Search results for: nutrient-dynamics-for-sustainable-crop-production

Nutrient Dynamics for Sustainable Crop Production

Author : Ram Swaroop Meena
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The cropping system is one of the important components of sustainable agriculture, since it provides more efficient nutrient cycling. As such, balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of sustainable crop production. Feeding the rapidly growing world population using environmentally sustainable production systems is a major challenge, especially in developing countries. A number of studies have highlighted the fact that degradation of the world's cultivated soils is largely responsible for low and plateauing yields. Soil is lost rapidly but only formed over millennia, and this represents the greatest global threat to nutrient dynamics in agriculture. This means that nutrient management is essential to provide food and nutritional security for current and future generations. Nutrient dynamics and soil sustainability imply the maintenance of the desired ecological balance, the enhancement and preservation of soil functions, and the protection of biodiversity above and below ground. Understanding the role of nutrient management as a tool for soil sustainability and nutritional security requires a holistic approach to a wide range of soil parameters (biological, physical, and chemical) to assess the soil functions and nutrient dynamics of a crop management system within the desired timescale. Further, best nutrient management approaches are important to advance soil sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising the soil quality and productive potential. Sustainable management practices must allow environmentally and economically sustainable yields and restore soil health and sustainability. This book presents soil management approaches that can provide a wide range of benefits, including improved fertility, with a focus on the importance of nutrient dynamics. Discussing the broad impacts of nutrients cycling on the sustainability of soil and the cropping systems that it supports, it also addresses nutrient application to allow environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems that restore soil health. Arguing that balanced fertilization must be based on the concept of INM for a cropping system rather than a crop, it provides a roadmap to nutrient management for sustainability. This richly illustrated book features tables, figures and photographs and includes extensive up-to-date references, making it a valuable resource for policymakers and researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of Soil Science, Agronomy, Ecology and Environmental Sciences.

Carbon and Nutrient Dynamics in Natural and Agricultural Tropical Ecosystems

Author : L. Bergström
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The product of a symposium held at the University of Zimbabwe in May 1996.

Plant Nutrient Dynamics in Stressful Environments

Author : Urs Feller
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(This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Plant Nutrient Dynamics in Stressful Environments" that was published in Agriculture

Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Author : Louise E. Buck
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Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems examines the environmental and social conditions that affect the roles and performance of trees in field- and forest-based agricultural production systems. Various types of ecological settings for agroforestry are analyzed within temperate and tropical regions. The roles of soil, water, light, nutrient and pest management in mixed, annual, woody perennial and livestock systems are discussed. Important new case studies from around the world offer innovative strategies that have been used successfully in raising forests and tree products on a sustainable basis for commercial harvesting and for providing other environmental services in land conservation and watershed management.

Agroecosystems

Author : K. R. Krishna
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Comprised of three sections, this covers the nutrient dynamics and productivity of global agroecosystems. It focuses on the major aspects that make up agroecosystems, such as soils, climate, crops, nutrient dynamics, and productivity. It introduces agroeocsystems and describes global soil types that support vast crop belts, then deals with the principles that drive crop growth, nutrient dynamics and ecosystematic functions within any agroecosystem. It also details the influence of agronomic practices and factors such as soil microbes, organic matter, crop genetic nature, irrigation, weeds, and cropping systems that affect productivity of agroecosystems.

Sustainable Agricultural Systems

Author : Edwards
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A unique look at how the adoption of sustainable farming methods is being pursued throughout the world. This comprehensive book provides clear insight into research and education needs and the many points of view that come to bear on the issue of sustainability. Essential for agricultural leaders in research, education, conservation, policy making, and anyone else interested in creating an economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture worldwide.

Soil Health Restoration and Management

Author : Ram Swaroop Meena
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Meeting the food requirements of an ever-increasing population is a pressing challenge for every country around the globe. Soil degradation has a negative impact on food security by reducing the cultivated land areas, while at the same time the world population is predicted to increase to 9.2 billion in 2050. Soil degradation adversely affects soil function and productivity and degraded soils now amount to 6 billion ha worldwide. The major factors are salinization, erosion, depletion of nutrients due to exhaustive agricultural practices and contamination with toxic metal ions and agrochemicals, which reduces the activity of soil microbe. In addition, poor soil management also decreases fertility. As such, measures are required to restore the soil health and productivity: organic matter, beneficial microorganisms and nutrient dynamics can all improve the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Understanding the role of soil health restoration and management in sustainability and nutritional security calls for a holistic approach to assess soil functions and examine the contributions of a particular management system within a defined timescale. Further, best management practices in cropping systems are important in ensuring sustainability and food and nutritional security without compromising the soil quality and productivity potential. Rational soil management practices must allow environmentally and economically sustainable yields and restoration of soil health.

Modelling water and nutrient dynamics in soil crop systems

Author : K.Ch. Kersebaum
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This book contains articles from a workshop on the modeling of water and nutrient dynamics in crop-soil systems. Data sets from lysimeters and experimental fields of multiyear crop rotations were provided for modelers. A unique data set is provided of a 100-year, long-term field experiment into crop yield and organic carbon development under different management systems. The book includes a detailed description of data sets which can be used by modelers and the papers describe the applications of 18 different modeling approaches.

Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture

Author : K. Mulongoy
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Organic matter and the sustainability of agricultural systems: Definition and measurement. Characterization and quantification of soil organic matter. Organic inputs and soil organic matter. Nutrient cycling and processes regulating the transformation of soil organic matter. In situ estimation of soil nitrogen mineralization. Nitrogen turnover in ared latosol: Effect of added carbon on the incorporation of 15N into soil organic matter. Soil organic matter and soil fertility.

Quantification of Climate Variability Adaptation and Mitigation for Agricultural Sustainability

Author : Mukhtar Ahmed
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This book is a comprehensive volume dealing with climate change impacts on agriculture, and which can help guide the redesign of agricultural management and cropping systems. It includes mitigation techniques such as use of bioenergy crops, fertilizer and manure management, conservation tillage, crop rotations, cover crops and cropping intensity, irrigation, erosion control, management of drained wetlands, lime amendments, residue management, biochar and biotechnology. It also includes Management of GHG emissions Crop models as decision support tools QTL analysis Crop water productivity Impacts of drought on cereal crops Silvopastoral systems Changing climate impact on wheat-based cropping systems of South Asia Phosphorous dynamics under changing climate Role of bioinformatics The focus of the book is climate change mitigation to enhance sustainability in agriculture. We present various kinds of mitigation options, ways to minimize GHG emissions and better use of the latest techniques in conservation and environmental-sustainability.

Digging Deeper Inside Africa s Agricultural Food and Nutrition Dynamics

Author :
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This book takes a closer look at the surprising increase in agricultural production in African countries since 2000, which appear to be keeping pace with population growth, and the translation to Africa how to feed the increasingly urbanized and growing populations in the coming decades.

Tropical Forest Ecology

Author : Florencia Montagnini
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Importance pf tropical forests; characteristics of tropical forests; classification of tropical forests; deforestation in the tropics; management of tropical forests; plantatios and agroforestry systems; approaches for implementing sustainable management techniques.

Livestock and Sustainable Nutrient Cycling in Mixed Farming Systems of Sub Saharan Africa Technical papers

Author :
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Technical papers. Setting the scene. Interactions between animals and plants. Interactions between animals and soils. Interactions between plants and soils. Nutrient cycling in mixed farming systems. Modelling nutrient cycles in plant/animal/soil systems.

Integrated Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production

Author : Milkha Aulakh
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Both nutrient scarcities and surpluses alike can threaten this balance.

The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes

Author : Stephen K. Hamilton
File Size : 66.48 MB
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Evidence has been mounting for some time that intensive row-crop agriculture as practiced in developed countries may not be environmentally sustainable, with concerns increasingly being raised about climate change, implications for water quantity and quality, and soil degradation. This volume synthesizes two decades of research on the sustainability of temperate, row-crop ecosystems of the Midwestern United States. The overarching hypothesis guiding this work has been that more biologically based management practices could greatly reduce negative impacts while maintaining sufficient productivity to meet demands for food, fiber and fuel, but that roadblocks to their adoption persist because we lack a comprehensive understanding of their benefits and drawbacks. The research behind this book, based at the Kellogg Biological Station (Michigan State University) and conducted under the aegis of the Long-term Ecological Research network, is structured on a foundation of large-scale field experiments that explore alternatives to conventional, chemical-intensive agriculture. Studies have explored the biophysical underpinnings of crop productivity, the interactions of crop ecosystems with the hydrology and biodiversity of the broader landscapes in which they lie, farmers' views about alternative practices, economic valuation of ecosystem services, and global impacts such as greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. In contrast to most research projects, the long-term design of this research enables identification of slow or delayed processes of change in response to management regimes, and allows examination of responses across a broader range of climatic variability. This volume synthesizes this comprehensive inquiry into the ecology of alternative cropping systems, identifying future steps needed on the path to sustainability.

Nutrient Management for Sustainable Crop Production in Asia

Author : A. E. Johnston
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During the past 30 years, crop yields, particularly of rice, have been greatly increased in many Asian countries by advances in plant breeding and by the application of nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers. This has become known as the "Green Revolution", which has been a major factor underpinning the rapid growth of Asian economies, providing a cheap, indigenous food supply. However, while human populations continue to increase, in many cases yields are no longer being sustained, due to a reduction in soil quality. Thus, food security in Asia has again become a source of concern. This book is the result of an international conference held in Bali in December 1996, initiated by The World Phosphate Institute (IMPHOS) to discuss the action which must be taken to reverse soil degradation and improve nutrient levels. It includes papers and working group reports on nutrient management and balance, the potential of different phosphate sources, rock phosphate efficiency in acid upland soils, current usage and future requirements for fertilizers, sustainability and the environment, and policy and pricing. Finally, there is a summary and conference resolution. Contributors to the book come from Europe, USA, Australia and many Asian countries. It is essential reading for soil scientists and agronomists concerned with agriculture in Asia and will also be of interest to environmentalists, ecologists and economists concerned with sustainable natural resource management.

Applied Manure and Nutrient Chemistry for Sustainable Agriculture and Environment

Author : Zhongqi He
File Size : 63.47 MB
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Due to the rapid increase in world population and improving living standards, the global agriculture sector is confronting with challenges for the sustainability of agricultural production and of the environment. Intensive high-yield agriculture is typically dependent on addition of fertilizers (synthetic chemicals, animal manure, etc.). However, non-point nutrient losses from agricultural fields due to fertilization could adversely impact the environment. Increased knowledge on plant nutrient chemistry is required for improving utilization efficiency and minimizing loses from both inorganic and organic nutrient sources. For this purpose, the book is composed of 19 chapters that highlight recent research activities in applied nutrient chemistry geared toward sustainable agriculture and environment. Topics of interest include, but are not limited, to speciation, quantification, and interactions of various plant nutrients and relevant contributories in manure, soil, and plants. This book outlooks emerging researchable issues on alternative utilization and environmental monitoring of manure and other agricultural by products that may stimulate new research ideas and direction in the relevant fields.

Rice Farming Systems

Author :
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Soil Management

Author : Bobby A. Stewart
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The experiments and experiences discussed in Soil Management carefully document crop production systems with well-defined boundaries. These long-term agronomic trials provide a valuable data resource that has, until now, been largely ignored by both the research community and the sustainability experts. With a rigorous definition of sustainability and this data, the sustainability of various cropping systems will be more clearly illustrated than any previous effort. Particular emphasis is given to research involving the tropics and sub-tropics. This book is unique in providing an experimental basis for sustainable management of soil resources. It describes technological options for sustainable management of soil resources and identifies priorities for additional long-term experimentation needed in key ecoregions. Topics discussed include changes in soil processes and properties, environmental quality, soil management, soil dynamics, soil organic matter, and nutrient cycling. Soil Management is for those who ask whether agriculture is sustainable, want to analyze or review sustainability experiments and experiences, or wish to initiate new long-term trials. It is a valuable reference on soil processes and an excellent text for courses in soil management.

Nutrient Use Efficiency from Basics to Advances

Author : Amitava Rakshit
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This book addresses in detail multifaceted approaches to boosting nutrient use efficiency (NUE) that are modified by plant interactions with environmental variables and combine physiological, microbial, biotechnological and agronomic aspects. Conveying an in-depth understanding of the topic will spark the development of new cultivars and strains to induce NUE, coupled with best management practices that will immensely benefit agricultural systems, safeguarding their soil, water, and air quality. Written by recognized experts in the field, the book is intended to provide students, scientists and policymakers with essential insights into holistic approaches to NUE, as well as an overview of some successful case studies. In the present understanding of agriculture, NUE represents a question of process optimization in response to the increasing fragility of our natural resources base and threats to food grain security across the globe. Further improving nutrient use efficiency is a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop acreage into non-competitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and preventing environmental contamination. The nutrients most commonly limiting plant growth are N, P, K, S and micronutrients like Fe, Zn, B and Mo. NUE depends on the ability to efficiently take up the nutrient from the soil, but also on transport, storage, mobilization, usage within the plant and the environment. A number of approaches can help us to understand NUE as a whole. One involves adopting best crop management practices that take into account root-induced rhizosphere processes, which play a pivotal role in controlling nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. New technologies, from basic tools like leaf color charts to sophisticated sensor-based systems and laser land leveling, can reduce the dependency on laboratory assistance and manual labor. Another approach concerns the development of crop plants through genetic manipulations that allow them to take up and assimilate nutrients more efficiently, as well as identifying processes of plant responses to nutrient deficiency stress and exploring natural genetic variation. Though only recently introduced, the ability of microbial inoculants to induce NUE is gaining in importance, as the loss, immobilization, release and availability of nutrients are mediated by soil microbial processes.