Search results for: physical-acoustics-v18-principles-and-methods-018

Physical Acoustics V18

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods reviews the principles and methods of physical acoustics, with emphasis on applications of the thermal and acoustic response to light. Measurements in which a beam of light (or electrons) excites a system are presented, and information is obtained from the resulting thermal or acoustic waves. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a description of the use of number theory to design phase gratings and arrays with low directivity, followed by a comprehensive account of ultrasonic generation by pulsed lasers in gases, vapors, liquids, and solids. Thermoelastic generation at a free surface is considered, along with the effect of material ablation and the effect of surface modification by a thin liquid coating or constraining solid layer. Subsequent chapters focus on electron-acoustic imaging of solids; the theory of photothermal and photoacoustic effects in condensed matter; the use of photoacoustics to study the vibrational relaxation of molecules; and analytical applications of photoacoustic spectroscopy to condensed phase substances. The final chapter describes imaging with optically generated thermal waves. This book will be of interest to physicists.

Physical Acoustics V9

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IX includes four chapters that are device-oriented and devoted to understanding electron drag stresses on dislocations and difference in flow stress between the normal and superconducting states of Type I and Type II superconductors. Chapter 1 explains that when a dislocation moves through a crystal, it gives up energy to the medium either through a nonlinear motion over a dynamic Peierls barrier or through conversion of energy by scattering of electrons or phonons, which takes place with an energy loss proportional to the velocity. The next chapter discusses the propagation of ultrasonic surface waves in thin layers. The thin layer confines a surface wave laterally, providing a desired dispersion characteristic, acting as part of a transducer for generating surface waves, or providing an interaction region for other phenomena. Chapter 3 deals with a generation of solid state control elements that utilize the inverse piezoelectric effect. The last chapter provides approximate equations for coupled resonators and methods for accurately controlling the band frequency and bandwidth. This book is a useful reference for students and physicists working on physical acoustics.

Physical Acoustics V4B

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IV, Part B: Applications to Quantum and Solid State Physics provides an introduction to the various applications of quantum mechanics to acoustics by describing several processes for which such considerations are essential. This book discusses the transmission of sound waves in molten metals. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.

Physical Acoustics Principles and Methods

Author : Warren Perry Mason
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Physical Acoustics V12

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume XII, covers the fundamental physical phenomena and important engineering applications of physical acoustics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and begins with the presentation of the theoretical concepts and experimental data concerning the role of long-wavelength acoustic phonons in Jahn-Teller phase transitions. The second chapter highlights the use of superconducting tunneling junctions as phonon generators and detectors followed by a discussion on ultrasonic wave propagation in glasses at low temperatures in the third chapter. The fourth chapter explores various integral transform methods for describing the elastic response to acoustic pulsed. These methods include spatial Fourier and/or Bessel transforms the Watson-Sommerfeld transformation or the Poisson summation formula, and the Fourier or Laplace transform for the time behavior. The final chapter outlines the measurement methods for ultrasonic phase and group velocities and attenuation together with their industrial applications.

Physical Acoustics V14

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume XIV is a five-chapter text that covers significant studies on acoustic microscopy, sound propagation in liquid crystals, ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic flowmeters. The opening chapter discusses techniques of acoustic microscopy, aberration and resolution performance, acoustic lens transfer functions, antireflection coatings, and both transmission and reflection acoustic microscopy. The following chapter deals with the applications to the states called liquid crystals or anisotropic liquids, states in which the material flows but yet has a long-range order that makes it macroscopically anisotropic. The third chapter focuses on the principles and practical applications of electromagnetic transducers for both surface waves and bulk waves. The fourth chapter surveys first the characterization of ultrasonic transducers for materials testing and then compares actual responses to those of an ""ideal"" transducer, elaborating on the many important factors that affect the results obtained with an ultrasonic testing system. The final chapter explains the principles underlying ultrasonic measurements of flow, specifically covering eight different categories of ultrasonic flow measurement principles and their industrial applications indicated. This book will be of great value to researchers in their fields of electronics technology and applied and engineering mechanics.

Physical Acoustics V16

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods reviews the principles and methods of physical acoustics and covers topics ranging from relaxation processes in sound propagation in fluids to acoustic vibrational modes in quartz crystals, along with electron and phonon drag on mobile dislocations in metals at low temperatures. Two-pulse phonon echoes in solid-state acoustics and memory echoes in powders are also discussed. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume begins with a historical account of relaxation processes in sound propagation, followed by an analysis of acoustic vibrational modes in quartz crystals. The reader is then introduced to electron and phonon drag on mobile dislocations at low temperatures, together with two-pulse phonon echoes in solid-state acoustics and dynamic polarization echoes in powdered materials. The book also considers memory echoes in powders before concluding with an evaluation of acousto-optic transduction mechanisms used in fiber optic acoustic sensors, together with their practical implementation. This book will be of interest to physicists.

Physical Acoustics

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume l—Part A focuses on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as powerful tools in analyzing the molecular, defect, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first tackles wave propagation in fluids and normal solids and guided wave propagation in elongated cylinders and plates. Discussions focus on fundamentals of continuum mechanics; small-amplitude waves in a linear viscoelastic medium; representation of oscillations and waves; and special effects associated with guided elastic waves in plates and cylinders. The book also touches on piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials and their functions in transducers, including polycrystalline ferroelectrics, equations of the piezoelectric medium, and equivalent circuits. The publication takes a look at ultrasonic methods for measuring the mechanical properties of liquids and solids and the use of piezoelectric crystals and mechanical resonators in filters and oscillators. The text then ponders on guided wave ultrasonic delay lines and multiple reflection ultrasonic delay lines, as well as transmission of sound waves in solids, torsional mode delay lines, and transducer considerations. The selection is a valuable reference for readers interested in physical acoustics.

Physical Acoustics V6

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume VI provides five chapters covering the whole of physical acoustics. The first chapter extends the methods for studying high frequency sound waves in the hypersonic range by the technique of Brillouin scattering. The next chapter discusses the acoustic properties of materials of the perovskite structure. These materials have ""soft"" modes, which are transverse optic modes of the phonon spectrum that have unusually low and strongly temperature dependent frequencies. This chapter expounds the influence of the soft modes, with particular attention to potassium tantalate and strontium titanate. The third chapter gives a theoretical treatment of the properties and possibilities of surface waves in crystals that are becoming of increasing interest for delay lines, amplifiers of sound waves, and other practical applications. The fourth chapter discusses the experimental methods and results of the dynamic shear properties of solvents and polystyrene solutions from 20 to 300 MHz, including a description of its materials and steady-flow properties. The final chapter deals with condensed helium, which requires quantum reactions to account for its properties. While the experimental data on solid helium are still insufficient, this chapter gives both a theoretical and an experimental account of sound propagation in solid helium, including various liquid forms. This book is recommended to both students and physicists conducting research on physical acoustics.

Physical Acoustics V15

Author : Warren P. Mason
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Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume XV is a four-chapter text that covers the history of ultrasonics, interdigital transducers, theory of resonance scattering, and acoustic emission. Chapter 1 provides the history of ultrasonics and the developments of its application in crystal transducers, oscillators, selective wave filters, underwater sound, dentistry, and medicine. Chapter 2 is a comprehensive account of the use of circuit model analysis to design interdigital transducers (IDTs) for surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. This chapter also looks into the total filter design problem for the important case of SAW filters composed solely of IDTs and matching circuits. Chapter 3 discusses the resonance scattering theory, its application to acoustic-and elastic-wave scattering, and the relevant experiments. Chapter 4 deals with the optical detection of acoustic emissions, acoustic emissions during various transformations, and dislocation effects. Researchers in the fields of electronics technology and applied and engineering mechanics will find this book invaluable.