Search Results for "ocean-circulation-and-climate-a-21st-century-perspective-international-geophysics"

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

A 21st Century Perspective

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: Academic Press
  • ISBN: 0123918537
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 9735
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The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 21. Dynamically and Kinematically Consistent Global Ocean Circulation and Ice State Estimates

  • Author: Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058706
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 3715
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The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In Situ Sensors

Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age

  • Author: Eric Delory,Jay Pearlman
  • Publisher: Elsevier
  • ISBN: 0128098872
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 408
  • View: 2048
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Challenges and Innovations in Ocean In-Situ Sensors: Measuring Inner Ocean Processes and Health in the Digital Age highlights collaborations of industry and academia in identifying the key challenges and solutions related to ocean observations. A new generation of sensors is presented that addresses the need for higher reliability (e.g. against biofouling), better integration on platforms in terms of size and communication, and data flow across domains (in-situ, space, etc.). Several developments are showcased using a broad diversity of measuring techniques and technologies. Chapters address different sensors and approaches for measurements, including applications, quality monitoring and initiatives that will guide the need for monitoring. Integrates information across key marine and maritime sectors and supports regional policy requirements on monitoring programs Offers tactics for enabling early detection and more effective monitoring of the marine environment and implementation of appropriate management actions Presents new technologies driving the next generation of sensors, allowing readers to understand new capabilities for monitoring and opportunities for another generation of sensors Includes a global vision for ocean monitoring that fosters a new perspective on the direction of ocean measurements

Atmospheres and Oceans on Computers

Atmospheres and Oceans on Computers

  • Author: Lars Petter Røed
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 3319938649
  • Category:
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 4058
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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 15. The Tropical Ocean Circulation and Dynamics

  • Author: Swadhin Behera,Peter Brandt,Gilles Reverdin
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058641
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 3030
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The tropical oceans play important roles in the global climate system through ocean transports of heat and freshwater as well as ocean–atmosphere interactions. The developments in observational networks during recent decades have helped us to quantify the strength and variability of most of the ocean general circulations responsible for the transports. Those are discussed in detail in individual sections covering each tropical basin separately with a special emphasis on recent research results. Shallow overturning cells observed in all three tropical basins as well as the deep Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are such examples that are linked to ocean and climate variations on multiple timescales. In addition, tropical ocean–atmosphere interactions associated with oceanic planetary waves cause large-scale climate variations such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole, Atlantic Niño, and ENSO Modoki. Recent advances in numerical modeling augmented by in situ and satellite observations are helping the research community to understand ocean process and to predict associated climate variations on seasonal to longer timescales.

Bulletin

Bulletin

  • Author: World Meteorological Organization
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Meteorology
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3650
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The Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species

The Impact of Climate Change on Ecosystems and Species

Environmental Context

  • Author: John Pernetta
  • Publisher: IUCN
  • ISBN: 9782831701707
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 98
  • View: 5663
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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 27. Sea-Level and Ocean Heat-Content Change

  • Author: John A. Church,Neil J. White,Catia M. Domingues,Didier P. Monselesan,Elaine R. Miles
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058765
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 1050
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The ocean has the largest heat capacity in the climate system and as a result the ocean plays a critical role in the climate. Changes in ocean heat content dominate the Earth’s energy storage; and the ocean’s thermal expansion has been a major contributor to sea-level rise in the twentieth century and likely to be the largest contributor in the twenty-first century. The agreement between changes in ocean heat storage over recent decades and changes in the Earth’s radiative balance, within uncertainties, provides strong support for current understanding of anthropogenic climate change. As a result of improvements in observations and modeling of sea level and components contributing to sea-level change, there is now an improved explanation for twentieth century sea-level rise. Models project a continuing sea-level rise during the twenty-first century and beyond. However, a number of uncertainties remain in our understanding of the global mean and regional distribution of sea-level rise resulting from changes in ocean circulation and changes in the Earth’s gravitational field. Ocean-ice-sheet interactions are important for quantitatively estimating future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 3. In Situ Ocean Observations: A Brief History, Present Status, and Future Directions

  • Author: John Gould,Bernadette Sloyan,Martin Visbeck
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058528
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 7685
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Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initializing, validating, and improving ocean models. It is only since the late twentieth century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology, and satellite communication, in situ observations (together with satellite observations) have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allow us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally coordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally, there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Chapter 9. Global Distribution and Formation of Mode Waters

  • Author: Kevin Speer,Gael Forget
  • Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • ISBN: 0128058587
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 904
  • View: 8289
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This Chapter is a brief survey of global mode water distribution and formation, with an emphasis on recent approaches and techniques. A new upper ocean water mass census based on observations from the Argo profiling float program is presented, to revisit calculation exploiting the nearly global coverage and especially the wintertime resolution in these newer data, notably problematic with ship-based hydrography. Water mass volumes and stratification are calculated from the Argo data and used to describe the global distribution of mode waters and their seasonal cycle. Water mass transformation rates are derived from a global state-estimate of the ocean and air–sea fluxes and applied to mode water density classes, to infer formation rates and to relate these to seasonal volumetric changes. A conceptual framework has been applied to the generation of mode water in terms of PV fluxes at the sea surface; dynamical mechanisms relevant to the impact of mode waters on circulation are summarized. Some results with climate simulations are noted, for the role of mode water in climate variability.