Search results for: phrase-structure-in-natural-language

Phrase Structure in Natural Language

Author : M.J. Speas
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Phrase Structure in Natural Language

Author : M.J. Speas
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Examines the principles which constrain the projection of sentence structures from lexical representations within the framework of Government-Binding Theory; examines the syntactic structure of Warlpiri.

Phrase Structure in Natural Language

Author : M.J. Speas
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Examines the principles which constrain the projection of sentence structures from lexical representations within the framework of Government-Binding Theory; examines the syntactic structure of Warlpiri.

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammars Head Grammars and Natural Language

Author : Carl Jesse Pollard
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Studies in Contemporary Phrase Structure Grammar

Author : Robert D. Levine
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This book explores a wide variety of theoretically central issues in the framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), a major theory of syntactic representation, particularly in the domain of natural language computation. HPSG is a strongly lexicon-driven theory, like several others on the scene, but unlike the others it also relies heavily on an explicit assignment of linguistic objects to membership in a hierarchically organised network of types, where constraints associated with any given type are inherited by all of its subtypes. This theoretical architecture allows HPSG considerable flexibility within the confines of a highly restrictive, mathematically explicit formalism, requiring no derivational machinery and invoking only a single level of syntactic representation. The separate chapters consider a variety of problematic phenomena in German, Japanese and English and suggest important extensions of, and revisions to, the picture of HPSG.

Japanese Phrase Structure Grammar

Author : T. Gunji
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This book is a considerable revision and extension of my thesis for The Ohio State University completed in 1981: A Phrase Structural Analysis of the Japanese Language (Gunji 1981a). The book discusses some of the major grammatical constructions of Japanese in a version of phrase structure grammar called Japanese Phrase Structure Grammar (JPSG), which is loosely based on such frameworks for phrase structure grammar as Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) and Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG). Particular emphasis is placed on the binding and control of pronouns (both implicit - "zero" - and explicit ones, including reflexives) in complementation structures (chapter 4) and adjunction structures (chapter 5). Even though this book started as a revision of my 1981 thesis, the resultant book has few traces of my thinking then. The 1981 thesis was closely related to an early version of GPSG, which was then at a very preliminary stage, and I had only a few preprints of papers by Gerald Gazdar and others to read. GPSG itself has evolved during the past. several years, culminating in a book published last year (Gazdar, Klein, Pullum, and Sag 1985), which differs from the early theory in many ways.

Understanding Sentence Structure

Author : Christina Tortora
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A straightforward guide to understanding English grammar This book is for people who have never thought about syntax, and who don't know anything about grammar, but who want to learn. Assuming a blank slate on the part of the reader, the book treats English grammar as a product of the speaker's mind, and builds up student skills by exploring phrases and sentences with more and more complexity, as the chapters proceed. This practical guide excites and empowers readers by guiding them step by step through each chapter with intermittent exercises. In order to capitalize on the reader's confidence as a personal authority on English, Understanding Sentence Structure assumes an inclusive definition of English, taking dialect variation and structures common amongst millions of English speakers to be a fact of natural language. Situates grammar as part of what the student already unconsciously knows Presupposes no prior instruction, not even in prescriptive grammar Begins analyzing sentences immediately, with the “big picture” (sentences have structure, structure can be ambiguous) and moves through levels of complexity, tapping into students’ tacit knowledge of sentence structure Includes exercise boxes for in-chapter practicing of skills, side notes that offer further tips/encouragement on topics being discussed, and new terms defined immediately and helpfully in term boxes Applies decades of findings in syntactic theory and cognitive science, with an eye towards making English grammar accessible to school teachers and beginning students alike Understanding Sentence Structure: An Introduction to English Syntax is an ideal book for undergraduates studying modern English grammar and for instructors teaching introductory courses in English grammar, syntax, and sentence structure.

Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar

Author : Gerald Gazdar
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Phrase Structure and the Lexicon

Author : J. Rooryck
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V, ThemelPatients to the lowest specifier of V', and Agents to a position outside the minimal VP. Again, thematic information is encoded in terms of configurational properties. Addressing the issue of phrase structure in another domain, Margaret Speas investigates the status of null pronominal objects in Navajo. Following Rizzi (1986), she assumes that null pronouns must meet both a licensing and an identification condition. More specifically, she demonstrates that distributional restrictions on null pronominal objects in Navajo can be explained if it is assumed that null objects obey the identification condition expressed by the Generalized Control Rule of Huang (1984). Distinguishing three types of null objects, she argues that relevant licensing condition on two subtypes of null objects involves rich agreement. However, it appears that there are languages lacking rich agreement but with pro in object position. Speas accounts for these phenomena by a rule of economy of projection. A second series of papers is concerned with the way in which functional categories derive aspects of sentential interpretation. Three issues in this research program are investigated here: external arguments as arguments of functional projections (Kratzer), the specificity interpretation of clitics (Sportiche), and the interpretation of tense (Stowell). In all three cases, phrase structure is put to use to derive interpretive effects. Angelika Kratzer proposes that external arguments are not part of the verb.

Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures

Author : Richard T. Oehrle
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For the most part, the papers collected in this volume stern from presentations given at a conference held in Tucson over the weekend of May 31 through June 2, 1985. We wish to record our gratitude to the participants in that conference, as well as to the National Science Foundation (Grant No. BNS-8418916) and the University of Arizona SBS Research Institute for their financial support. The advice we received from Susan Steele on organizational matters proved invaluable and had many felicitous consequences for the success of the con ference. We also would like to thank the staff of the Departments of Linguistics of the University of Arizona and the University of Massachusetts at Amherst for their help, as weIl as a number of individuals, including Lin Hall, Kathy Todd, and Jiazhen Hu, Sandra Fulmer, Maria Sandoval, Natsuko Tsujimura, Stuart Davis, Mark Lewis, Robin Schafer, Shi Zhang, Olivia Oehrle-Steele, and Paul Saka. Finally, we would like to express our gratitude to Martin Scrivener, our editor, for his patience and his encouragement. Vll INTRODUCTION The term 'categorial grammar' was introduced by Bar-Rillel (1964, page 99) as a handy way of grouping together some of his own earlier work (1953) and the work of the Polish logicians and philosophers Lesniewski (1929) and Ajdukiewicz (1935), in contrast to approaches to linguistic analysis based on phrase structure grammars.

Clause Structure in South Asian Languages

Author : V. Dayal
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The researchers in the field of theoretical and theoretically inclined descriptive linguistics have for a long time felt a need for detailed and clearly presented linguistic treatments of various syntactic phenomena in South Asian languages. Clause Structure in South Asian Languages: provides a comprehensive overview and covers major aspects of clause structure in a variety of South Asian languages; provides detailed analyses of several aspects of phrase structure of many prominent South Asian languages; gives theoretically up-to-date treatment of several important issues in South Asian syntax and semantics; contains papers by some of the most prominent linguists working on South Asian languages.

The Nature of Syntactic Representation

Author : Pauline Jacobson
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The work collected in this book represents the results of some intensive recent work on the syntax of natural languages. The authors' differing viewpoints have in common the program of revising current conceptions of syntactic representation so that the role of transformational derivations is reduced or eliminated. The fact that the papers cross-refer to each other a good deal, and that authors assuming quite different fram{:works are aware of each other's results and address themselves to shared problems, is partly the result of a conference on the nature of syntactic representation that was held at Brown University in May 1979 with the express purpose of bringing together different lines of research in syntax. The papers in this volume mostly arise out of work that was presented in preliminary form at that conference, though much rewriting and further research has been done in the interim period. Two papers are included because although they were not given even in preliminary form at the conference, it has become clear since then that they interrelate with the work of the conference so much that they cannot reasonably be left out: Gerald Gazdar's statement of his program for phrase structure description of natural language forms the theoretical basis that is assumed by Maling and Zaenen and by Sag, and David Dowty's paper represents a bridge between the relational grammar exemplified here in the papers by Perlmutter and Postal on the one hand and the Montague

The Acquisition of Syntactic Knowledge

Author : Robert C. Berwick
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The computer model. Computation and language acquisition. The acquisition model. Learning phrase structure. Learning transformations. A theory of acquisition. Acquisition complexity. Learning theory: applications. Locality principles and acquisition.

Lexical semantic Information in Head driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Natural Language Processing

Author : Martin Hoelter
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Clitics and Constituents in Phrase Structure Grammar

Author : Philip H. Miller
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An Extension of Phrase Structure Rules and Its Application to Natural Language

Author : Christopher Douglas Culy
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Mathematics of Language

Author : Alexis Manaster-Ramer
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By mathematics of language is meant the mathematical properties that may, under certain assumptions about modeling, be attributed to human languages and related symbolic systems, as well as the increasingly active and autonomous scholarly discipline that studies such things. More specifically, the use of techniques developed in a variety of pure and applied mathematics, including logic and the theory of computation, in the discovery and articulation of insights into the structure of language. Some of the contributions to this volume deal primarily with foundational issues, others with specific models and theoretical issues. A few are concerned with semantics, but most focus on syntax. The papers in this volume reveal applications of the several fields of the theory of computation (formal languages, automata, complexity), formal logic, topology, set theory, graph theory, and statistics. The book also shows a keen interest in developing mathematical models that are especially suited to natural languages.

Natural Language Parsing and Linguistic Theories

Author : U. Reyle
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presupposition fails, we now give a short introduction into Unification Grammar. Since all implementations discussed in this volume use PROLOG (with the exception of BlockjHaugeneder), we felt that it would also be useful to explain the difference between unification in PROLOG and in UG. After the introduction to UG we briefly summarize the main arguments for using linguistic theories in natural language processing. We conclude with a short summary of the contributions to this volume. UNIFICATION GRAMMAR 3 Feature Structures or Complex Categories. Unification Grammar was developed by Martin Kay (Kay 1979). Martin Kay wanted to give a precise defmition (and implementation) of the notion of 'feature'. Linguists use features at nearly all levels of linguistic description. In phonetics, for instance, the phoneme b is usually described with the features 'bilabial', 'voiced' and 'nasal'. In the case of b the first two features get the value +, the third (nasal) gets the value -. Feature value pairs in phonology are normally represented as a matrix. bilabial: + voiced: + I nasal: - [Feature matrix for b.] In syntax features are used, for example, to distinguish different noun classes. The Latin noun 'murus' would be characterized by the following feature-value pairs: gender: masculin, number: singular, case: nominative, pred: murus. Besides a matrix representation one frequently fmds a graph representation for feature value pairs. The edges of the graph are labelled by features. The leaves denote the value of a feature.

Surface Without Structure

Author : Annius Victor Groenink
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Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics

Author : Mohamed Zakaria Kurdi
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Natural language processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the interface of computer science, artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology. Providing an overview of international work in this interdisciplinary field, this book gives the reader a panoramic view of both early and current research in NLP. Carefully chosen multilingual examples present the state of the art of a mature field which is in a constant state of evolution. In four chapters, this book presents the fundamental concepts of phonetics and phonology and the two most important applications in the field of speech processing: recognition and synthesis. Also presented are the fundamental concepts of corpus linguistics and the basic concepts of morphology and its NLP applications such as stemming and part of speech tagging. The fundamental notions and the most important syntactic theories are presented, as well as the different approaches to syntactic parsing with reference to cognitive models, algorithms and computer applications.