Search results for: prenatal-stress-and-child-development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Author : Ashley Wazana
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This book examines the complex impact of prenatal stress and the mechanism of its transmission on children’s development and well-being, including prenatal programming, epigenetics, infl ammatory processes, and the brain-gut microbiome. It analyzes current findings on prenatal stressors affecting pregnancy, including preconception stress, prenatal maternal depression, anxiety, and pregnancy-specific anxieties. Chapters explore how prenatal stress affects cognitive, affective, behavioral, and neurobiological development in children while pinpointing core processes of adaptation, resilience, and interventions that may reduce negative behaviors and promote optimal outcomes in children. Th is complex perspective on mechanisms by which early environmental influences interact with prenatal programming of susceptibility aims to inform clinical strategies and future research targeting prenatal stress and its cyclical impact on subsequent generations. Key areas of coverage include: The developmental effects of prenatal maternal stress on children. Epigenetic effects of prenatal stress. Intergenerational transmission of parental early life stress. The microbiome-gut-brain axis and the effects of prenatal stress on early neurodevelopment. The effect of prenatal stress on parenting. Gestational stress and resilience. Prenatal stress and children’s sleeping behavior. Prenatal, perinatal, and population-based interventions to prevent psychopathology. Prenatal Stress and Child Development is an essential resource for researchers, professors and graduate students as well as clinicians, therapists, and related professionals in infancy and early childhood development, maternal and child health, developmental psychology, pediatrics, social work, child and adolescent psychiatry, developmental neuroscience, and related behavioral and social sciences and medical disciplines. Excerpt from the foreword: “I would make the plea that in addition to anyone with an interest in child development, this book should be essential reading for researchers pursuing “pre-clinical, basic science models of neurodevelopment and brain health”.... This book provides what in my mind is the most advanced compilation of existing knowledge and state-of-the-art science in the field of prenatal psychiatry/psychology (and perhaps in the entire field of prenatal medicine). This volume can brilliantly serve to focus future directions in our understanding of the perinatal determinants of brain health.” Michael J Meaney James McGill Professor of Medicine Translational Neuroscience Programme Adjunct Professor of Paediatrics

Parental Stress and Early Child Development

Author : Kirby Deater-Deckard
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This book examines the complex impact of parenting stress and the effects of its transmission on young children’s development and well-being (e.g., emotion self-regulation; executive functioning; maltreatment; future parenting practices). It analyzes current findings on acute and chronic psychological and socioeconomic stressors affecting parents, including those associated with poverty and cultural disparities, pregnancy and motherhood, and caring for children with developmental disabilities. Contributors explore how parental stress affects cognitive, affective, behavioral, and neurological development in children while pinpointing core adaptation, resilience, and coping skills parents need to reduce abusive and other negative behaviors and promote optimal outcomes in their children. These nuanced bidirectional perspectives on parent/child dynamics aim to inform clinical strategies and future research targeting parental stress and its cyclical impact on subsequent generations. Included in the coverage: Parental stress and child temperament. How social structure and culture shape parental strain and the well-being of parents and children. The stress of parenting children with developmental disabilities. Consequences and mechanisms of child maltreatment and the implications for parenting. How being mothered affects the development of mothering. Prenatal maternal stress and psychobiological development during childhood. Parenting Stress and Early Child Development is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians and related professionals, and graduate students in infancy and early childhood development, developmental psychology, pediatrics, family studies, and developmental neuroscience.

Maternal Stress During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Development

Author : Matias Berthelon
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There is a consensus in the literature on the relevance of the first 1,000 days since conception in the development of a child's cognitive and non-cognitive skills. However, little is known of the determinants of these skills at that age, as previous literature has focused on the effect of in utero and early childhood shocks on outcomes at birth or at age 7 and beyond. In this paper, we analyze the impact of prenatal stress on cognitive and non-cognitive development of the child by age 2. By exploiting a longitudinal dataset of children and their parents, we find that children who were exposed in-utero to maternal stress do not have different birth-weight relative to those who were not exposed, yet by age 2, exposed children had a lower level of development, cognition skills, and more attention problems relative to children not exposed to in utero stress.We also find that the negative impacts are observed if in-utero stress occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy. The negative impact on cognitive skills and development is concentrated on lower-income children and attention problems occur among high-income children, and boys suffer lower development and worse attention problems, while girls' cognition is negatively affected by in-utero stress.

Psychological Insights for Understanding COVID 19 and Families Parents and Children

Author : Marc H. Bornstein
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With specially commissioned introductions from international experts, the Psychological Insights for Understanding COVID-19 series draws together previously published chapters on key themes in psychological science that engage with people’s unprecedented experience of the pandemic. This volume collects chapters that address prominent issues and challenges presented by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to families, parents, and children. A new introduction from Marc H. Bornstein reviews how disasters are known to impact families, parents, and children and explores traditional and novel responsibilities of parents and their effects on child growth and development. It examines parenting at this time, detailing consequences for home life and economies that the pandemic has triggered; considers child discipline and abuse during the pandemic; and makes recommendations that will support families in terms of multilevel interventions at family, community, and national and international levels. The selected chapters elucidate key themes including children’s worry, stress and parenting, positive parenting programs, barriers which constrain population-level impact of prevention programs, and the importance of culturally adapting evidence-based family intervention programs. Featuring theory and research on key topics germane to the global pandemic, the Psychological Insights for Understanding COVID-19 series offers thought-provoking reading for professionals, students, academics, policy makers, and parents concerned with the psychological consequences of COVID-19 for individuals, families, and society.

Prenatal stress

Author : Katja Erni
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Various lines of research in animals and humans indicate that prenatal stress can have long-lasting effects on biological and psychological processes of the offspring. In particular, prenatal stress is associated with long-term disturbances in HPA axis function. Moreover, prenatal stress in animals is linked with anxiety in later life. Likewise, in humans, gestational stress has a significant impact on emotional problems of the offspring. However, to date, there have been no studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on psychological, endocrine, and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test in children aged 10 years. Furthermore, studies investigating the effects of prenatal glucocorticoids on anxiety in children aged 10 years as assessed by self-report as well as maternal and paternal rating are lacking. In particular, knowledge is lacking about healthy children born after the 34th week of gestation without complications (e.g. oxygen administration because of respiratory distress syndrome) as well as with no other physical diseases or disabilities after birth. In addition, to date, the long-term effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure in children who are healthy and show no disparities in their level of development are poorly understood. In a cross-sectional study design, a total sample of 135 children was examined. The Glucocorticoids+Tocolytics (GC+TOC) group was characterized by tocolytic treatment of the children’s mothers due to signs of preterm labor during the second trimester of pregnancy. In addition, the pregnant women received glucocorticoid treatment (betamethasone) in order to accelerate fetal lung maturation in case of preterm birth. The Tocolytics (TOC) group consisted of children whose mothers also had signs of preterm labor during the second trimester of pregnancy. These mothers, like the mothers of the GC+TOC group, were administered tocolytic treatment, but did not receive glucocorticoid treatment. In both of these groups, only pregnant women were included with no other reasons (e.g. premature rupture of membranes) for tocolytic treatment than preterm labor as reported in medical records. The CONTROL group consisted of children whose mothers experienced a complication-free pregnancy. Data 1: To investigate the psychological, endocrine and autonomic responses to a standardized psychosocial stress test for children (TSST-C) was applied. Psychological parameters using self-report questionnaires (EWL-KJ and PASA) as well as salivary cortisol and heart rate were measured during the experiment. Group comparisons revealed differences in psychological (control expectancies and stress appraisal) and in biological (salivary cortisol) parameters in children who were prenatally exposed to glucocorticoids as compared to both control groups. Data 2: The effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure on anxiety in children as assessed by themselves and their mothers and fathers were examined. Self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety were filled in by the children (SCAS-D and EWL-KJ). Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires measuring anxiety and emotional stability in their children (HiPIC). With respect to self-reported anxiety as wells as anxiety and emotional stability as assessed by the fathers, significant differences between the three groups were revealed in group comparisons. Moreover, we found a child-father agreement in anxiety ratings. Prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is associated with an altered psychological and biological stress reactivity in response to a psychosocial stress test even in healthy 10-year-old children. Moreover, children who were prenatally exposed to glucocorticoids showed higher anxiety values and were described as less emotionally stable than the control groups.

Handbook of Parenting

Author : Marc H. Bornstein
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This highly anticipated third edition of the Handbook of Parenting brings together an array of field-leading experts who have worked in different ways toward understanding the many diverse aspects of parenting. Contributors to the Handbook look to the most recent research and thinking to shed light on topics every parent, professional, and policymaker wonders about. Parenting is a perennially "hot" topic. After all, everyone who has ever lived has been parented, and the vast majority of people become parents themselves. No wonder bookstores house shelves of "how-to" parenting books, and magazine racks in pharmacies and airports overflow with periodicals that feature parenting advice. However, almost none of these is evidence-based. The Handbook of Parenting is. Period. Each chapter has been written to be read and absorbed in a single sitting, and includes historical considerations of the topic, a discussion of central issues and theory, a review of classical and modern research, and forecasts of future directions of theory and research. Together, the five volumes in the Handbook cover Children and Parenting, the Biology and Ecology of Parenting, Being and Becoming a Parent, Social Conditions and Applied Parenting, and the Practice of Parenting. Volume 4, Social Conditions and Applied Parenting, describes socially defined groups of parents and social conditions that promote variation in parenting. The chapters in Part I, on Social and Cultural Conditions of Parenting, start with a relational developmental systems perspective on parenting and move to considerations of ethnic and minority parenting among Latino and Latin Americans, African Americans, Asians and Asian Americans, Indigenous parents, and immigrant parents. The section concludes with considerations of disabilities, employment, and poverty on parenting. Parents are ordinarily the most consistent and caring people in children’s lives. However, parenting does not always go right or well. Information, education, and support programs can remedy potential ills. The chapters in Part II, on Applied Issues in Parenting, begin with how parenting is measured and follow with examinations of maternal deprivation, attachment, and acceptance/rejection in parenting. Serious challenges to parenting—some common, such as stress and depression, and some less common, such as substance abuse, psychopathology, maltreatment, and incarceration—are addressed as are parenting interventions intended to redress these trials.

Do Chocolate Lovers Have Sweeter Babies

Author : Jena Pincott
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Brain Candy for expectant parents! Pregnancy is an adventure. Lots of books tell you the basics—“the baby is the size of [insert fruit here].” But pregnant science writer Jena Pincott began to wonder just how a baby might tinker with her body—and vice versa—and chased down answers to the questions she wouldn’t ask her doctor, such as: • Does stress sharpen your baby’s mind—or dull it? • Can you predict your baby’s temperament? • Why are babies born in the darker months of the year more likely to grow up to be novelty-loving risk takers? • Are bossy, dominant women more likely to have boys? • How can the cells left behind by your baby affect you years later? This is a different kind of pregnancy book—thoughtful, fun, and filled with information you won’t find anywhere else.

Maternal Cortisol as a Mediator of Prenatal Stress and Infant Regulation Development

Author : Shallimar M. Jones
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Child Development

Author : Laura E. Levine
File Size : 73.79 MB
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With its hallmark active learning approach, the second edition of this topically-organized text is the most interactive introduction to child development today. Dynamic learning activities in each chapter invite students to forge a personal connection to the latest topics shaping the field, including neuroscience, diversity, culture, play, and media. Using innovative pedagogy, Child Development: An Active Learning Approach reveals a wide-range of real-world applications for research and theory, creating an engaging learning experience that equips students with tools they can use long after the class ends.

Pregnancy Related Anxiety

Author : Rachel Dryer
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This book provides a collective examination of the theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives of pregnancy-related anxiety. Pregnancy-related anxiety is a distinct form of anxiety that is experienced by pregnant women and is characterized by pregnancy-specific fears and worries. This form of anxiety has been associated with a range of negative obstetric, neonatal, and maternal outcomes. There has been increased research interest in this form of anxiety, particularly over the last 15 years. The content is organized in three sections. The first section provides a thorough understanding of pregnancy-related anxiety, ranging from its historical development, evidence of its distinctiveness to the antecedents and outcomes of this anxiety for the mother and child. The second section examines key clinical issues around diagnosis and treatment specifically, current diagnosis/screening for this anxiety and approaches for intervention and treatment. The final section considers emerging areas of research such as pertinent issues around culture and acculturation which are key issues in an increasingly multicultural world. Moreover, the effects of pregnancy-related anxiety on the woman’s broader psychosocial functioning are considered with specific chapters on body image and sexual abuse, two key areas of concern. A seminal resource, this book provides a broad examination of the topic from multiple frameworks and perspectives which sets this book apart from other books in print. This book intends to inform and stimulate future research studies, as well as increase awareness and understanding of pregnancy-related anxiety. It is a must-read for researchers, educators, clinicians, and higher education students who care about delivering better support and services to pregnant women, particularly those who are vulnerable and distressed.