Search results for: oil-spill-response-a-global-perspective

Oil Spill Response A Global Perspective

Author : Walter F. Davidson
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International experts in the field of oil spill response, including reprsentatives from 26 NATO countries, participated in a workshop in Canada to discuss their experience in the development and application of current and emerging technologies for oil spill response in the marine environment. These presentations which form the basis of chapters in this book provide a practical viewpoint of methods used to deal with oil spills under the variety of environmental conditions found in the marine environment. In particular, focus is given to the evaluation of oil spill countermeasures for use under arctic conditions in light of anticipated regional increases in marine traffic (e.g. Northwest Passage) and industrial activities (e.g. offshore oil and gas exploration) in the future. This book provides a timely international perspective on applied research and development, technology transfer, and “lessons learned” from field trials and actual case studies associated with recent spill events. Topics include Preparedness/Contingency Planning, (Eco-terrorism); Oil Spill Fate and Transport (Environmental Persistence, Remote Sensing, modelling, Biodegradation), Biological Effects (Environmental Effects Monitoring and Environmental Risk Assessment); and Operational Response (Containment/Recovery Treating Agents, Shoreline Cleanup, In-situ Burning, Emerging Response Strategies). This book provides a synopsis as to the methods currently employed to deals with spills and an insight on future technologies under development.

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response optionsâ€"including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools. This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

Responding to Oil Spills in the U S Arctic Marine Environment

Author : National Research Council
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U.S. Arctic waters north of the Bering Strait and west of the Canadian border encompass a vast area that is usually ice covered for much of the year, but is increasingly experiencing longer periods and larger areas of open water due to climate change. Sparsely inhabited with a wide variety of ecosystems found nowhere else, this region is vulnerable to damage from human activities. As oil and gas, shipping, and tourism activities increase, the possibilities of an oil spill also increase. How can we best prepare to respond to such an event in this challenging environment? Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment reviews the current state of the science regarding oil spill response and environmental assessment in the Arctic region north of the Bering Strait, with emphasis on the potential impacts in U.S. waters. This report describes the unique ecosystems and environment of the Arctic and makes recommendations to provide an effective response effort in these challenging conditions. According to Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment, a full range of proven oil spill response technologies is needed in order to minimize the impacts on people and sensitive ecosystems. This report identifies key oil spill research priorities, critical data and monitoring needs, mitigation strategies, and important operational and logistical issues. The Arctic acts as an integrating, regulating, and mediating component of the physical, atmospheric and cryospheric systems that govern life on Earth. Not only does the Arctic serve as regulator of many of the Earth's large-scale systems and processes, but it is also an area where choices made have substantial impact on life and choices everywhere on planet Earth. This report's recommendations will assist environmentalists, industry, state and local policymakers, and anyone interested in the future of this special region to preserve and protect it from damaging oil spills.

Protecting the Arctic

Author : Great Britain: Parliament: House of Commons: Environmental Audit Committee
File Size : 50.45 MB
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This report calls for a halt on Arctic oil drilling until: a pan-Arctic oil spill response standard is in place; a stricter financial liability regime for oil and gas operations is introduced that requires companies to prove that they can meet the costs of cleaning up; an oil and gas industry group is set up to peer-review companies' spill response plans and operating practices, reporting publicly; further independent research and testing on oil spill response techniques in Arctic conditions is conducted, including an assessment of their environmental side-effects; an internationally recognised environmental sanctuary is established in at least part of the Arctic. Drilling is only currently feasible in the Arctic during a short summer window and if a blow-out occurred just before the dark Arctic winter returned it may not be possible to cap it until the following summer - potentially leaving oil spewing out under the ice for six months or more with devastating consequences for wildlife. This report also warns that a collapse in summer Arctic sea-ice, increased methane emissions from thawing permafrost, melting of the Greenland ice-sheet and changes to the thermo-haline circulation could all have disastrous consequences for the world - pushing up sea levels and transforming weather patterns. Temperature rises in the Arctic are already affecting the UK's weather. The report points out that there are already more proven fossil fuel reserves in the world than can be burnt safely and calls on the Government to rethink its approach to combating climate change by tackling the supply of fossil fuels, as well as demand

Crisis and Emergency Management in the Arctic

Author : Natalia Andreassen
File Size : 50.67 MB
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This book sheds light on the management challenges of crisis and emergency response in an arctic environment. It explores how the complexity of the operational environment impacts on the risk of operations and addresses a need for tailor-made emergency response mechanisms. Through case studies of the arctic environment, the book illustrates how factors such as nature, geography, demographics and infrastructure increase the complexity of crises in the Arctic and present a significant danger to life and health, the environment and values in challenging Arctic waters. The case studies lay a special focus on contextual factors including conflicting interests and different stakeholder groups, as well as the institutional platforms influencing crisis response and emergency management. They also explore the implications for the managerial roles, the mode of operations, and the structuring of the organizations responsible for the emergency response. The necessity to facilitate cooperation across organizations and borders and a need for organizational flexibility in large scale operations are also emphasized. Written in an accessible style, this book will make for a useful resource for undergraduate and postgraduate students of disaster and emergency management, as well as for professionals involved in emergency services.

An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

Author : National Research Council
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As the Gulf of Mexico recovers from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, natural resource managers face the challenge of understanding the impacts of the spill and setting priorities for restoration work. The full value of losses resulting from the spill cannot be captured, however, without consideration of changes in ecosystem services-the benefits delivered to society through natural processes. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico discusses the benefits and challenges associated with using an ecosystem services approach to damage assessment, describing potential impacts of response technologies, exploring the role of resilience, and offering suggestions for areas of future research. This report illustrates how this approach might be applied to coastal wetlands, fisheries, marine mammals, and the deep sea-each of which provide key ecosystem services in the Gulf-and identifies substantial differences among these case studies. The report also discusses the suite of technologies used in the spill response, including burning, skimming, and chemical dispersants, and their possible long-term impacts on ecosystem services.

Introduction to Petroleum Biotechnology

Author : James G. Speight
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Introduction to Petroleum Biotechnology introduces the petroleum engineer to biotechnology, bringing together the various biotechnology methods that are applied to recovery, refining and remediation in the uses of petroleum and petroleum products. A significant amount of petroleum is undiscoverable in reservoirs today using conventional and secondary methods. This reference explains how microbial enhanced oil recovery is aiding to produce more economical and environmentally-friendly metabolic events that lead to improved oil recovery. Meanwhile, in the downstream side of the industry, petroleum refining operators are facing the highest levels of environmental regulations while struggling to process more of the heavier crude oils since conventional physical and chemical refining techniques may not be applicable to heavier crudes. This reference proposes to the engineer and refining manager the concepts of bio-refining applications to not only render heavier crudes as lighter crudes through microbial degradation, but also through biodenitrogenation, biodemetallization and biodesulfurization, making more petroleum derivatives purified and upgraded without the release of more pollutants. Equipped for both upstream and downstream to learn the basics, this book is a necessary primer for today’s petroleum engineer. Presents the fundamentals behind petroleum biotechnology for both upstream and downstream oil and gas operations Provides the latest technology in reservoir recovery using microbial enhanced oil recovery methods Helps readers gain insight into the current and future application of using biotechnology as a refining and fuel blending method for heavy oil and tar sands

Safety and Reliability Methodology and Applications

Author : Tomasz Nowakowski
File Size : 71.22 MB
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Within the last fifty years the performance requirements for technical objects and systems were supplemented with: customer expectations (quality), abilities to prevent the loss of the object properties in operation time (reliability and maintainability), protection against the effects of undesirable events (safety and security) and the ability to

Polar Imperative

Author : Shelagh D. Grant
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Based on Shelagh Grant’s groundbreaking archival research and drawing on her reputation as a leading historian in the field, Polar Imperative is a compelling overview of the historical claims of sovereignty over this continent’s polar regions. This engaging, timely history examines: the unfolding implications of major climate changes the impact of resource exploitation on the indigenous peoples the current high-stakes game for control over the adjacent waters of Alaska, Arctic Canada and Greenland the events, issues and strategies that have influenced claims to authority over the lands and waters of the North American Arctic, from the arrival of the first inhabitants around 3,000 BCE to the present sovereignty from a comparative point of view within North America and parallel situations in the European and Asian Arctic This book will become a standard reference on Arctic history and will redefine North Americans’ understanding of the sovereign rights and responsibilities of Canada’s northernmost region.

Offshore Oil and Gas Installations Security

Author : Mikhail Kashubsky
File Size : 68.44 MB
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Oil and natural gas, which today account for over 60% of the world’s energy supply, are often produced by offshore platforms. One third of all oil and gas comes from the offshore sector. However, offshore oil and gas installations are generally considered intrinsically vulnerable to deliberate attacks. The changing security landscape and concerns about the threats of terrorism and piracy to offshore oil and gas installations are major issues for energy companies and governments worldwide. But, how common are attacks on offshore oil and gas installations? Who attacks offshore installations? Why are they attacked? How are they attacked? How is their security regulated at the international level? How has the oil industry responded? This timely and first of its kind publication answers these questions and examines the protection and security of offshore oil and gas installations from a global, industry-wide and company-level perspective. Looking at attacks on offshore installations that occurred throughout history of the offshore petroleum industry, it examines the different types of security threats facing offshore installations, the factors that make offshore installations attractive targets, the nature of attacks and the potentially devastating impacts that can result from attacks on these important facilities. It then examines the international legal framework, state practice and international oil and gas industry responses that aim to address this vital problem. Crucially, the book includes a comprehensive dataset of attacks and security incidents involving offshore oil and gas installations entitled the Offshore Installations Attack Dataset (OIAD). This is an indispensable reference work for oil and gas industry professionals, company security officers, policy makers, maritime lawyers and academics worldwide.