future Universe is getting ever clearer. Some of the most exciting new findings and expected future developments are discussed in this invaluable volume. The topics covered include the physics of the early Universe and ultra-high energy processes. Emphasis is also put on neutrino physics and astrophysics, with the evidence for non-zero neutrino masses emerging from both solar neutrinos and atmospheric neutrinos covered in great depth. Another field with interesting new results concerns the basic cosmological parameters, where both traditional methods and the potential of new ones, like deep supernova surveys and acoustic peak detections in the cosmic microwave background, are thoroughly discussed. Various aspects of the dark matter problem, such as gravitational lensing estimates of galaxy masses, cluster evolution and hot cluster electron distortions of the thermal microwave background spectrum, are also discussed, as are particle physics candidates of dark matter and methods to detect them. Cosmic rays of matter and antimatter are included as a topic, and so is the problem of the enigmatic dark energy of the vacuum. Contents: Cosmology with Clusters of Galaxies (N A Bahcall); Radiochemical Solar Neutrino Experiments and Implications (T A Kirsten); Evidence for Neutrino Oscillation Observed in Super-Kamiokande (Y Totsuka); High Energy Cosmic Neutrinos (S W Barwick); Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background (D T Wilkinson & P J E Peebles); Starlight in the Universe (P Madau); Acceleration of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (R D Blandford); Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe (M S Turner); Dark Matter Tomography (J A Tyson); Status of Models for Gamma Ray Bursts (M J Rees); and other papers. Readership: High energy physicists, astrophysicists and cosmologists.

Non accelerator Astroparticle Physics

Author : R. A. Carrigan
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This volume provides timely coverage of nonaccelerator astroparticle physics. It complements two volumes prepared for earlier schools. Informative and pedagogical, it can serve as the basis for a modern course on the subject.The first section discusses the fundamentals of particle physics, with reviews of the standard model and beyond. The section on neutrinos and neutrino oscillations covers topics including neutrino oscillations, short and long baseline neutrino beams from accelerators, atmospheric and solar neutrinos, neutrinos from gravitational stellar collapses and neutrino telescopes. Another section deals with dark matter searches. Cosmic rays and astrophysics are covered with reviews of experiments in space, extreme energy cosmic rays, and gamma ray bursts. Gravitational waves and gravitational wave detectors are discussed. The final section deals with results from accelerators and future plans for accelerator facilities, computing, and new large and small detectors. Abstracts of the posters presented by participants at the school give a broad picture of world-wide activities in the field.

Neutrinos and Explosive Events in the Universe

Author : Maurice M. Shapiro
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This volume contains the Lectures and selected participant contributions to the 14th Course of the International School of Cosmic Rays Astrophysics, a NATO Advanced Study Institute. Well known astrophysicists and astronomers discuss different aspects of the generation of high energy signals in powerful astrophysical objects concentrating on the production of neutrinos and gamma rays from high energy particle interactions. Recent results from new experiments and observatories are presented. Topics cover a wide range including the Spitzer infrared observatory, TeV gamma ray observations, dark matter, and neutrino telescopes. The combination of basic knowledge about the production of high energy signals with information about the data analysis of ongoing observations places the book between the usual levels of a textbook and a conference proceedings. It will give the reader a good introduction to the current field of astroparticle physics, and some of the fascinating astrophysics being addressed.

Multiple Messengers and Challenges in Astroparticle Physics

Author : Roberto Aloisio
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This book, designed as a tool for young researchers and graduate students, reviews the main open problems and research lines in various fields of astroparticle physics: cosmic rays, gamma rays, neutrinos, cosmology, and gravitational physics. The opening section discusses cosmic rays of both galactic and extragalactic origin, examining experimental results, theoretical models, and possible future developments. The basics of gamma-ray astronomy are then described, including the detection methods and techniques. Galactic and extragalactic aspects of the field are addressed in the light of recent discoveries with space-borne and ground-based detectors. The review of neutrinos outlines the status of the investigations of neutrino radiation and brings together relevant formulae, estimations, and background information. Three complementary issues in cosmology are examined: observable predictions of inflation in the early universe, effects of dark energy/modified gravity in the large-scale structure of the universe, and neutrinos in cosmology and large-scale structures. The closing section on gravitational physics reviews issues relating to quantum gravity, atomic precision tests, space-based experiments, the strong field regime, gravitational waves, multi-messengers, and alternative theories of gravity.

Solar Neutrino Physics

Author : Lothar Oberauer
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A guide to the fascinating interplay between particle physics and astrophysics that highlights the discovery of neutrino oscillations Written by three international experts on the topic, Solar Neutrino Physics offers a review of the status of solar physics with its strong link to neutrino physics. The book explores constitutive physics and the governing equations of standard solar models. The authors also review the theory of neutrinos in the Standard Model and the related detector experiments. The book contains a summary of the results from various experiments and develops a coherent view of the current state-of-the-art of solar neutrino physics. Solar Neutrino Physics shows how solar models can be calibrated with the observational constraints of the age, mass, radius, and luminosity of the sun. The authors present general evolutionary properties of the sun as a star, past and future. They also discuss the solar neutrino production via the pp-chains and CNO-cycle, including the important role of the chemical composition of the sun. A very important source of information about the solar interior is offered by helioseismology, the study of solar oscillations. This important book: -Presents a high-level overview of the field of solar neutrino physics -Brings together data and their interpretation of results obtained at various solar neutrino observatories -Combines the theory of nuclear reactions with solar neutrino experiments -Contains a review of SNO+, JUNO, LENA, Hyper-Kamiokande, and DUNE. Written for astronomers, physicists, and high energy physicists, Solar Neutrino Physics contains a review of the field of neutrino physics, the relevant equations, and the impact of matter on the behavior of neutrino oscillations.

Proceedings of the International Workshop on New Worlds in Astroparticle Physics

Author : Ana M. Mour?o
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This volume covers many different subjects, from very high energy cosmic rays to neutrino physics, gravitational waves and cosmology. Recent achievements and the exciting years to come are emphasized.

Advanced Detectors for Nuclear High Energy and Astroparticle Physics

Author : Saikat Biswas
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The book presents high-quality papers presented at a national conference on ‘Advanced Detectors for Nuclear, High Energy and Astroparticle Physics’. The conference was organized to commemorate 100 years of Bose Institute. The book is based on the theme of the conference and provides a clear picture of basics and advancement of detectors for nuclear physics, high-energy physics and astroparticle physics together. The topics covered in the book include detectors for accelerator-based high energy physics; detectors for non-accelerator particle physics; nuclear physics detectors; detection techniques in astroparticle physics and dark matter; and applications and simulations. The book will be a good reference for researchers and industrial personnel working in the area of nuclear and astroparticle physics.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author : James Matthews
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This book is a collection of comprehensive reviews on astrophysics at the highest energies. It puts together, for the first time, discussions of astrophysics from MeV to EeV energies and beyond. Observations at these energies reveal nuclear and particle physics throughout our galaxy as well as in the most extreme environments in the entire cosmos. These reports range from the recent spectacular results from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, including the latest information on enigmatic gamma ray bursts, to cosmic rays at the highest energies ever observed by man.

Neutrinos in Particle Physics Astronomy and Cosmology

Author : Zhizhong Xing
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"Neutrinos in Particle Physics, Astronomy and Cosmology" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to neutrino physics, neutrino astronomy and neutrino cosmology. The intrinsic properties and fundamental interactions of neutrinos are described, as is the phenomenology of lepton flavor mixing, seesaw mechanisms and neutrino oscillations. The cosmic neutrino background, stellar neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos, together with the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry and other roles of massive neutrinos in cosmology, are discussed in detail. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of particle physics, particle astrophysics and cosmology. Dr. Zhizhong Xing is a professor at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Dr. Shun Zhou is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Germany.

Neutrinos In The New Millennium Proceedings Of The Johns Hopkins Workshop On Current Problems In Particle Theory 23

Author : Domokos Gabor
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The physics of neutrinos has acquired a rapidly increasing role within the realm of particle physics. Recognized as an elusive particle since the prediction of its existence by Pauli and its incorporation into particle theory by Fermi in the early thirties, the neutrino was first observed some twenty years later by Reines and Cowan. Experiments carried out by Lederman, Schwartz, Steinberger et al. first revealed the existence of several species of neutrinos. By now, neutrino physics has matured to the point where detailed properties of neutrinos and their mixing can be studied by a number of experiments carried out in various high energy laboratories. Such experiments are relevant not only from viewpoint of understanding the properties of elementary particles, but also the early history of the Universe.This volume discusses the most recent experimental and theoretical results in that exciting area of particle physics.

High Energy Astrophysics

Author : Malcolm S. Longair
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Providing students with an in-depth account of the astrophysics of high energy phenomena in the Universe, the third edition of this well-established textbook is ideal for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate courses in high energy astrophysics. Building on the concepts and techniques taught in standard undergraduate courses, this textbook provides the astronomical and astrophysical background for students to explore more advanced topics. Special emphasis is given to the underlying physical principles of high energy astrophysics, helping students understand the essential physics. The third edition has been completely rewritten, consolidating the previous editions into one volume. It covers the most recent discoveries in areas such as gamma-ray bursts, ultra-high energy cosmic rays and ultra-high energy gamma rays. The topics have been rearranged and streamlined to make them more applicable to a wide range of different astrophysical problems.

Current Aspects of Neutrino Physics

Author : David O. Caldwell
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This book, written by leading experts of the field, gives an excellent up-to-date overview of modern neutrino physics and is useful for scientists and graduate students alike. The book starts with a history of neutrinos and then develops from the fundamentals to the direct determination of masses and lifetimes. The role of neutrinos in fundamental astrophysical problems is discussed in detail.

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Author : Alessandro De Angelis
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This book introduces particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Starting from an experimental perspective, it provides a unified view of these fields that reflects the very rapid advances being made. This new edition has a number of improvements and has been updated to describe the recent discovery of gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos, which started the new era of multimessenger astrophysics; it also includes new results on the Higgs particle. Astroparticle and particle physics share a common problem: we still don’t have a description of the main ingredients of the Universe from the point of view of its energy budget. Addressing these fascinating issues, and offering a balanced introduction to particle and astroparticle physics that requires only a basic understanding of quantum and classical physics, this book is a valuable resource, particularly for advanced undergraduate students and for those embarking on graduate courses. It includes exercises that offer readers practical insights. It can be used equally well as a self-study book, a reference and a textbook.

Currents in High Energy Astrophysics

Author : M.M. Shapiro
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute and Ninth Course of the International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics, Ettore Majorana Centre, Erice, Sicily, Italy, 7--18 May 1994

High Energy Astroparticle Physics with Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

Author : Pasquale Dario Serpico
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Astroparticle Particle and Space Physics Detectors and Medical Physics Applications

Author : Michele Barone
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3D-reconstruction of absorbed dose obtained from gel-dosimeter layers. Accurate determination of radionuclidic purity and half-life reactor produced Lu-177g for metabolic radioimmunotherapy. Spatial linearity improvement for discrete scintillation imagers. High resolution, high sensitivity detectors for molecular imaging of small animals and tumor detection. Strip ionization chamber as beam monitor in the proton therapy eye treatment. Low dose, low energy 3D image guidance during radiotherapy. Alpha cyclotron production studies of the Alpha Emitter [symbol] for High-LET metabolic radiotherapy. Treatment planning with IVIS imaging and Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo simulations of a human phantom radio-pharmacokinetic response on a small field of view scintigraphic device. Applications of the Monte Carlo code GEANT to particle beam therapy. Charge sharing in pixel detectors for spectroscopic imaging. Direct thickness calibration: way to radiographic study of soft tissues. A portable pixel detector operating as an active nuclear emulsion and its application for X-ray and neutron tomography -- Radiation damage. Statistical study of radiation hardness of CMS silicon sensors. SIC PbWO4 crystals for the electromagnetic calorimeter of CMS experiment. MDT chamber ageing test at ENEA casaccia neutron and gamma facilities. Behavior of thin film materials under [symbol] irradiation for astronomical optics. Full characterization of non-uniformly irradiated silicon micro-strip sensors. Beam energy monitor for 4-10 MeV electron accelerators. Optical link of the ATLAS pixel detector. Ion electron emission microscopy for SEE studies. An analysis of the expected degradation of silicon detectors in the future ultra high energy facilities. Investigation of VLSI bipolar transistors irradiated with electrons, ions and neutrons for space application. Radiation-hardness studies of high OH~ content quartz fibres irradiated with 24 GeV protons

A Search for Ultra High Energy Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays with ANITA 2

Author : Matthew Joseph Mottram
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The winner of UCL's annual HEP thesis prize, this work describes an analysis of the data from the second flight of the Antarctica Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA). ANITA is a balloon-borne experiment that searches for radio signals originating from ultra-high energy neutrinos and cosmic rays interacting with the Antarctic ice or air. The search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin is one of the outstanding experimental challenges of the 21st century. The ANITA experiment was designed to be the most sensitive instrument to ultra-high energy neutrinos that originate from the interactions of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background. The methodology and results of the neutrino and cosmic ray searches are presented in the thesis.

Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980 s Volume 2

Author : National Research Council
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