Search Results for "risk-acceptability-according-to-the-social-sciences-social-research"

Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences

Risk Acceptability According to the Social Sciences

  • Author: Mary Douglas
  • Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation
  • ISBN: 9780871542113
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 115
  • View: 1728
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Every day, it seems, we become aware of some new technological or chemical hazard. Yet it is also possible that this very awareness is new, or at least newly heightened. Why are certain kinds of risks suddenly so salient? Are public perceptions of risk simply the sum of individual reactions to individual events, or do social and cultural influences play a role in shaping our definitions of safety, acceptable risk, and danger? Prompted by public outcries and by the confusion and uncertainty surrounding risk management policy, social scientists have begun to address themselves to the issue of risk perception. But as anthropologist Mary Douglas points out, they have been singularly reluctant to examine the cultural bases of risk perception, preferring to concentrate on the individual perceiver making individual choices. This approach leaves unexamined a number of crucial social factors—our concepts of what is “natural” or “artificial,” for example; our beliefs about fairness, and our moral judgements about the kind of society in which we want to live. This provocative and path-breaking report seeks to open a sociological approach to risk perception that has so far been systematically neglected. Describing first some exceptions to the general neglect of culture, Douglas builds on these clues and on her own broad anthropological perspective to make a compelling case for focusing on social factors in risk perception. She offers a challenge and a promising new agenda to all who study perceptions of risk and, by extension, to those who study human cognition and choice as well. "An altogether brilliant piece of writing—far-reaching and a joy to read." —Amartya Sen, Oxford University A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Social Science Frontiers Series

Communicating Risks to the Public

Communicating Risks to the Public

International Perspectives

  • Author: R.E Kasperson,P.J. Stallen
  • Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
  • ISBN: 9400919522
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Page: 482
  • View: 4532
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Risk communication: the evolution of attempts Risk communication is at once a very new and a very old field of interest. Risk analysis, as Krimsky and Plough (1988:2) point out, dates back at least to the Babylonians in 3200 BC. Cultures have traditionally utilized a host of mecha nisms for anticipating, responding to, and communicating about hazards - as in food avoidance, taboos, stigma of persons and places, myths, migration, etc. Throughout history, trade between places has necessitated labelling of containers to indicate their contents. Seals at sites of the ninth century BC Harappan civilization of South Asia record the owner and/or contents of the containers (Hadden, 1986:3). The Pure Food and Drug Act, the first labelling law with national scope in the United States, was passed in 1906. Common law covering the workplace in a number of countries has traditionally required that employers notify workers about significant dangers that they encounter on the job, an obligation formally extended to chronic hazards in the OSHA's Hazard Communication regulation of 1983 in the United States. In this sense, risk communication is probably the oldest way of risk manage ment. However, it is only until recently that risk communication has attracted the attention of regulators as an explicit alternative to the by now more common and formal approaches of standard setting, insuring etc. (Baram, 1982).

The Drama of the Commons

The Drama of the Commons

  • Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • ISBN: 9780309169981
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 533
  • View: 8037
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The "tragedy of the commons" is a central concept in human ecology and the study of the environment. It has had tremendous value for stimulating research, but it only describes the reality of human-environment interactions in special situations. Research over the past thirty years has helped clarify how human motivations, rules governing access to resources, the structure of social organizations, and the resource systems themselves interact to determine whether or not the many dramas of the commons end happily. In this book, leaders in the field review the evidence from several disciplines and many lines of research and present a state-of-the-art assessment. They summarize lessons learned and identify the major challenges facing any system of governance for resource management. They also highlight the major challenges for the next decade: making knowledge development more systematic; understanding institutions dynamically; considering a broader range of resources (such as global and technological commons); and taking into account the effects of social and historical context. This book will be a valuable and accessible introduction to the field for students and a resource for advanced researchers.

Public Understanding of Science

Public Understanding of Science

  • Author: N.A
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 6931
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Social impact analysis

Social impact analysis

an applied anthropology manual

  • Author: Laurence Goldman
  • Publisher: Berg Publishers
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Social Science
  • Page: 347
  • View: 2382
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This book addresses the nature, purpose and processes associated with social impact analysis. Because resource development projects occur in human as well as ecological environments, stakeholders - landowners, companies and governments - are compelled to ensure that the benefits of any project are maximized while the negative risks are minimized. Achieving such objectives means implementing programs which monitor and evaluate the ongoing effects of a project on the social and cultural lives of the impacted populace. This book aims to provide a teaching and training resource for students, social scientists (anthropologists, sociologists, human geographers, environmentalists, engineers, etc.) and indigenous personnel and operators who are tasked with community affairs programs in those countries where resource development projects are implemented. The constituent chapters provide how-to guides and frameworks that are generously illustrated with case studies drawn variously from North America and the Asia-Pacific region. Topics addressed include Legal Frameworks and Compliance Procedures, Social Mapping, Environmental Reports, Social and Economic Impact Studies, Social Monitoring Techniques, Project Development, Statistical Packages and Report Production.This book is unique in so far as it seeks to prioritize application over theory. Moreover, it is the first training resource that is sensitive to non-western indigenes' need to assimilate and apply skills engendered by Western countries.

Human Disposition Toward Hazards

Human Disposition Toward Hazards

Testing the Environmental Appraisal Inventory

  • Author: Cynthia Fridgen
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Environmental protection
  • Page: 200
  • View: 7538
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Federal and State Regulations of Food Product Safety and Quality

Federal and State Regulations of Food Product Safety and Quality

A Selected, Partially Annotated Bibliography

  • Author: Julie A. Caswell
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Agricultural processing
  • Page: 42
  • View: 4484
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The Reader's Adviser

The Reader's Adviser

A Layman's Guide to Literature

  • Author: Barbara Ann Chernow,Paul T. Durbin,George A. Vallasi,Maurice Charney,Fred Kaplan,Paula T. Kaufman
  • Publisher: Rr Bowker Llc
  • ISBN: 9780835221498
  • Category: Best books
  • Page: 725
  • View: 7610
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Includes coverage of General Science; History of Science, Technology, & Medicine; Philosophy of Science & Pseudoscience; Mathematics; Statistics & Probability; Information & Communication Science; Earth & Space Sciences; Physics; Chemistry; Biology; Ecology & Environmental Science; Genetics; Medicine; Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry; Engineering & Technology; Energy; Ethics of Science, Technology, & Medicine. See main listing under Bibliography for more information.

Publications

Publications

  • Author: University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Social Sciences
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2426
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The Healing Bond

The Healing Bond

The Patient-practitioner Relationship and Therapeutic Responsibility

  • Author: Susan Budd,Ursula Sharma
  • Publisher: Psychology Press
  • ISBN: 9780415090520
  • Category: Health & Fitness
  • Page: 239
  • View: 5840
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These questions are investigated from a variety of professional and academic perspectives, covering both 'orthodox' and 'non-orthodox' forms of healing practice. The contributors look at health care as a whole and deal with specific areas of health such as midwifery, psychoanalysis, naturopathy, the relations between medicine and the state, and the appeal of 'quacks'. They also confront particular issues of current concern, including medical litigation, codes of ethics for complementary practitioners, and cooperation between orthodox and complementary medicine.