Search results for: organized-crime-and-terrorist-networks

Organized Crime and Terrorist Networks

Author : Vincenzo Ruggiero
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This collection explores organized crime and terror networks and the points at which they intersect. It analyses the close relationships between these criminalities, the prevalence and ambiguity of this nexus, the technological elements facilitating it, and the financial aspects embedded in this criminal partnership. Organized Crime and Terrorist Networks is the outcome of empirical research, seminars, workshops and interviews carried out by a multinational consortium of researchers within ‘TAKEDOWN’, a Horizon 2020 project funded by the European Commission. The consortium’s objective was to examine the perspectives, requirements and misgivings of front-line practitioners operating in the areas of organized crime and terrorism. The chapters collected in this volume are the outcome of such analytical efforts. The topics addressed include the role of Information and Communication Technology in contemporary criminal organizations, terrorism financing, online transnational criminality, identity crime, the crime-terror nexus and tackling the nexus at supranational level. This book offers a compelling contribution to scholarship on organized crime and terrorism, and considers possible directions for future research. It will be of much interest to students and researchers engaged in studies of criminology, criminal justice, crime control and prevention, organized crime, terrorism, political violence, and cybercrime.

Transnational Organized Crime and Jihadist Terrorism

Author : Michael Fredholm
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This book describes and analyzes the convergence of transnational organized crime and jihadist terrorism that has taken place within Russian-speaking social networks in Western Europe. Studies have shown that while under certain circumstances links between criminal organizations and terrorist groups appear, these are usually opportunistic and temporary in nature. Only rarely do they develop into something deeper and transformative, a convergence between crime and terrorism. This book reveals that Russian-speaking transnational organized crime and jihadist terrorism pose a serious threat to security and constitute a major challenge for law enforcement. Through their links with transnational organized crime, Russian-speaking jihadist networks from the Caucasus and Central Asia have easier access to weaponry, commercial explosives, and forged IDs than many other jihadist networks. Being in effect an integral component of transnational organized crime, the Russian-speaking jihadists can be assessed as potentially more capable than many other jihadists. The book assesses the effects of terrorism and organized crime on Russian-speaking diasporas in Western Europe and examines the implications for counterterrorism as well as policing on how to counteract the illegal activities of these networks. Drawing on Swedish court cases the work shows that an additional, and sometimes more effective way, to fight terrorism is by focusing on the non-terrorist types of crime perpetrated by terrorists. This book will be of much interest to students of terrorism and counter-terrorism, political violence, criminology, security studies and IR in general.

Organized Crime and Terrorist Networks

Author : Taylor & Francis Group
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Servants Of The Devil The Facilitators Of The Criminal And Terrorist Networks

Author : Bernard Touboul
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Since the end of the Cold War, liberal capitalism has spread worldwide without any significant ideological rivalry, characterized by the frenetic search for an ever-increasing return on capital and constantly-increasing profits, a generalized un-concern for the moral values of liberalism, and for social inequalities and human misery.The book, Servants of the Devil: The Facilitators of the Criminal and Terrorist Networks, shows that this evolution has been possible, thanks to legitimate actors equipped with the legal, financial, technical, and influential means to facilitate the legitimization of criminals and the justification of such a criminal economy — the 'Servants of the Devil' acting as the 'legitimate' facilitators of the criminal and terrorist economies.The book aims to alert security authorities, government officials, business, professional and financial leaders, and the media that criminal and terrorist networks have thoroughly penetrated the political, economic, and social structures of the contemporary world, and they could not operate without the extensive and willing cooperation of these facilitators.Recommendations are made in this book to alter the targets of law-enforcement forces and the justice system, by putting more emphasis on the facilitators by naming, shaming, and prosecuting them to seriously disable the criminals and terrorists. The legal structure needs to be altered, detailing procedures to be used by critical institutions, as well as the intelligence and analytic techniques to be developed to stay ahead of the criminals' own constantly altered techniques.The book provides a detailed account of the problem and how it is corrupting the Western society, enhancing the need for a new economic paradigm that displays a real and actual economic understanding of the world and of any individual country's economic activity, and shifting the ways of economic analysis to bring out the actual strength and role of criminal and terrorist activities in local, regional, and international governance from the shadows.

Links between terrorism and transnational crime groups

Author : Robert Fiedler
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Essay from the year 2008 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: 1,3, Macquarie University, language: English, abstract: Given today’s existence of hundreds of terrorist groups and thousands of criminal ones (Schmid, 2005) it is not surprisingly that in “some cases a symbiosis between terrorism and organised crime occurred that did not exist before” (Laqueur, 1999, p. 211). In fact, since the early 1990’s “Western law enforcement agencies have noted an increased reliance on criminal activities by terrorist groups” (Mili, 2006, p. 8) a relationship that seems only natural given that terrorism itself is always a crime (Gorka, 2000). Hence, it is assumed that there is a “close connection between international terrorism and transnational organized crime” (United Nations Security Council, 2001). Some even argue that both criminal activities “bleed into one another” (Makarenko, 2003) and that there is a “possibly irreversible trend towards a convergence of these activities” (Williams & Sanova, 1995, p. 28). In the following this paper will argue that the linkages between criminal and terrorist activities have increased since the end of Cold War in the early 1990’s. However, the structure of these linkages is contested in the scholarly debate. In order to find a conclusion, this paper will analyze major changes in the structure of terrorist and criminal groups. In a second section the prevailing scenarios of a terrorist-criminal nexus will be outlined and critically discussed.

Transnational Terrorism Organized Crime and Peace Building

Author : Wolfgang Benedek
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This volume investigates the role of the transnational terrorist and criminal organizations in the peace-building processes, with a particular focus on the Western Balkan region. Conducted within the framework of human security analysis, the research focuses on the security of the human being.

Understanding the Links Between Organized Crime and Terrorism in Military Operations

Author : Ingrid A. Parker
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Organized crime is becoming a large-scale business that is conducting global commerce for the trafficking of illegal services and products as well as developing the associated supply chains. Criminal organizations are conducting commerce across traditional nation-state boundaries allowing criminal groups to work in coordination with other like groups; this coordination is called transnational crime. The United Nations (UN), aware of this activity, has stated that “the traditional hierarchical forms of organized crime groups have diminished; replaced with loose networks who work together to exploit new” markets of opportunity (UNODC 2006d, paragraph 2). These loose networks have many resources available to affiliates that include financial services, global transportation, and the weapons industry. Criminals, organized crime, and terrorist networks have access to these valuable resources via this affiliation. Currently: 1. Illegal drugs make up 8 percent of the world trade or $322 billion (Drug Policy Alliance 2004, paragraph 4) 2. Global prostitution industry is estimated to be $52 billion (Hughes 2000, paragraph 16) 3. Worldwide money laundering activity is at roughly $1 trillion a year (Ashcroft 2001, paragraph 4) 4. Weapons smuggling is a multi-billon dollar industry (UNODC 2006d, paragraph 3) Organized crime, consequently, may be used as a tool of war.

Intersections of Crime and Terror

Author : James J.F. Forest
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During the last ten years an increasing number of government and media reports, scholarly books and journal articles, and other publications have focused our attention on the expanded range of interactions between international organized crime and terrorist networks. A majority of these interactions have been in the form of temporary organizational alliances (or customer-supplier relationships) surrounding a specific type of transaction or resource exchange, like document fraud or smuggling humans, drugs or weapons across a particular border. The environment in which terrorists and criminals operate is also a central theme of this literature. These research trends suggest the salience of this book which addresses how organized criminal and terrorist networks collaborate, share knowledge and learn from each other in ways that expand their operational capabilities. The book contains broad conceptual pieces, historical analyses, and case studies that highlight different facets of the intersection between crime and terrorism. These chapters collectively help us to identify and appreciate a variety of dynamics at the individual, organizational, and contextual levels. These dynamics, in turn, inform a deeper understanding of the security threat posted by terrorists and criminal networks and how to respond more effectively. This book was published as a special issue of Terrorism and Political Violence.

Understanding Recruitment to Organized Crime and Terrorism

Author : David Weisburd
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This volume provides insights on how recruitment patterns develop for two related types of criminal networks: organized crime and terrorism. It specifically explores the social, situational, psychological, and economic drivers of recruitment. Although organized crime networks and terrorism networks can differ in underlying goals and motivations, this volume demonstrates common drivers in their recruitment, which will provide insights for crime prevention and intervention. The goal of the book is to explore the current knowledge about these common drivers, as well as highlight emerging research, to identify and prioritize a research agenda for scholars, as well as policymakers. The research presented in this work aims to fill existing gaps in the knowledge of recruitment to both organized crime and terrorism. For each area, it provides a systematic review of the existing research on social, psychological, and economic drivers of recruitment. It then presents findings from independent original research aimed to explore new ground not covered in these previous studies. The contributions to this volume were the result of a research project funded by a European Union Horizon 2020 grant, and present a diverse, international mix of expertise and cases. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, psychology, and international relations. Chapter 13 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Global Organized Crime

Author : Dina Siegel
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In the current processes of political, economic and cultural changes serious cross-border forms of organized crime receive unprecedented attention as spectacular global media events, as 'threats' of all sorts, and as priority targets of criminal policy and political agendas. Most books on 'global organized crime' focus on one particular region, topic or event, and are written from one specific theoretical and disciplinary framework. The renowned scholars who have contributed to this volume present up-to-date expertise on regions as distant and different as Russia, Colombia, the Netherlands, Israel, Peru and Britain. They tackle phenomena such as international drug trafficking, alien and women smuggling, terrorism, East European organized crime and financial crimes. They show not only how these issues are interrelated, but also the way in which they interact with social, economic and political legitimate structures. The contributors critically question the policies and strategies currently pursued. They explore different theoretical arguments from the perspective of their own disciplines, which include economics, criminology, political science and anthropology.

Criminals and Terrorists in Partnership

Author : Helena Carrapico
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The nexus between terrorism and organised crime consists of a strategic alliance between two non-state actors who are able to exploit illegal markets, threaten the security of individuals, and influence policy-making on a global level. Recent Europol reports have pointed towards the importance of studying the links between organised crime and terrorist groups, and have underlined that the nature and extent of these connections have seldom been addressed from an academic perspective. Considering the danger that both organised crime and terrorism currently pose to the world, the collusion between these two phenomena is of urgent contemporary interest. Basing itself on geographical case-studies, this book contributes to the existing literature in three ways: by enriching the empirical knowledge on the nature of the crime-terror nexus and its evolution; by exploring the impact of the nexus within different economic, political and societal contexts; and by expanding on its theoretical conceptualization. This book was originally published as a special issue of Global Crime.

Understanding Recruitment to Organized Crime and Terrorism

Author : David Weisburd
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This volume provides insights on how recruitment patterns develop for two related types of criminal networks: organized crime and terrorism. It specifically explores the social, situational, psychological, and economic drivers of recruitment. Although organized crime networks and terrorism networks can differ in underlying goals and motivations, this volume demonstrates common drivers in their recruitment, which will provide insights for crime prevention and intervention. The goal of the book is to explore the current knowledge about these common drivers, as well as highlight emerging research, to identify and prioritize a research agenda for scholars, as well as policymakers. The research presented in this work aims to fill existing gaps in the knowledge of recruitment to both organized crime and terrorism. For each area, it provides a systematic review of the existing research on social, psychological, and economic drivers of recruitment. It then presents findings from independent original research aimed to explore new ground not covered in these previous studies. The contributions to this volume were the result of a research project funded by a European Union Horizon 2020 grant, and present a diverse, international mix of expertise and cases. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, psychology, and international relations. Chapter 13 of this book is available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.

Organized Crime

Author : Frank Shanty
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A comprehensive overview of organized crime looks as the history and daily functioning of organized criminal activities throughout the world as well as the international laws and treaties governing the treatment of these organizations.

Terrorist Criminal Enterprises Financing Terrorism through Organized Crime

Author : Kimberley L. Thachuk
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This cohesive set of case studies collects scholarly research, policy evaluation, and field experience to explain how terrorist groups have developed into criminal enterprises. • Provides a global comparison of major terrorist groups and their engagement in organized crime • Provides in-depth analysis of regional terrorist and criminal groups • Incorporates authors' expertise on regional terrorist groups and organized crime • Acknowledges a variety of opinions and perspectives

Transnational Organized Crime

Author : John R. Wagley
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This report examines the growing threat of transnational organized crime to U.S. national security and global stability. The end of the Cold War -- along with increasing globalization beginning in the 1990s -- has helped criminal organizations expand their activities and gain global reach. Criminal networks are believed to have benefited from the weakening of certain government institutions, more open borders, and the resurgence of ethnic and regional conflicts across the former Soviet Union and many other regions. Transnational criminal organizations have also exploited expanding financial markets and rapid technological developments. In addition, terrorist networks are believed to be increasingly supporting themselves through traditional crime, and have been linked to criminal organizations. Alliances between the two groups could amplify threats to American security. Transnational criminals engage in a spectrum of illicit activities, including narcotics and arms smuggling, trafficking in persons, counterfeiting, and money laundering and other financial crimes. The report outlines the U.S. response to international crime. While U.S. policy is framed within the 1998 International Crime Control Strategy, it also is shaped by other more recent federal and agency plans. Agencies heading government efforts include the Departments of State, Defense, Justice, Treasury, and Homeland Security. Key federal programs and initiatives and their interagency coordination are discussed. International cooperation and agreements are vital to U.S. strategy; also, many programs seek to assist and train foreign law enforcement agencies. Finally, the report examines likely Congressional concerns related to U.S. efforts to combat transnational crime. The report will not be updated.

Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime

Author : Claudia Müller
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Seminar paper from the year 2012 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: 1,0, Humboldt-University of Berlin, language: English, abstract: “We will direct every resource at our command to win the war against terrorists, every means of diplomacy, every tool of intelligence, every instrument of law enforcement, every financial influence. We will starve the terrorists of funding, turn them against each other, rout them out of their safe hiding places, and bring them to justice” (Cited in Biersteker and Eckert 2008: 1). President George W. Bush, September 24, 2001 In the immediate aftermath of the attacks in the United States on 11 September 2001 President W. Bush declared America’s “War on Terrorism” in which he assured to defeat terrorist movements and their methods of funding that could be used to support the acts of global terrorist (Biersteker and Eckert 2008; 1). The examination of broader terrorism studies literature shows “financial and material resources are correctly perceived as the lifeblood of terrorist operations, and governments have determined that fighting the financial infrastructure of terrorist organizations is the key to their defeat” (Grialdo and Trinkunas 2007; 1). Since the attacks of 9/11 the US has designed a strong strategy to fight terrorist groups and their financing. International and national measures have been carried out such as the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, the enforcement of international sanctions, and the expansion of law enforcement to target terrorism financing and disrupt terrorist operation (Sheppard 2002). However, the spectrum of terrorist funding is broad. In particular, the increasing reliance on criminal activities by terrorist since the end of the Cold War and the subsequent decline of state sponsorship, such as the rising pressure of law enforcement, network structures became an essential source to safeguard the existence of many terrorist and criminal groups. The development of the so- called “crime- terror” nexus, in which two traditionally autonomous groups started to expose various operational and structural parallels, implicated a key income source for terrorists and has brought sheer difficulty to develop successful strategies to freeze the terrorist monetary trail. In the following, this essay examines the involvement of terrorist groups in criminal activities as a source of funding and whether or not it is a sustainable and profitable source for terrorist funding. Moreover, we try to evaluate to what extent the so- called “terror-crime nexus” poses a threat to global security.

Understanding Organized Crime

Author : Stephen L. Mallory
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Today, the world is facing an increasing impact from established organized crime, emerging transnational organized crime, and gangs that requires an understanding of who and what these organizations are and how they achieve their goals. Updated to include new and relevant research and statistics, Understanding Organized Crime, Second Edition provides students with a better understanding of how and why these criminal groups continue to dominate the world of crime and what law enforcement must do to address this threat. Written by a leading expert in the field and based on his experience and academic research, Understanding Organized Crime, Second Edition is a comprehensive introduction to the subject and includes coverage of the types of organized crime, definitions of organized crime, why it continues to exist, and how it has evolved throughout history. Material covered includes the structure and hierarchy of each organization, their methods of operation, and the techniques and laws used by law enforcement to address the dynamic nature of domestic and transnational organized crime. Using the author’s unique approach to the topic, students will learn about organized crime through the eyes of the criminal investigator, and how law-enforcement practitioners today are counteracting these criminal organizations. New and Key Features of the Second Edition: • Revised and updated to include new and relevant research, statistics, and case studies to help students understand the true nature of organized crime and the players involved. • Chapter 5 (Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations) has been updated to include the most recent information on new alliances and wars over territories and smuggling routes between established cartels and emerging organizations in Mexico. • A new chapter, The Nexus of Transnational Organized Crime and Terrorism, addresses the increasing connections between terrorist groups and transnational organized crime, including new challenges facing governments and law enforcement in identifying and prosecuting these cooperative networks. • Provides information outlining the new age of piracy that has resulted in the creation of task forces that focus on areas around the Gulf of Aden off the coast of Somalia. • Additional and updated information is now included in the chapters on the Russian Mafia, the Italian-American Mafia, the Yakuza, and Outlaw Bikers. Instructor Resources: *Test Bank *Microsoft PowerPoint slides Student Resources: * Companion Website (secure) featuring: -interactive glossary -interactive flashcards -practice exercises -and more!

Terrorist Networks Money Laundering Schemes and Nation Stability

Author : Bryan Mott
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The purpose of this thesis is to provide the audience with a point of view perspective regarding the evolution of circumstances that lead to the formation of terrorist networks, organized crime, illicit activities, (etc.), and to present how these criminals utilize money laundering schemes to further their respective positions in society from a socioeconomic perspective. Subsequently, this paper discusses how terrorists and/or organized crime members utilize weak nation-state infrastructures to capitalize on money-laundering schemes; thereby, using the debilitating effects of financial crimes to keep nation-state institutions in a perpetual condition of instability. The ultimate aim of the criminal/illicit behavior and activities is to create, refine and execute more efficient ways to further their respective cause placing themselves in positions that yield even greater power over the systems they continually exploit. Ultimately, these criminals continue to exploit the weaknesses of the nation-state infrastructures to gain and maintain a decisive advantage over society at large if left unchallenged.

Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime Drug Trafficking and Terrorism

Author : Bill McCollum
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Witnesses: Frank Cilluffo, senior policy analyst and deputy dir., Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS); Donnie R. Marshall, Administrator, Drug Enforcement Admin. (DEA); Steven C. McCraw, Inspector-Deputy Assistant Dir., Information, Analysis, and Assessments Branch, Investigative Div., FBI; Ralf Mutschke, assist. dir., Sub-Directorate for Crimes Against Persons and Property, INTERPOL General Secretariat, Lyon, France; Raphael Perl, Specialist in International Affairs, Congressional Research (CRS), The Library of Congress; and Michael A. Sheehan, Ambassador-at-Large and Coordinator for Counterterrorism, U.S. Dept. of State.

International Law and Transnational Organized Crime

Author : Professor of Criminal Law Criminal Procedural Law and Philosophy of Law Pierre Hauck
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Since the end of the Cold War, states have become increasingly engaged in the suppression of transnational organized crime. The existence of the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols demonstrates the necessity to comprehend this subject in a systematic way. Synthesizing the various sources of law that form this area of growing academic and practical importance, International Law and Transnational Organized Crime provides readers with a thorough understanding of the key concepts and legal instruments in international law governing transnational organized crime. The volume analyses transnational organized crime in consideration of the most relevant subareas of international law, such as international human rights and the law of armed conflict. Written by internationally recognized scholars in international and criminal law as well as respected high-level practitioners, this book is a useful tool for lawyers, public agents, and academics seeking straightforward and comprehensive access to a complex and significant topic.