Search results for: on-pagans-jews-and-christians

On Pagans Jews and Christians

Author : Arnaldo Momigliano
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An analysis of the relationships between pagan Greece, imperial Rome, Judaism, and Christianity.

Apologetics in the Roman Empire

Author : Mark J. Edwards
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This book is the first to tackle the origins and purpose of literary religious apologetic in the first centuries of the Christian era by discussing, on their own terms, texts composed by pagan and Jewish authors as well as Christians. Previous studies of apologetic have focused primarily on the Christian apologists of the second century. These, and other Christian authors, are represented also in this volume but, in addition, experts in the religious history of the pagan world, in Judaism, and in late antique philosophy examine very different literary traditions to see to what extent techniques and motifs were shared across the religious divide. Each contributor has investigated the probable audience, the literary milieu, and the specific social, political, and cultural circumstances which elicited each apologetic text. In many cases these questions lead on to the further issue of the relation between the readers addressed by the author and the actual readers, and the extent to which a defined literary genre of apologetic developed. These studies, ranging in time from the New Testament to the early fourth century, and including novel contributions by specialists in ancient history, Jewish history, ancient philosophy, the New Testament, and patristics, will put the study of ancient religious apologetic on to a new footing.

Magic in the Roman World

Author : Naomi Janowitz
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Using in-depth examples of 'magical' practice such as exorcisms, love rites, alchemy and the transformation of humans into divine beings, this lively volume demonstrates that the word 'magic' was used widely in late antique texts as part of polemics against enemies and sometimes merely as a term for other people's rituals. Naomi Janowitz shows that 'magical' activities were integral to late antique religious practice, and that they must be understood from the perspective of those who employed them.

The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire

Author : Judith Lieu
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In the period of Roman domination there were communities of Jews, some still in Palestine, some dispersed in and around the Roman Empire; they had to face at first the world-wide power of the pagan Romans and later on the emergence of Christianity as an Empire-wide religion. How they coped with these dramatic changes and how they influenced the new forms of religious life that emerged in this period provide the main themes of The Jews Among Pagans and Christians. Essays by the leading scholars in the field together with the introduction by the editors, offer new approaches to understanding the role of Judaism and the pattern of religious interaction characteristic of the period.

The Religious History of the Roman Empire

Author : J. A. North
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A collection of previously published papers by leading scholars, dealing with the religious history of the Roman Empire. It covers Christianity and Judaism as well as the paganism of the Empire which so deeply influenced these world religions.

A World Full of Gods

Author : Keith Hopkins
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The Roman Empire was a society full of gods. So how is it that Christianity come to predominate in this marketplace of competing religions? Why, in just three hundred years, did Christianity go from being an illegal minority faith to being the official religion of the Roman Empire?

Priests and Prophets Among Pagans Jews and Christians

Author : Beate Dignas
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The emperor Julian pointed out that the duties of priesthood were better understood among 'the impious Galileans' (i.e. Christians) than among his pagan contemporaries. Like the emperor, the essays in this volume look in both directions. Its pages are populated by very diverse figures: Plutach, Aelius Aristides, Alexander of Abonouteichos, Daniel the Stylite, Gregory of Nazianzus, Shenoute of Atripe, Mani, Muhammad, and a host of anonymous Greek and Roman priests, prophets, and diviners. The priests of second temple Judaism are considered too. Both in the Greco-Roman and the early Christian worlds the neat division between priests and prophets proves hard to sustain. But in terms of fame and influence a strong contrast emerges between Greco-Roman and Judeo-Christian prophets; this is why it is only among Jews and Christians that 'false prophets' are feared. Two recurrent preoccupations are the relation of priests and prophets to secular power, and the priest/prophet not as reality but as idea, an imagined figure. Leading scholars of the religions of antiquity come together in this wide-ranging and innovative volume.

Jews Pagans and Christians in the Golan Heights

Author : Robert C. Gregg
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This work publishes a diverse collection of inscriptions that were found on stones (epitaphs, altars, door lintels, dedications), statues and architectural remains from the ancient Golan Heights (1st-7th centuries, CE). Of the 258 inscriptions included, interpreted, and analyzed, 241 are Greek ( 207 of which are published here for the first time), 13 are either Hebrew or Aramaic, and one is Latin (also published here for the first time). Taken together, these inscriptions provide a window on the communities of Jews, Pagans, and Christians in this distinctly rural region of the eastern Roman empire. The new evidence presented in this volume changes the accepted picture of the settlement patterns and interactions of these religious and ethnic groups in the Golan, while adding historical data about Jews and their synagogues, the character of polytheist loyalties, and the emergence of Christians in the region. The volume contains several hundred photographs, a number of maps and diagrams depicting the area, a bibliography, and numerous indexes. Inscriptions are arranged according to the town or village in the Golan in which they originated.

Jews Pagans and Christians in the Galilee

Author : Mordechai Aviam
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This volume holds 21 chapters arranged in chronological order from the Hellenistic to the Byzantine periods, each of them based on the results of archaeological excavations or field surveys conducted by the author during the past 25 years. It is a summary of field work as well as summaries of studies carried out in Galilee during the last 100 years. Further, it is a study of the Galileans and their material culture during the 1000 years between the third century BCE and the seventh century CE, a long period of time in which the foundation for both the Jesus movement and Mishnaic Judaism were built. This book gives scholars of religion, history, and archaeology much new and concentrated information, much of which has never been previously published.Mordechai Aviam was for 11 years the District Archaeologist of the Western Galilee for the Israel Antiquities Authority. He is an adjunct professor in residence at the Center for Judaic Studies in the University of Rochester.

Her Share of the Blessings

Author : Ross Shepard Kraemer
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In this pathbreaking volume, Ross Shepard Kraemer provides the first comprehensive look at women's religions in Greco-Roman antiquity. She vividly recreates the religious lives of early Christian, Jewish, and pagan women, with many fascinating examples: Greek women's devotion to goddesses, rites of Roman matrons, Jewish women in rabbinic and diaspora communities, Christian women's struggles to exercise authority and autonomy, and women's roles as leaders in the full spectrum of Greco-Roman religions. In every case, Kraemer reveals the connections between the social constraints under which women lived, and their religious beliefs and practices. The relationship among female autonomy, sexuality, and religion emerges as a persistent theme. Analyzing the monastic Jewish Therapeutae and various Christian communities, Kraemer demonstrates the paradoxical liberation which women achieved by rejection of sexuality, the body, and the female. In the epilogue, Kraemer pursues the disturbing implications such findings have for contemporary women. Based on an astonishing variety of primary sources, Her Share of the Blessings is an insightful work that goes beyond the limitations of previous scholarship to provide a more accurate portrait of women in the Greco-Roman world.

God s Body

Author : Chair of Ancient Christianity and Vice President Christoph Markschies
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God is unbounded. God became flesh. While these two assertions are equally viable parts of Western Christian religious heritage, they stand in tension with one another. Fearful of reducing God's majesty with shallow anthropomorphisms, philosophy and religion affirm that God, as an eternal being, stands wholly apart from creation. Yet the legacy of the incarnation complicates this view of the incorporeal divine, affirming a very different image of God in physical embodiment. While for many today the idea of an embodied God seems simplistic--even pedestrian--Christoph Markschies reveals that in antiquity, the educated and uneducated alike subscribed to this very idea. More surprisingly, the idea that God had a body was held by both polytheists and monotheists. Platonic misgivings about divine corporeality entered the church early on, but it was only with the advent of medieval scholasticism that the idea that God has a body became scandalous, an idea still lingering today. In God's Body Markschies traces the shape of the divine form in late antiquity. This exploration follows the development of ideas of God's corporeality in Jewish and Greco-Roman traditions. In antiquity, gods were often like humans, which proved to be important for philosophical reflection and for worship. Markschies considers how a cultic environment nurtured, and transformed, Jewish and Christian descriptions of the divine, as well as how philosophical debates over the connection of body and soul in humanity provided a conceptual framework for imagining God. Markschies probes the connections between this lively culture of religious practice and philosophical speculation and the christological formulations of the church to discover how the dichotomy of an incarnate God and a fleshless God came to be. By studying the religious and cultural past, Markschies reveals a Jewish and Christian heritage alien to modern sensibilities, as well as a God who is less alien to the human experience than much of Western thought has imagined. Since the almighty God who made all creation has also lived in that creation, the biblical idea of humankind as image of God should be taken seriously and not restricted to the conceptual world but rather applied to the whole person.

Paul

Author : Paula Fredriksen
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A groundbreaking new portrait of the apostle Paul, from one of today’s leading historians of antiquity Often seen as the author of timeless Christian theology, Paul himself heatedly maintained that he lived and worked in history’s closing hours. His letters propel his readers into two ancient worlds, one Jewish, one pagan. The first was incandescent with apocalyptic hopes, expecting God through his messiah to fulfill his ancient promises of redemption to Israel. The second teemed with ancient actors, not only human but also divine: angry superhuman forces, jealous demons, and hostile cosmic gods. Both worlds are Paul’s, and his convictions about the first shaped his actions in the second. Only by situating Paul within this charged social context of gods and humans, pagans and Jews, cities, synagogues, and competing Christ-following assemblies can we begin to understand his mission and message. This original and provocative book offers a dramatically new perspective on one of history’s seminal figures.

Apologetics in the Roman Empire

Author : Mark Edwards
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This book is the first to tackle the origins and purpose of literary religious apologetic in the first centuries of the Christian era by discussing, on their own terms, texts composed by pagan and Jewish authors as well as Christians. Previous studies of apologetic have focused primarily on the Christian apologists of the second century. These, and other Christian authors, are represented also in this volume but, in addition, experts in the religious history of the pagan world, in Judaism, and in late antique philosophy examinevery different literary traditions to see to what extent techniques and motifs were shared across the religious divide. Each contributor has investigated the probable audience, the literary milieu, and the specific social, political, and cultural circumstances which elicited each apologetic text.In many cases these questions lead on to the further issue of the relation between the readers addressed by the author and the actual readers, and the extent to which a defined literary genre of apologetic developed. These studies, ranging in time from the New Testament to the early fourth century, and including novel contributions by specialists in ancient history, Jewish history, ancient philosophy, the New Testament, and patristics, will put the study of ancient religious apologetic on to a newfooting.

Jewish and Christian Communal Identities in the Roman World

Author : Yair Furstenberg
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The studies in this volume examine the unique communal patterns among Jews and Christians within Roman civic culture and their diverse responses to shared challenges under Imperial rule.

Antiquity in Antiquity

Author : Gregg Gardner
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Leading scholars in early Christianity, Judaic studies, classics, history and archaeology explore the ways that memories were retrieved, reconstituted and put to use by Jews, Christians and their pagan neighbours in late antiquity, from the third century B.C.E. to the seventh century C.E.

Historical and literary studies

Author : Bruce M. Metzger
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Eusebius of Caesarea Against Paganism

Author : Arieh Kofsky
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Eusebius was more than a mere collector of history. He was a vigorous apologist and polemicist in his own right. Kofsky encourages us to take seriously Eusebius's efforts against the pagan assailants of the Christianity of his time. This publication has also been published in hardback, please click here for details.

Tolerance and Intolerance in Early Judaism and Christianity

Author : Guy G. Stroumsa
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The essays in this book consider issues of tolerance and intolerance faced by Jews and Christians between approximately 200 BCE and 200 CE. Several chapters are concerned with many different aspects of early Jewish-Christian relationships. Five scholars, however, take a difference tack and discuss how Jews and Christians defined themselves against the pagan world. As minority groups, both Jews and Christians had to work out ways of co-existing with their Graeco-Roman neighbours. Relationships with those neighbours were often strained, but even within both Jewish and Christian circles, issues of tolerance and intolerance surfaced regularly. So it is appropriate that some other contributors should consider 'inner-Jewish' relationships, and that some should be concerned with Christian sects.

The Origins of Anti Semitism

Author : John G. Gager
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This revisionist reading of early anti-Judaism offers a richer and more varied picture of the Jews and Christians of antiquity.

Jews and Christians

Author : William Horbury
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Jewish-Christian contact and controversy were central to early Christian experience. An understanding of this interaction and its continuation over the centuries is also central to any true understanding of the history of Christianity and of the history of Judaism. The twelve chapters of this book deal especially with the interconnected subjects of polemic and biblical interpretation. Nine are concerned with the ancient world, beginning with post-exilic Jewish writing and the New Testament and going on to later pagan, Jewish and Christian controversies. Three concentrate on medieval and early modern Jewish controversies. William Horbury makes an important contribution to the understanding of abundant primary sources, both Jewish and Christian, which remain in large part under-explored.