Search results for: origin-and-evolution-of-earth

Origin and Evolution of Earth

Author : Kent C. Condie
File Size : 25.41 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 753
Read : 862
Download »
In this book, plate tectonics is placed at a central position and the history of Earth is considered not only from the more conventional surface approach, but also of Earth as a whole and as a member of the Solar System. Many subjects that we consider an essential part of Earth history and that are often omitted or only covered in a superficial manner in beginning historical geology texts are included to give the student a more in-depth and accurate picture of the complexities of the history of Earth and of life. Among these are the origin and evolution of the crust, mantle, and core as well as the atmosphere and oceans; comparative planetary evolution; a survey of important isotopic dating methods; the study of ancient climates; the origin and evolution of life; and the early history of Earth. New and exciting developments are introduced at appropriate places in the text. Examples are the nature of Earth's oldest rocks, the origin of continents, extraterrestrial impact and mass extinctions of organisms, rates of organic evolution, and recent developments on the origin of humans.

Origin and Evolution of Earth

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 35.46 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 457
Read : 221
Download »
Questions about the origin and nature of Earth and the life on it have long preoccupied human thought and the scientific endeavor. Deciphering the planet's history and processes could improve the ability to predict catastrophes like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, to manage Earth's resources, and to anticipate changes in climate and geologic processes. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey, the National Research Council assembled a committee to propose and explore grand questions in geological and planetary science. This book captures, in a series of questions, the essential scientific challenges that constitute the frontier of Earth science at the start of the 21st century.

Environmental Evolution

Author : Lynn Margulis
File Size : 36.77 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 648
Read : 934
Download »
Fifteen distinguished scientists discuss the effects of life—past and present—on planet Earth.

Evolution of Earth and its Climate

Author : O.G. Sorokhtin
File Size : 86.6 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 212
Read : 985
Download »
The book reviews the current physical theory of Earth's global evolution, its origin, structure and composition, the process of Earth's core formation, Earth's energy, and the nature of its tectonomagnetic activity. The book also deals with the origin of the Moon and its influence on our planet's evolution. Based on the integral positions of this theory, the book analyzes the issues of the origin of the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and the conception and evolution of life on Earth. The monograph also reviews the adiabatic theory of the greenhouse effect developed by the authors, and the effects of nitrogen-consuminging bacteria and of periodic changes in the precession angle on its climate. In particular, these effects cause the onset and periodicity of ice ages and a significant climate warming during the periods of supercontinent appearance (like Pangaea in the Mid-Mesozoic). * challenges current thinking about climate change on the basis of sound geological data. * helps the reader make informed decisions about Earth-process related problems. * challenges the reader to critically analyze both theory and data

Earth s Earliest Biosphere

Author : J. William Schopf
File Size : 72.4 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 877
Read : 301
Download »
The Description for this book, Earth's Earliest Biosphere: Its Origin and Evolution, will be forthcoming.

Biosphere Origin and Evolution

Author : Nikolay Dobretsov
File Size : 26.90 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 390
Read : 858
Download »
This monograph contains articles based on the oral presentations given at the International Workshop on the Biosphere Origin and Evolution (BOE 2005) held in Novosibirsk, Russia, June 26-29, 2005. The organizers of the event were the Scientific Programme of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, which involves 50 institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

A New History of Life

Author : Peter Ward
File Size : 20.98 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 257
Read : 547
Download »
The history of life on Earth is, in some form or another, known to us all--or so we think. A New History of Life offers a provocative new account, based on the latest scientific research, of how life on our planet evolved--the first major new synthesis for general readers in two decades. Charles Darwin's theories, first published more than 150 years ago, form the backbone of how we understand the history of the Earth. In reality, the currently accepted history of life on Earth is so flawed, so out of date, that it's past time we need a 'New History of Life.' In their latest book, Joe Kirschvink and Peter Ward will show that many of our most cherished beliefs about the evolution of life are wrong. Gathering and analyzing years of discoveries and research not yet widely known to the public, A New History of Life proposes a different origin of species than the one Darwin proposed, one which includes eight-foot-long centipedes, a frozen “snowball Earth”, and the seeds for life originating on Mars. Drawing on their years of experience in paleontology, biology, chemistry, and astrobiology, experts Ward and Kirschvink paint a picture of the origins life on Earth that are at once too fabulous to imagine and too familiar to dismiss--and looking forward, A New History of Life brilliantly assembles insights from some of the latest scientific research to understand how life on Earth can and might evolve far into the future.

Life s Origin

Author : J. William Schopf
File Size : 31.99 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 534
Read : 259
Download »
This volume explores the historical and current theories about the origin of life, addressing in particular the three key puzzles of how and when life began on Earth and in what form.

The Mutual Evolution of Earth and Humanity

Author : Dankmar Bosse
File Size : 31.1 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 249
Read : 162
Download »
This monumental work by Dankmar Bosse presents, for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the evolution of the earth and its natural kingdoms, based primarily on geology and paleontology, and with reference to the work of Rudolf Steiner.Bosse explores many core questions of natural science, such as the relationship of humanity to the evolution of the animal kingdom, the origin of deep crystalline rocks, and the shaping of present-day landscapes.This is a fascinating exposition of the development of our natural world, and human beings, lavishly illustrated in colour. It is essential reading for anyone interested in how life on earth, and the earth itself, got to this point.

Vital Dust

Author : Christian De Duve
File Size : 47.34 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 111
Read : 1184
Download »
Is the emergence of life on Earth the result of a single chance event or combination of lucky accidents, or is it the outcome of biochemical forces woven into the fabric of the universe? And if inevitable, what are these forces, and how do they account not only for the origin of life but also for its evolution toward increasing complexity? Vital Dust is a groundbreaking history of life on Earth, a history that only someone of Chrisitian de Duve's stature and erudition could have written.

Origins of Life

Author : Geoffrey Zubay
File Size : 73.22 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 783
Read : 800
Download »
Origins of Life on the Earth and in the Cosmos, Second Edition, suggests answers to the age-old questions of how life arose in the universe and how it might arise elsewhere. This thorough revision of a very successful text describes key events in the evolution of living systems, starting with the creation of an environment suitable for the origins of life. Whereas one may never be able to reconstruct the precise pathway that led to the origin of life on earth, one can certainly make some plausible reconstructions of it. Such discussions have greatly expanded our understanding of the principles of chemical evolution and how they compare and contrast with the principles of biological evolution. The text is strong on biochemistry and its recent applications to origins' research. Provides an excellent review of basic biochemistry an evolution Written in a clear, concise style for scientists, students, and readers interested in a scientific inquiry into the origins of life Written by an authority in the field, and brought fully up-to-date in light of new research Pulls together valuable information not found in a single source Organized and presented in a manner conductive for use in a college course Heavily illustrated to make difficult concepts concrete

The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System

Author : Michael M. Woolfson
File Size : 57.44 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 538
Read : 759
Download »
The origin of the solar system has been a matter of speculation for many centuries, and since the time of Newton it has been possible to apply scientific principles to the problem. A succession of theories, starting with that of Pierre Laplace in 1796, has gained general acceptance, only to fall from favor due to its contradiction in some basic scientific principle or new heavenly observation. Modern observations by spacecraft of the solar system, the stars, and extra-solar planetary systems continuously provide new information that may be helpful in finding a plausible theory as well as present new constraints for any such theory to satisfy. The Origin and Evolution of the Solar System begins by describing historical (pre-1950) theories and illustrating why they became unacceptable. The main part of the book critically examines five extant theories, including the current paradigm, the solar nebula theory, to determine how well they fit with accepted scientific principles and observations. This analysis shows that the solar nebula theory satisfies the principles and observational constraints no better than its predecessors. The capture theory put forward by the author fares better and also indicates an initial scenario leading to a causal series of events that explain all the major features of the solar system.

Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life

Author : Horst Rauchfuss
File Size : 84.9 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 546
Read : 1051
Download »
How did life begin on the early Earth? We know that life today is driven by the universal laws of chemistry and physics. By applying these laws over the past ?fty years, en- mous progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that are the foundations of the living state. For instance, just a decade ago, the ?rst human genome was published, all three billion base pairs. Using X-ray diffraction data from crystals, we can see how an enzyme molecule or a photosynthetic reaction center steps through its catalytic function. We can even visualize a ribosome, central to all life, translate - netic information into a protein. And we are just beginning to understand how molecular interactions regulate thousands of simultaneous reactions that continuously occur even in the simplest forms of life. New words have appeared that give a sense of this wealth of knowledge: The genome, the proteome, the metabolome, the interactome. But we can’t be too smug. We must avoid the mistake of the physicist who, as the twentieth century began, stated con?dently that we knew all there was to know about physics, that science just needed to clean up a few dusty corners. Then came relativity, quantum theory, the Big Bang, and now dark matter, dark energy and string theory. Similarly in the life sciences, the more we learn, the better we understand how little we really know. There remains a vast landscape to explore, with great questions remaining.

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Author : Ben Zuckerman
File Size : 80.59 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 452
Read : 1248
Download »
The study of the origin and evolution of the universe encompasses many of the most fascinating questions in science. What is our place in the universe? How did everything in it get started, from galaxies and stars, to planets and people? And what does the future hold, for our star, and our universe? Recently, scientists have made remarkable advances in providing concrete answers to these profound questions. The new technologies of observational astronomy, with its ground- and space-based gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared and radio telescopes, is truly producing a new golden age of discovery. This book presents the excitement of these new discoveries in the larger context of cosmic evolution. The distinguished contributors are leading researchers at the cutting edge of these fields, and they also excel in explaining these subjects to the broader public. They offer the latest insights into these rapidly advancing fields, covering the origin and evolution of the universe, the chemical elements, galaxies, the evolution of stars, planets, and biological life. Essential physical concepts are clearly and carefully explained at the introductory college level. Related concepts from chemistry, geology, and biology are organized and integrated into the discussions. An extensive glossary is provided, and mathematical detail has been deliberately kept simple, to make the chapters accessible to anyone with an appreciation of science. The result is stimulating exploration of the frontiers of modern science that will intrigue both amateurs and professionals.

Earth

Author : Jonathan I. Lunine
File Size : 25.17 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 812
Read : 862
Download »
This is an outstanding overview of the history of the Earth from a unique planetary perspective for introductory courses in the earth sciences. The book approaches Earth history as an evolution, encompassing the origin of the cosmos through the inner working of living cells. Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet tells how the Earth has come to its present state, why it differs from its neighboring planets, what life's place is in Earth's history, and how humanity affects the processes that make our planet livable. Today's human influences are contemplated in the context of natural changes on Earth. This book brings a fresh perspective to the study of the Earth for students who wish to learn how our planet evolved to its present form.

Earth s Evolving Systems The History of Planet Earth

Author : Ronald Martin
File Size : 33.40 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 209
Read : 211
Download »
Earth's Evolving Systems: The History of Planet Earth is intended as an introductory text that examines the evolution of the Earth and its life from a systems point of view. The text covers major topics like the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere, and discusses how these systems interacted with each other and evolved through geologic time. The author takes care to integrate the current state of our Earth systems with those of the past in an effort to develop students' interests in Earth system in general. It begins by examining the basics of Earth systems, including discussions of sedimentation, evolution, stratigraphy, and plate tectonics. Part Two looks at the beginning of time with the origin of the Earth and discusses its early evolution, through the origin of life and its evolution to multiculluraity. The third section goes on to cover the Paleozoic through the Neogene eras, discussing topics such as tectonics, mountain building, sea level, climate, life, and mass extinctions in each era. The final part moves on to the modern world, discussing the interactions between humans and Earth systems, with an emphasis on the climatic system. Key Features of Earth's Evolving System: - Presents the Earth as a continuously evolving and dynamic planet whose history consists of a succession of vastly different worlds very much unlike our modern Earth. - Discusses the scientific method in Chapter 1, emphasizing how historical geology differs from the standard "scientific method" presented as the paradigm of experimental sciences and of all science. - Bridges traditional historical geology texts by discussing historical information in the context of the interaction and integration of Earth systems through geologic time by using the tectonic (Wilson) cycle as a unifying theme. - Concentrates on North America but offers a global perspective on Earth systems on processes such as orogenesis, seaways, and ocean circulation, the evolution of life, and mass extinction. - Discusses rapid climate change and anthropogenic impacts in the context of a continuously evolving Earth whose environments are now being altered by anthropogenic climate change. - End-of-chapter materials include: general review questions, more challenging "Food for Thought" questions, key terms listing, and a "Sources and Further Readings" section. - Boxes throughout the text highlight interesting bits of related information, unusual occurrences, or elaborates on material presented in the text

Life on a Young Planet

Author : Andrew H. Knoll
File Size : 20.2 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 972
Read : 447
Download »
Knoll explores the deep history of life from its origins on a young planet to the incredible Cambrian explosion, with the very latest discoveries in paleontology integrated with emerging insights from molecular biology and earth system science. 100 illustrations.

Origin and Evolution of Planetary and Satellite Atmospheres

Author : S. K. Atreya
File Size : 87.70 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 742
Read : 790
Download »
An integrated discussion of the similarities and differences between the atmospheres of various bodies of the solar system, including the Earth.

Origins

Author : Joseph Seckbach
File Size : 67.74 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 480
Read : 1108
Download »
In this book forty eminent scientists examine the astrobiological origins of life and the emergence of biodiversity in extreme environments. The coverage includes extremophiles: microbes living in hostile conditions of high temperature, psychrophilic, UV radiation, and halophilic environments. Also discussed are the origin and history of Martian water, and the possible biogeochemistry inside Titan.

Evolution of the Earth

Author : Donald R. Prothero
File Size : 64.32 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 631
Read : 1064
Download »
Evolution of the Earth reveals the logical framework of geology, shows relations of the science to the totality of human knowledge, and gives some idea of what it is to be a participant in the discipline. In keeping with the preference for a "How do we know?" rather than "What do we know?" approach, the authors stress what assumptions are made by earth historians, what kinds of evidence (and tools for gathering that evidence), and what processes of reasoning and limitations of hypotheses are involved in reconstructing and interpreting the past. Each chapter begins with a list of highlights entitled "Major Concepts". Many chapters have a summary timeline that puts the entire sequence of events into a quick visual reference frame. The use of dioramas and reconstructions of extinct animals and plants has been greatly expanded, so that students can get a more vivid concept of typical life in any part of the geologic past. In many places, the authors have supplied a full page of color photos of classic fossils from each period to improve the visual recognition of the organisms that give life its distinctive history. The areas of hottest controversy, such as mass extinctions, dinosaur endothermy, the origin of life, and controversies over late Proterozoic tectonics and glaciation, have been given separate sections so that students can appreciate the different sides of the debates. (Electronic images are available on CD-ROM through your local McGraw-Hill Sales Representative.)