Search results for: reducing-particulate-emissions-in-gasoline-engines

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

Author : Thorsten Boger
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This book encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards -- reviewing principles and applications of these techniques.

Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines

Author : Thorsten Boger
File Size : 66.60 MB
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For years, diesel engines have been the focus of particulate matter emission reductions. Now, however, modern diesel engines emit less particles than a comparable gasoline engine. This transformation necessitates an introduction of particulate reduction strategies for the gasoline-powered vehicle. Many strategies can be leveraged from diesel engines, but new combustion and engine control technologies will be needed to meet the latest gasoline regulations across the globe. Particulate reduction is a critical health concern in addition to the regulatory requirements. This is a vital issue with real-world implications. Reducing Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Engines encompasses the current strategies and technologies used to reduce particulates to meet regulatory requirements and curtail health hazards - reviewing principles and applications of these techniques. Highlights and features in the book include: Gasoline particulate filter design, function and applications Coated and uncoated three way catalyst design and integration Measurement of gasoline particulate matter emission, both laboratory and PEMS The goal is to provide a comprehensive assessment of gasoline particulate emission control to meet regulatory and health requirements - appealing to calibration, development and testing engineers alike.

Nanoparticle Emissions From Combustion Engines

Author : Jerzy Merkisz
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This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected methods aimed at the reduction of particulate emissions from automobiles.

Engine Exhaust Particulates

Author : Avinash Kumar Agarwal
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This book provides a comparative analysis of both diesel and gasoline engine particulates, and also of the emissions resulting from the use of alternative fuels. Written by respected experts, it offers comprehensive insights into motor vehicle particulates, their formation, composition, location, measurement, characterisation and toxicology. It also addresses exhaust-gas treatment and legal, measurement-related and technological advancements concerning emissions. The book will serve as a valuable resource for academic researchers and professional automotive engineers alike.

Ash Impacts on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance and Service Life

Author : Nicholas C. Custer
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New regulations in the United States and Europe, designed to address climate change concerns by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, are causing increased use of gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines in light-duty vehicles (LDV). Separate new regulations that aim to reduce particulate emissions to address air pollution concerns are taking effect concurrent with greenhouse gas limitations in both jurisdictions. GDI engines are proven to create more particulate emissions than previously utilized port-injection technology. Increasing particulate emissions rates combined with falling regulatory particulate emissions limits requires new strategies to reduce these emissions from gasoline powered LDVs. Particulate filters have been successfully implemented to reduce particulate emissions from diesel engine exhaust for over a decade. Diesel particulate filters have a demonstrated filtration efficiency of 95% or greater and have reduced diesel particulate mass (PM) emissions by one to two orders of magnitude. GDI engines require no more than one order of magnitude reduction in particulate emissions to meet new regulations. Existing particulate filter technology in use in diesel vehicles is capable of reducing GDI engine emissions to new regulatory levels; however, it is proposed that these reduction may be achievable through means other than gasoline particulate filters (GPF). A GPF will create an additional back-pressure in the engine exhaust system that will reduce engine power and efficiency. This backpressure will increase as PM is trapped in the filter and decrease as combustible PM removed. A buildup of incombustible ash present in engine-out PM will increase the baseline backpressure of the filter during the course of its service life. It is important to understand the impact of ash on the filter pressure drop performance before implementing GPF to meet new emissions regulations. This study builds on existing diesel particulate filter technology and demonstrates through experimental results the mechanisms by which ash increases GPF pressure drop. Ash deposits are also shown to increase the light-off temperature of three-way catalyst coatings in GPF.

Measures to Reduce Particulate Emissions from Gasoline DI Engines

Author : Paul Whitaker
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Reduced Emissions and Fuel Consumption in Automobile Engines

Author : Fred Schäfer
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Over the last several years, there has been much discussion on the interrelation of CO2 emissions with the global warming phenomenon. This in turn has increased pressure to develop and produce more fuel efficient engines and vehicles. This is the central topic of this book. It covers the underlying processes which cause pollutant emissions and the possibilities of reducing them, as well as the fuel consumption of gasoline and diesel engines, including direct injection diesel engines. As well as the engine-related causes of pollution, which is found in the raw exhaust, there is also a description of systems and methods for exhaust post treatment. The significant influence of fuels and lubricants (both conventional and alternative fuels) on emission behavior is also covered. In addition to the conventional gasoline and diesel engines, lean-burn and direct injection gasoline engines and two-stroke gasoline and diesel engines are included. The potential for reducing fuel consumption and pollution is described as well as the related reduction of CO2 emissions. Finally, a detailed summary of the most important laws and regulations pertaining to pollutant emissions and consumption limits is presented. This book is intended for practising engineers involved in research and applied sciences as well as for interested engineering students.

Experimental Investigations on Particle Number Emissions from GDI Engines

Author : Markus Bertsch
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This thesis discusses experimental investigations to reduce particle number emissions from gasoline engines with direct injection. Measures on a single cylinder research engine with combined usage of a particle number measurement system, a particle size distribution measurement system as well as optical diagnostics and thermodynamic analysis enable an in-depth assessment of particle formation and oxidation. Therefore, numerous optical diagnostic techniques for spray visualisation (Mie-scattering, High-Speed PIV) and soot detection (High-Speed-Imaging, Fiber optical diagnostics) are deployed. Two injectors with different hydraulic flows but identical spray-targeting are characterised and compared by measurements in a pressurised chamber. The operation at higher engine load and low engine speed is in the focus of the experimental work at the engine test bench. Thereby, the low flow velocities in the combustion chamber, caused by the low engine speed, as well as the large amount of fuel injected are major challenges for the mixture formation process. A substantial part of the thesis thus focusses on the detailed analysis of the mixture formation process, which is consisting of fuel injection, interaction of the in-cylinder charge motion with the fuel injected and the fuel properties. Measures for the optimisation of the mixture formation process and the minimisation of the particle number emissions are analysed and evaluated. The charge motion is manipulated by the impression of a directed flow, the variation of the valve timings and valve open curve. The injection process is influenced by a reduction of the hydraulic flow of the injector and an increase of the injection pressure up to 50 MPa. The investigations show fundamental effects and potentials of different variation parameters concerning their emissions reduction potential at the exemplary operation at high engine load. Due to the simultaneous analysis of the in-cylinder charge motion and a thermodynamic analysis, the results can be transferred to different engines.

Particulate Emissions from Motor Vehicles

Author : Peter Eastwood
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All tailpipes emit a wide variety of liquid- and solid-phase particles. They are omnipresent; but being small and in trace quantities, they are usually emitted unseen - we become aware of them only through the visible testimony of smoke. Particulate emissions engender serious ramifications for public health, amenity and the wider environment. Historically it is diesel engines that have been singled out for stricture, but today this makes less sense, as their particulate emissions are now approaching parity with gasoline engines. For 30 years, the legal requirement has been solely to reduce the total mass of particles emitted, but mass as a toxological indicator is being increasingly questioned, with other metrics proposed, such as: particle size, number and composition. This shift of perspective has far-reaching repercussions for the automotive industry, because new ways of characterising and controlling emissions of particulate will have to be sought. This book aims to distil all the available informatiion into a single treatise.

Evaluation of Mobile Source Emissions and Trends

Author : Timothy Ryan Dallmann
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Mobile sources contribute significantly to air pollution problems. Relevant pollutants include numerous gaseous and particle-phase species that can affect human health, ecosystems, and climate. Accurate inventories of emissions from these sources are needed to help understand possible adverse impacts, and to develop effective air quality management strategies. Unfortunately large uncertainties persist in the understanding of mobile source emissions, and how these emissions are changing over time. There are more than two hundred million motor vehicles operating in the United States alone, and measurements of emissions from these sources are sparse. Pollutant emission factor distributions are becoming increasingly skewed, and this continually increases the needed vehicle sample size in studies that seek to quantify fleet-average vehicle emission rates. This dissertation aims to evaluate long-term trends in mobile source emissions in the United States, and to make detailed measurements of emissions from present-day fleets of on-road vehicles operating in California. Novel features of this work include studies of the in-use effectiveness of modern control technologies used to reduce diesel engine emissions, and application of advanced instrumentation to measure emissions from large numbers of on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution and with a high level of chemical and physical detail. Long-term trends in mobile source emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the United States were investigated through development of a fuel-based emission inventory. Annual emissions from on- and off-road gasoline and diesel engines were quantified for the years 1996-2006. Diesel engines were found to be the dominant mobile source of NOx and PM2.5, and on-road diesel vehicles were identified as the single largest anthropogenic source of NOx emissions in the United States as of 2005. The relative importance of diesel engines as a source of NOx grew over the ten-year time period considered here, while emissions from gasoline engines declined due to increased effectiveness and use of three-way catalytic converters. A comparison with national emission inventory estimates for 2005 found substantial differences in source contributions to overall mobile source emissions, with larger contributions from on-road diesel engines indicated in this study. The importance of diesel engines as a source of exhaust particulate matter emissions has led to the recent introduction of advanced emission control technologies in the United States, such as diesel particle filters (DPF), which have been required since 2007 for all new on-road heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines. In addition to national requirements for the use of such control devices on new engines, California has mandated accelerated clean-up of statewide emissions from older in-use diesel engines. This goal is to be achieved through filter retrofit and truck/engine replacement programs. This dissertation uses measurements of emissions from in-use HD diesel trucks at the Port of Oakland to evaluate the impacts of a DPF retrofit and truck replacement program. A plume capture method was developed to quantify black carbon (BC) and NOx emission factors for individual trucks and to characterize emission factor distributions. A comparison of emissions measured before and after the implementation of the truck retrofit/replacement rule shows a 54 " 11% reduction in the fleet-average BC emission factor, accompanied by a shift to a more highly skewed emission factor distribution. Although only particulate matter mass reductions were required in the first phase of the program, a 41 " 5% reduction in the fleet-average NOx emission factor was observed. These results provide an in-use/real-world assessment of the impact of DPF emission control systems, and a preview of emissions changes that may be expected from the extension of similar control programs to the entire HD truck fleet in California beginning in 2014. The plume capture method was further applied to measure emissions from a more diverse population of trucks observed at the Caldecott tunnel in summer 2010. Emissions from hundreds of individual trucks were measured, and emission factor distributions were characterized for nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, BC, as well as optical properties of the emitted particles. Emission factor distributions for all species were skewed, with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, half of the total measured NO2 and BC were produced by only 10% of the total measurements. Total NOx and formaldehyde showed less skewed emission factor distributions compared to CO and BC. Emission factors for NO2 were found to be anti-correlated with all other pollutants considered here. Also, the fleet-average NO2 emission factor increased 34 " 18% relative to the corresponding value measured at the same location in 2006. These findings confirm that the use of catalyzed DPF systems is leading to increased primary NO2 emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 " 0.03. This value of aerosol SSA is very low compared to typical values (0.90-0.99) observed in ambient air studies. It is indicative of a strongly light-absorbing aerosol, due to the high BC emissions that are a characteristic feature of diesel exhaust PM emissions. Measurements at the Caldecott tunnel also included efforts to quantify light-duty (LD) gasoline vehicle emission factors, and further investigation of the relative contributions of on-road gasoline and diesel engines to air pollutant emissions. Measurements of CO, NOx, PM2.5, BC, and organic aerosol (OA) were made in a tunnel traffic bore where LD vehicles account for>99% of total traffic. Measured pollutant concentrations were apportioned between LD gasoline vehicles and diesel trucks, and fleet-average emission factors were quantified for LD gasoline vehicles using a carbon balance method. Diesel trucks contributed 18 " 3, 22 " 5, 44 " 8% of measured NOx, OA, and BC concentrations, respectively, despite accounting for

Update on the Feasibility of Reducing Oxides of Nitrogen and Particulate Matter Emissions from Heavy duty Vehicles

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Particle Matter Emission Control and Related Issues for Diesel Engines

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Reduction of Particulate Emissions in Turbine Engines Using the 100 Additive

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The U.S. military spends approximately about $3.5 billion (2003 dollars) per year for aviation fuel. This corresponds to 3 to 4 billion gallons per year (~10% of total U.S. aviation fuel use). The fleet average emission index for particulate matter (PM) has been estimated to be approximately 0.04 g/kg of fuel burned. The total amount of particulate emissions for aircraft in the United States is estimated at 3 million kg per year. Although there is some uncertainty in these estimates, they are consistent with the magnitude being used to estimate global emissions from aircraft (Niedzwiecki, 1998). Airborne particles pose both health and environmental risks. The health effects of particulate matter are related to its ability to penetrate the respiratory system. Particulate matter 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM2.5) can enter the lungs and end up in lung capillaries and air sacs (alveoli), causing a variety of respiratory problems. Particulate emissions contribute to environmental problems such as visibility impairment (haze) and may contribute to increased signature (infrared emissions) from military aircraft, thus increasing aircraft detectability/vulnerability in enemy territory. Gas turbine engines and ground support equipment are major local sources of PM2.5 particles. The health and environmental concerns from particulate emissions motivated this work to evaluate the use of the +100 (BetzDearborn SpecAid 8Q462) additive in jet fuel as a means to reduce the particulate emissions from military gas turbine engines. The +100 additive was developed to increase the thermal stability of JP-8 fuel in order to reduce carbon buildup in fuel system components and injection nozzles. Mostly military aircraft (~3,000) are currently using the +100 additive; however, the additive is also suitable for commercial aircraft due to the similarities of JP-8 and Jet A.

Tracing Fuel Component Carbon in the Emissions from Diesel Engines

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The addition of oxygenates to diesel fuel can reduce particulate emissions, but the underlying chemical pathways for the reductions are not well understood. While measurements of particulate matter (PM), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO) are routine, determining the contribution of carbon atoms in the original fuel molecules to the formation of these undesired exhaust emissions has proven difficult. Renewable bio-derived fuels (ethanol or bio-diesel) containing a universal distribution of contemporary carbon are easily traced by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). These measurements provide general information about the emissions of bio-derived fuels. Another approach exploits synthetic organic chemistry to place 14C atoms in a specific bond position in a specific fuel molecule. The highly labeled fuel molecule is then diluted in 14C-free petroleum-derived stock to make a contemporary petroleum fuel suitable for tracing. The specific 14C atoms are then traced through the combustion event to determine whether they reside in PM, HC, CO, CO2, or other emission products. This knowledge of how specific molecular structures produce certain emissions can be used to refine chemical-kinetic combustion models and to optimize fuel composition to reduce undesired emissions. Due to the high sensitivity of the technique and the lack of appreciable 14C in fossil fuels, fuels for AMS experiments can be labeled with modern levels of 14C and still produce a strong signal. Since the fuel is not radioactive, emission tests can be conducted in any conventional engine lab, dynamometer facility, or on the open road.

Particulate Matter Emissions from a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Under Cold fast idle Conditions for Ethanol gasoline Blends

Author : Iason Dimou
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In an effort to build internal combustion engines with both reduced brake-specific fuel consumption and better emission control, engineers developed the Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) engine. DISI engines combine the specific higher output of the spark ignition engine, with the better efficiency of the compression ignition engine at part load. Despite their benefits, DISI engines still suffer from high hydrocarbon, NO2 and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Until recently, PM emissions have received relatively little attention, despite their severe effects on human health, related mostly to their size. Previous research indicates that almost 80% of the PM is emitted during the first few minutes of the engine's operation (cold-start-fast-idling period). A proposed solution for PM emission reduction is the use of fuel blends with ethanol. The present research experimentally measures the effect of ethanol content in fuel on PM formation in the combustion chamber of a DISI engine during the cold-start period. A novel sampling system has been designed and combined with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) system, in order to measure the particulate matter number (PN) concentration 15 cm downstream from the exhaust valves of a DISI engine, for a temperature range between 0 and 40"C, under low load operation. Seven gasohol fuels have been tested with the ethanol content varying from 0% (EO) up to 85% (E85). For E10 to E85, PN modestly increases when the engine coolant temperature (ECT) is lowered. The PN distributions, however, are insensitive to the ethanol content of the fuel. The total PN for EQ is substantially higher than for the gasohol fuels, at ECT below 20'C. However, for ECT higher than 20'C, the total PN values (obtained from integrating the PN distribution from 15 to 350 nm) are approximately the same for all fuels. This sharp change in PN from EQ to E10 is confirmed by running the tests with E2.5 and E5; the midpoint of the transition occurs at approximately E5. Because the fuels' evaporating properties do not change substantially from EQ to E10, the significant change in PN is attributed to the particulate matter formation chemistry.

Diesel Engine

Author : Saiful Bari
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Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines. Their combustion and exhaust emissions characteristics are described in this book. Reliable early detection of malfunction and failure of any parts in diesel engines can save the engine from failing completely and save high repair cost. Tools are discussed in this book to detect common failure modes of diesel engine that can detect early signs of failure.

Light duty Diesel Vehicles 1982 Or Later Models Regulatory Analysis of Particulate Regulations

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Diesel Engine Experiments with Oxygen Enrichment Water Addition and Lower grade Fuel

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The concept of oxygen enriched air applied to reciprocating engines is getting renewed attention in the context of the progress made in the enrichment methods and the tougher emissions regulations imposed on diesel and gasoline engines. An experimental project was completed in which a direct injection diesel engine was tested with intake oxygen levels of 21% -- 35%. Since an earlier study indicated that it is necessary to use a cheaper fuel to make the concept economically attractive, a less refined fuel was included in the test series. Since a major objection to the use of oxygen enriched combustion air had been the increase in NO(subscript x) emissions, a method must be found to reduce NO(subscript x). Introduction of water into the engine combustion process was included in the tests for this purpose. Fuel emulsification with water was the means used here even though other methods could also be used. The teat data indicated a large increase in engine power density, slight improvement in thermal efficiency, significant reductions in smoke and particulate emissions and NO(subscript x) emissions controllable with the addition of water. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Advanced Ceramic Wall Flow Filter for Reduction of Particulate Number Emission of Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

Author : Yoshitaka Ito
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Coal fueled Diesel Emissions Control Technology Development

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The objective of this project is to develop an emissions control system for a GE locomotive powered by a Coal Water Slurry (CWS) fuel diesel engine. The development effort is directed toward reducing particulate matter, SO2 and NO(subscript x) emissions from the engine exhaust gas at 700--800F and 1-2 psig. The commercial system should be economically attractive while subject to limited space constraints. After testing various alternatives, a system composed of a barrier filter with sorbent injection ups was selected for controlling particulates, SO2 and NO(subscript x) emissions. In bench scale and 500 acfm slip s tests, removal efficiencies greater than 90% for SO2 and 85% for NO(subscript x) were achieved. Particulate emissions from the barrier filter are within NSPS limits.