Search results for: rare-earth-frontiers

Rare Earth Frontiers

Author : Julie Michelle Klinger
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Owing to their unique magnetic, phosphorescent, and catalytic properties, rare earths are the elements that make possible teverything from the miniaturization of electronics, to the enabling of green energy and medical technologies, to supporting essential telecommunications and defense systems. An iPhone uses eight rare earths for everything from its colored screen, to its speakers, to the miniaturization of the phone?s circuitry. On the periodic table rare earth elements comprise a set of seventeen chemical elements (the fifteen lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium). There would be no Pokmǒn Go without rare earths. Rare Earth Frontiers is a work of human geography. Klinger looks historically and geographically at the ways rare earth elements in three discrete but representative and contested sites are given meaning.

On the Rare Earth Frontier

Author : Julie Michelle Klinger
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Rare earth elements are not rare at all. They are essential for the hardware of contemporary life as we know it, every contemporary industrialized society depends on them, and there are no known alternatives. Yet the geography of their production is strange. In 2009, China accounted for 97% percent of global production, with the majority coming from the Bayan Obo mine operated by the state-owned enterprise Baotou Rare Earth Group on the southern Mongolian steppe. When gradually intensifying export quotas combined with a temporary halt of official exports in 2010, the rest of the world woke up to its near total dependence on China's rare earth monopoly. To address this crisis, a Brazilian firm (Companhia Brasileira de Metalurgia e Mineração) determined to capture rare earths from its niobium mine tailings in the state of Minas Gerais. Betting on the willingness of downstream firms to pay a premium for non-Chinese rare earths and subsidizing the effort with revenues from their niobium sales, they resolved to produce a steady output of rare earth oxides regardless of global market fluctuations. In 2012, CBMM successfully produced high-purity rare earth oxides. In 2013, the US, EU, and Japan won a WTO case against China's rare earth export quotas, restoring some semblance of the global status quo. But the story does not end there. Despite the relative ubiquity of rare earth elements, the abundance of known reserves near existing infrastructure networks, and the dissolution of the 2010 crisis, global prospecting efforts--with the aid of national governments and militaries--have targeted São Gabriel da Cachoeira in the high Amazon and the Western Lunar Highlands on the Moon as the next major points on the global rare earth frontier. This dissertation addresses the question: Given that rare earth elements are both abundant and vital, why is their production driven to so few, seemingly remote places? This question immediately begets three others: through what processes did China's Bayan Obo mine emerge as the single greatest source of rare earth elements worldwide? What provoked changes in China's policy and practice, and how did this precipitate spatial transformations elsewhere? And for what purposes are state, military, and private actors pursuing rare earth mining in São Gabriel da Cachoeira and the Moon? This dissertation proposes that the strange geography of the global rare earth frontier can be explained by world-historical shifts in the global division of toxic labor occurring within a context of state-building and geopolitical contest. It thus advances three claims. First, China's monopoly emerged through a convergence of long-term historical processes shaping northern China in the context of early 20th century imperialism, Cold War politics, and the epochal global economic shifts precipitated by Deng Xiaoping's 1978 reforms and the Reagan/Thatcher revolution. Second, the change in China's political economic priorities from export dominance to conservation has been stimulated by the acute environmental and epidemiological harms generated by rare earth production coupled with China's changing position in the global division of labor. Third, the contemporary geography of the global rare earth frontier is driven by more than geological determinism: although these sites are rich in rare earth elements, they are also historically contested regions and focal points for territorial agendas, for which a nationalist mandate for rare earth extraction provides a convenient pretext. These claims are based in a world-historical analysis of rare earth mining, and draw on political economy, political ecology, transnational theory to examine the convergence of Baotou, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, and the Moon in the production of the global rare earth frontier from the late 19th to early 21st century. I engage scientific literatures, archives, expert interviews and other perspectives across the Anglophone, Sinophone, and Lusophone world which were gathered in China, Brazil, and the United States during 2010 - 2014. The multilingual approach is central to this project. Multiple forms of knowledge are evident in the discourses on the rare earth frontier, and there is a symmetrical inaccessibility to the working rationales across language barriers even as these rationales interpenetrate to shape thought and action across global space. By examining the transnational historical production of the rare earth frontier across these sites, this dissertation refutes three dominant, yet persistent assumptions circulating in contemporary popular, policy, and academic discourse. First, that China's rare earth monopoly emerged because it possesses more rare earth elements than any other country; second, that China and Brazil possess mutually unintelligible histories precluding grounded relational analyses, and; third, that the Moon is a space of exception, beyond the purview of global economic activities and likewise, therefore, of critical concern. The purpose of this work is to demystify the contemporary global rare earth frontier. This work therefore has three aims. The first is to equip the reader with a deeper understanding of rare earth elements--the peculiarities of their geology and production, their political economic significance and their role in geopolitics far beyond what is available in the flurry of reports and opinion pieces generated since 2009. The second is to interrogate the historical origins and ongoing ramifications of the recent 'crisis' not as an exceptional circumstance, but as an episode that can be understood as emerging from and indicative of global development politics. The third and broadest aim is to move beyond entrenched global imaginaries that insist on the mutual unintelligibility of 'China' and 'the West, ' or which seek to explain global changes as a series of unidirectional 'impacts' of one place on another, of 'center' on 'periphery, ' (Hart 2002) as exemplified by much recent (but important) work concerned with China and Latin America (Gallagher 2008, García-Herrero 2007, Jenkins 2008, Rodriguez 2006). Although these sites differ in many important ways, each demonstrates a particular set of frontier attributes drawing especially from their respective histories at the margins of major imperial and territorial powers. These similarities help explain their convergence as points of extraction along the contemporary global rare earth frontier, while their differences account for the temporal and technological relationalities among these three sites in the global division of toxic labor.

New Frontiers in Rare Earth Science and Applications

Author : Xu Guangxian
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New Frontiers in Rare Earth Science and Applications, Volume II documents the proceedings of the International Conference on Rare Earth Development and Applications held in Beijing on September 10-14, 1985. This compilation discusses quenching and sensitization of rare earth luminescence, magnetic properties of rare earth intermetallics, and microcapsulated rare earth-nickel hydride-forming materials. The effect of rare earth on the quality and properties of hot-rolled steel strips and role of yttrium in heavy section spheroidal graphite cast iron are also elaborated. This book likewise covers the application of scandium oxide in an electron emission material and study on the effect of rare earth elements on the yield of wheat. This publication is beneficial to researchers and scientists conducting work in the field of earth science.

Beyond Consolation

Author : Melissa F. Zeiger
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Using as her starting point the story of Orpheus and Eurydice, Melissa F. Zeiger examines modern transformations of poetic elegy, particularly as they reflect historical changes in the politics of gender and sexuality. Although her focus is primarily on nineteenth- and twentieth-century poetry, the scope of her investigation is grand: from John Milton's "Lycidas" to very recently written AIDS and breast cancer elegies. Milton epitomized the traditional use of the Orpheus myth as an illustration of the female threat to masculine poetic prowess, focused on the beleaguered Orpheus. Zeiger documents the gradual inclusion of Eurydice, from the elegies of Algernon Charles Swinburne through the work of Thomas Hardy and John Berryman, re-examining the role of Eurydice, and the feminine more generally, in poetic production. Zeiger then considers women poets who challenge the assumptions of elegies written by men, sometimes identifying themselves with Eurydice. Among these poets are H.D., Edna St. Vincent Millay, Anne Sexton, and Elizabeth Bishop. Zeiger concludes with a discussion of elegies for victims of current plagues, explaining how poets mourning those lost to AIDS and breast cancer rewrite elegy in ways less repressive, sacrificial, or punitive than those of the Orphean tradition. Among the poets discussed are Essex Hemphill, Thom Gunn, Mark Doty, Audre Lorde, Adrienne Rich, and Marilyn Hacker.

Rare Earths

Author : T. K. S. Murthy
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Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths

Author : Karl A. Gschneidner (Jr.)
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Rare Earth Minerals and Minerals for Electronic Uses

Author : Boonsom Siribumrungsukha
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Rare earth oxides, rare earth compounds and rare earth elements find a wide range of applications in metals, glasses, ceramics and electronics. Demands for high-purity separated rare earth oxides and metals with a purity of up to 99.999% is growing. The present conference was designed to discuss the needs of the materials science community and to present advances in the field.

Ulysses

Author : James Joyce
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Frontiers in Materials Science

Author : Lawrence Eugene Murr
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INIS Atomindex

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Frontiers in Geochemistry

Author : Konrad Bates Krauskopf
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EPSL Frontiers

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Frontiers in Solidification Science

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Frontiers of Earth Sciences to the Year 2000

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Industrial Mineralogy

Author : Luke L. Y. Chang
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This book bridges the gap between the basics of mineralogy and the applications of mineral-based materials. Over forty minerals and mineral groups are correlated among basic mineralogical properties, geological occurrence, distribution of deposits, industrial processes, and uses so that each industrial mineral is fully defined. For professionals in mineral industries as a valuable reference for research and development.

Energy new Frontiers

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Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Rare Earths Spectroscopy Changchun P R China September 9 14 1989

Author : Qiang Su
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Frontiers in Laser Spectroscopy

Author : Theo W. Hänsch
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The field of general laser spectroscopy is being revolutionized by often dramatic advances in the technology of tunable sources, including the important trend towards miniaturization and towards reliable solid-state devices. The range of laser spectroscopy is expanding to include many more interdisciplinary applications, ranging from surface science to astrophysics. Laser spectroscopy can reveal new phenomena such as parity violation. It can rival and complement experiments with giant particle accelerators. The field of quantum optics has seen very significant advances in the state of the art. It has become possible to experiment with just a few quanta of the electromagnetic field, and fascinating new ideas, such as quantum-nondemolition measurements of photon numbers, have emerged. Laser spectroscopy is even beginning to shed light on the still elusive relationship between quantum mechanics and classical deterministic chaos.This Enrico Fermi school, in keeping with the tradition of previous schools on this subject, covers the important developments made in the field of spectroscopy at a time when advances in the state-of-the-art had reached a critical point.

Frontiers of Engineering in Health Care

Author : IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
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Aquarium Frontiers

Author :
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