Search results for: physical-processes-in-solar-flares

Physical Processes in Solar Flares

Author : B.V. Somov
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Solar flares are very complex electromagnetic phenomena of a cataclysmic nature. Particles are accelerated to very high velocities and a variety of physical processes happen inside and outside flares. These processes can be studied by a large number of techniques from Earth and from space. The aim is to discover the physics behind solar flares. This goal is complicated because information about the flare mechanism can be obtained only in an indirect way by studying the secondary effects. This book provides three stages in the solution of the solar flare problem. Chapter one describes the connection between observational data and theoretical concepts, where it is stressed that next to investigating flares, the related non-stationary large-scale phenomena must be studied as well. The second chapter deals with secondary physical processes, in particular the study of high-temperature plasma dynamics during impulsive heating. The last chapter presents a model built on the knowledge of the two previous chapters and it constructs a theory of non-neutral turbulent current sheets. The author believes that this model will help to solve the problem of solar flares. For solar physicists, plasma physicists, high-energy particle physicists.

Physical Processes in Solar Flares

Author : B.V. Somov
File Size : 42.40 MB
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Solar flares are very complex electromagnetic phenomena of a cataclysmic nature. Particles are accelerated to very high velocities and a variety of physical processes happen inside and outside flares. These processes can be studied by a large number of techniques from Earth and from space. The aim is to discover the physics behind solar flares. This goal is complicated because information about the flare mechanism can be obtained only in an indirect way by studying the secondary effects. This book provides three stages in the solution of the solar flare problem. Chapter one describes the connection between observational data and theoretical concepts, where it is stressed that next to investigating flares, the related non-stationary large-scale phenomena must be studied as well. The second chapter deals with secondary physical processes, in particular the study of high-temperature plasma dynamics during impulsive heating. The last chapter presents a model built on the knowledge of the two previous chapters and it constructs a theory of non-neutral turbulent current sheets. The author believes that this model will help to solve the problem of solar flares. For solar physicists, plasma physicists, high-energy particle physicists.

Solar Activity and Sudden Changes in the Natural Processes on Earth

Author : Igorʹ Petrovich Druzhinin
File Size : 49.38 MB
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The influence of solar activity on natural terrestrial processes was statistically studied based on the hypothesis that sudden changes in the 11-year cycle lead to changes in the terrestrial processes. Processes discussed include: processes on a planetary scale, atmospheric circulation, precipitation, ocean and sea processes, river runoff, water levels, ice formation, and biological processes.

Particle Acceleration and Kinematics in Solar Flares

Author : Markus Aschwanden
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Over the last decade we entered a new exploration phase of solar flare physics, equipped with powerful spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SoHO, and TRACE that pro vide us detail-rich and high-resolution images of solar flares in soft X-rays, hard X -rays, and extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths. Moreover, the large-area and high sensitivity detectors on the Compton GRO spacecraft recorded an unprecedented number of high-energy photons from solar flares that surpasses all detected high energy sources taken together from the rest of the universe, for which CGRO was mainly designed to explore. However, morphological descriptions of these beau tiful pictures and statistical catalogs of these huge archives of solar data would not convey us much understanding of the underlying physics, if we would not set out to quantify physical parameters from these data and would not subject these measurements to theoretical models. Historically, there has always been an unsatisfactory gap between traditional astronomy that dutifully describes the mor phology of observations, and the newer approach of astrophysics, which starts with physical concepts from first principles and analyzes astronomical data with the goal to confirm or disprove theoretical models. In this review we attempt to bridge this yawning gap and aim to present the recent developments in solar flare high-energy physics from a physical point of view, structuring the observations and analysis results according to physical processes, such as particle acceleration, propagation, energy loss, kinematics, and radiation signatures.

Particle kinematics in solar flares observations and theory

Author : Marina Battaglia
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This thesis is devoted to the study of particle acceleration and propagation processes in solar flares. Solar flares are amongst the most powerful and energetic activity phenomena our Sun exhibits. They release energy of the order of 1032 erg in seconds to minutes. In the process, electrons and protons are accelerated to relativistic energies, making flares very efficient particle accelerators. The most compelling observational signatures of flares can be found in X-rays and extreme ultra-violet wavelengths. Due to atmospheric absorption, those wavelengths can only be studied from space. Since the beginning of the space age, countless flares have been observed by satellites. The present work is largely based on observations by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), an X-ray satellite which has been observing the Sun since February 2002. It is a NASA mission with substantial Swiss hardware and software contribution. Using RHESSI observations of flares of different intensity, a deeper understanding of the particle transport and energy transport processes in flare loops, as well as the acceleration site and acceleration mechanism is sought. The time evolution of images and spectra is studied along with the quantitative relations between X-ray sources observed in the corona (coronal sources) and from the chromosphere (footpoints). The spectral relations found between coronal sources and footpoints are compared to the so-called ``intermediate thin-thick target model'', which was based on observations by the satellite Yohkoh. We show that the spectral relations between coronal sources and footpoints observed with RHESSI cannot be explained by the intermediate thin-thick target model. In a next step, return currents in the flare loop were considered. With this extension to the existing model, the spectra of the coronal source and the footpoints, as well as the relations between them can be explained, indicating the importance of return currents in flare loops. In a second part, observations of so-called ``pre-flares'' are presented. This earliest phase of a flare cannot be explained by the standard flare model of chromospheric evaporation which involves energy transport and deposition in the chromosphere by beams of accelerated electrons. In pre-flares, an increase in density and emission measure is observed, indicating that chromospheric evaporation is occurring. However, no observational signatures of fast electrons are found. We show that if energy is transported by means of thermal conduction instead of an electron beam, the observations can explained.

Highly Energetic Physical Processes and Mechanisms for Emission from Astrophysical Plasmas

Author : International Astronomical Union. Symposium
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Solar Flares and Collisions between Current Carrying Loops

Author : Jun-Ichi Sakai
File Size : 34.43 MB
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In this volume we compare modem observations of solar flares with results from recent theoretical research and simulation studies on current-carrying loops and their interaction. These topics have undergone rapid developments in the course of recent years. Observational results by X-ray monitoring and imaging spacecraft in the seventies and by dedicated imaging instrumentation in the satellites Solar Max imum Mission and Hinotori, launched 1980 and 1981, have shown the importance of X-ray imaging for understanding the ignition processes of solar flares. Such observations, in tum, stimulated theoretical studies, centered around the flux-tube concept. The classical idea that flares originate by interaction of current-carrying loops was developed and proved to be promising. Concepts on reconnection and coalescence of flux tubes were developed, and their consequences studied. The Yohkoh spacecraft, launched 1991, showed the overwhelming importance of coro nal flux tubes and their many possible ways of interaction. Subsequent and parallel theoretical studies and simulations, differentiating between the topology of interact ing fluxtubes, demonstrated that the mutual positioning and the way of interaction are important for the subsequent processes of energy release in flares and the many associated phenomena such as the expUlsion of jets and the emission of X -ray and microwave radiation. The new developments now enable researchers to understand and classify flares in a physically significant way. Various processes of accelera tion are active in and after flares on greatly varying timescales; these can now be distinguished and explained.

First Ten Years of Hinode Solar On Orbit Observatory

Author : Toshifumi Shimizu
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This book provides the latest scientific understanding of the Sun, sharing insights gleaned from the international solar physics project Hinode. The authors (who are the main project contributors) review, from the various viewpoints, the discoveries and advances made by the on-orbit operations of the Hinode spacecraft in its first decade. Further, they present a wealth of scientifically important photographs and data from Hinode. Launched in September 2006, Hinode is the third Japanese solar observatory on orbit, and employs three highly advanced telescopes jointly developed and operated with international partners. The book describes the background of these research topics, how the Hinode telescopes have tackled various challenges, and the scientific achievements and impacts in the first 10 years. Furthermore, it explores future perspective of researches in Japan. The book will benefit undergraduate students interested in recent advance in the solar research, as well as graduate students and researchers working in solar physics, the space sciences, astronomy, and plasma physics.

Particle Acceleration and Kinematics in Solar Flares

Author : Markus Aschwanden
File Size : 73.99 MB
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Over the last decade we entered a new exploration phase of solar flare physics, equipped with powerful spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SoHO, and TRACE that pro vide us detail-rich and high-resolution images of solar flares in soft X-rays, hard X -rays, and extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths. Moreover, the large-area and high sensitivity detectors on the Compton GRO spacecraft recorded an unprecedented number of high-energy photons from solar flares that surpasses all detected high energy sources taken together from the rest of the universe, for which CGRO was mainly designed to explore. However, morphological descriptions of these beau tiful pictures and statistical catalogs of these huge archives of solar data would not convey us much understanding of the underlying physics, if we would not set out to quantify physical parameters from these data and would not subject these measurements to theoretical models. Historically, there has always been an unsatisfactory gap between traditional astronomy that dutifully describes the mor phology of observations, and the newer approach of astrophysics, which starts with physical concepts from first principles and analyzes astronomical data with the goal to confirm or disprove theoretical models. In this review we attempt to bridge this yawning gap and aim to present the recent developments in solar flare high-energy physics from a physical point of view, structuring the observations and analysis results according to physical processes, such as particle acceleration, propagation, energy loss, kinematics, and radiation signatures.

High Energy Aspects of Solar Flares

Author : A. Gordon Emslie
File Size : 70.5 MB
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This edited volume describes many aspects of current research on solar flares, emphasizing recent progress in understanding their X-ray and gamma-ray emissions. Several of the chapters deal comprehensively with the problems of particle acceleration, conversion of particle energy into various forms of radiation, and the inference of physical processes from observations. Other chapters deal with the full breadth and richness of flare observations, including microflares and nanoflares. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Space Science Reviews journal, Vol. 159/1-4, 2011.