Search results for: roman-paganism

Sunday in Roman Paganism

Author : Robert Leo Odom
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With most of the Christian world honoring Sunday as their day of worship, the question of its origin becomes important. Over the past hundred years much has been written about the use of the week among ancient pagan peoples. However, little has been done to compile such historical material into an easily accessible book for the general public. Robert Leo Odom for years has conducted special research on the Sabbath-Sunday question. In Sunday in Roman Paganism, he leads readers through the pages of history showing the rise of the planetary week and its day of the Sun in the heathenism of the Roman world during the early centuries of the Christian era. This book is not a capsulated history of Sunday as a church festival, but rather the history of the planetary week as it was known and used in the pagan world, and to show whether or not its day of the Sun was then regarded by pagans as being sacred to their Sun-god.

Paganism in the Roman Empire

Author : Ramsay MacMullen
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"MacMullen...has published several books in recent years which establish him, rightfully, as a leading social historian of the Roman Empire. The current volume exhibits many of the characteristics of its predecessors: the presentation of novel, revisionist points of view...; discrete set pieces of trenchant argument which do not necessarily conform to the boundaries of traditional history; and an impressive, authoritative, and up-to-date documentation, especially rich in primary sources...A stimulating and provocative discourse on Roman paganism as a phenomenon worthy of synthetic investigation in its own right and as the fundamental context for the rise of Christianity.”--Richard Brilliant, History "MacMullen’s latest work represents many features of paganism in its social context more vividly and clearly than ever before.”--Fergus Millar, American Historical Review "The major cults...are examined from a social and cultural perspective and with the aid of many recently published specialized studies...Students of the Roman Empire...should read this book.”--Robert J, Penella, Classical World "A distinguished book with much exact observation...An indispensable mine of erudition on a grand theme.” Henry Chadwick, Times Literary Supplement Ramsay MacMullen is Dunham Professor of History and Classics at Yale University and the author of Roman Government’s Response to Crisis, A.D. 235-337 and Roman Social Relations, 50 B.C. to A.D. 284

Schola Aetii Reformed Roman Paganism

Author : Gaius Florius Aetius
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Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism

Author : Franz Cumont
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This study by the great Belgian historian Franz Cumont describes one aspect of the cultural meeting of east and west in the early Roman empire. It describes the great pagan religions of the orient, and tells how their religious thought and ceremonies permeated, altered, and revivified Roman paganism. It provides a coverage of all the more important eastern religions of the time, from their first appearance in Rome, 204 B.C., when the great Mother of the Gods was first imported from Syria: The ecstatic cults of Phrygia and Syria; the worship of Cybele, the Magna Mater, Attis, Adonis; their orgies and mutilatory rites. The mysteries of Egypt; the worship of Serapis, Isis, Osiris, their closely hidden secret rites, redemption ceremonies. The dualism of Persia; the elevation of cosmic evil, to a full and equal partnership with the deity; the mysteries of Mithra. The worship of Hermes Trismegistos, and the documents ascribed to him; Sabazios, Ishtar, Astarte. The magic, thaumaturgy, judicial astrology of the ancient near east. The emotional and intellectual impact of the great civilized traditions of Egypt and Babylonia upon still barbarian Europe. Cumont's 'Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism' is the best general picture, on an intermediate level, of this important moment in cultural history. It is also of great value in analyzing an era which shared certain cultural problems with our own time.

The Interpretation of the Old Testament in Greco Roman Paganism

Author : John Granger Cook
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According to the available evidence not many pagans knew the Greek Bible (Septuagint) before the advent of Christianity. Those pagans who later became aware of Christian texts were among the first, according to the surviving data, to seriously explore the Septuagint. They found the Bible to be difficult reading. The pagans who reacted to biblical texts include Celsus (II C.E.), Porphyry (III C.E.), and Julian the Apostate (IV C.E.). These authors thought that if they could refute one of the primary foundations of Christianity, namely its use or interpretation of the Septuagint, then the new religion would perhaps crumble. John Granger Cook analyzes these pagans' voice and elaborates on its importance, since it shows how Septuagint texts appeared in the eyes of Greco-Roman intellectuals. Theirs was not an abstract interest, however, because they knew that Christianity posed a grave danger to some of their dearest beliefs, self-understanding, and way of life.

After Life in Roman Paganism

Author : Franz Valery Marie Cumont
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According to a rite borrowed by the Romans from the Etruscans, a pit was dug in the centre of the city, when the latter's foundations were laid, in order to make the Inferi communicate with the upper world. First fruits and other gifts were thrown into the pit, as well as a clod of the earth of the settlers' native country. Thus they restored their broken contact with the Manes of their ancestors. -from "The Nether World" Franz Cumont was one of the preeminent classical scholars of his day, and his investigations into the history of religion had a dramatic impact upon the fields of archaeology, comparative mythology, and anthropology. This 1922 volume collects the influential series of lectures he delivered at Yale University highlighting one aspect of his groundbreaking studies of Roman paganism: the Romans' view of the afterlife. Cumont discusses the Romans' attitudes about the importance of the tomb, the distinctions they made between a "shade" and a "soul," the rules of admittance to Hades and the Elysian Fields, the supernatural journeys of the dead, the ancient roots of the Romans' beliefs and practices, and much more. With solid research behind him, Cumont's reassuring erudition righted inaccuracies about Roman religion that had lingered, particularly in the writings of Christian apologists, and this continues to be a fundamental work of Roman paganism today. Belgian archaeologist and historian FRANZ-VALERY-MARIE CUMONT (1869-1947) wrote numerous books, among them Texts and Illustrated Monuments Relating to the Mysteries of Mithra (1900), considered his masterwork.

The Last Days of Greco Roman Paganism

Author : Johannes Geffcken
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The Interpretation of the New Testament in Greco Roman Paganism

Author : John Granger Cook
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Recent New Testament scholarship has raised the question of the effect of the New Testament on readers including an 'implied' reader. How did the New Testament affect ancient readers who rejected it? John Granger Cook contributes to the ongoing investigation of the relationship between Christianity and Greco-Roman antiquity. He addresses the response to the New Testament in the following authors: Celsus, Porphyry, the anonymous philosopher of Macarius Magnes, Hierocles, and Julian the Apostate. These authors are readers who found the New Testament to be a rejection of values they took to be fundamental in Greco-Roman culture. The works of these pagans exist in fragments preserved by Christian apologists who attempted to respond to their critique of Christian texts and practices. The doctrine of the resurrection, for example, contradicts the belief in reincarnation and an immortal bodiless soul. Apocalyptic texts rejected the eternity of the universe. Jesus was considered to be inferior to the heroes of Hellenistic culture such as Apollonius of Tyana who conducted themselves as philosophers should. Pagans were disturbed by the ability of Christian language to persuade people to join the movement. Both pagans and Christians made use of apologetic techniques designed to attract people to their respective positions. Rhetoric and literary criticism were tools that both used in their ongoing arguments. John Granger Cook makes use of these tools to analyze the texts of the pagan readers of the New Testament.

Moses in Greco Roman Paganism

Author : John G. Gager
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After Life in Roman Paganism

Author : Franz Cumont
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At least we can distinguish the principal phases of the religious movement which caused imperial society to pass from incredulity to certain forms of belief in immortality, forms at first somewhat crude but afterwards loftier, and we can see where the movement led. The change was a capital one and transformed for the ancients the whole conception of life. The axis about which morality revolved had to be shifted when ethics no long sought, as in earlier Greek philosophy, to realise the sovereign good on this earth but looked for it after death. Ðfrom the Introduction Contents Preface Historical Introduction 1. After Life in the Tomb 2. The Nether World 3. Celestial Immortality 4. The Winning of Immortality 5. Untimely Death 6. The Journey to the Beyond 7. The Sufferings of Hell and Metempsychosis 8. The Felicity of the Blessed

Paganism to Christianity in the Roman Empire

Author : Walter Woodburn Hyde
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Christian and Pagan in the Roman Empire

Author : Tertullian
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In this volume, Robert D. Sider undertakes a judicious pruning of the original texts and brings a fresh accessibility to the important writings of Tertullian.

Time in Roman Religion

Author : Gary Forsythe
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Religion is a major subfield of ancient history and classical studies, and Roman religion in particular is usually studied today by experts in two rather distinct halves: the religion of the Roman Republic, covering the fifth through first centuries B.C.; and the religious diversity of the Roman Empire, spanning the first four centuries of our era. In Time in Roman Religion, author Gary Forsythe examines both the religious history of the Republic and the religious history of the Empire. These six studies are unified by the important role played by various concepts of time in Roman religious thought and practice. Previous modern studies of early Roman religion in Republican times have discussed how the placement of religious ceremonies in the calendar was determined by their relevance to agricultural or military patterns of early Roman life, but modern scholars have failed to recognize that many aspects of Roman religious thought and behavior in later times were also preconditioned or even substantially influenced by concepts of time basic to earlier Roman religious history. This book is not a comprehensive survey of all major aspects of Roman religious history spanning one thousand years. Rather, it is a collection of six studies that are bound together by a single analytical theme: namely, time. Yet, in the process of delving into these six different topics the study surveys a large portion of Roman religious history in a representative fashion, from earliest times to the end of the ancient world and the triumph of Christianity.

Roman Religion Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author : Oxford University Press
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of the ancient world find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In classics, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is just one of many articles from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Classics, a continuously updated and growing online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through the scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of classics. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.

Among the Gentiles

Author : Luke Timothy Johnson
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Presenting a fresh inquiry into early Christianity and Greco-Roman paganism, Luke Timothy Johnson begins with a broad definition of religion as a way of life organized around convictions and experiences concerning ultimate power.

Pagan Regeneration A Study of Mystery Initiations in the Graeco Roman World

Author : Harold Rideout Willoughby
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The Rise Decline and Fall of the Roman Religion

Author : James B. Hannay
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1925 Privately printed for the Religious Evolution Research Society, England. Profusely illustrated with ancient symbols, monuments and art.

The Jews Among Pagans and Christians in the Roman Empire

Author : Judith Lieu
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In the period of Roman domination there were communities of Jews, some still in Palestine, some dispersed in and around the Roman Empire; they had to face at first the world-wide power of the pagan Romans and later on the emergence of Christianity as an Empire-wide religion. How they coped with these dramatic changes and how they influenced the new forms of religious life that emerged in this period provide the main themes of The Jews Among Pagans and Christians. Essays by the leading scholars in the field together with the introduction by the editors, offer new approaches to understanding the role of Judaism and the pattern of religious interaction characteristic of the period.

Greek and Hindoo thought Graeco Roman paganism Judaism and the closing of the schools of Athens by Justinian 1912

Author : John Beattie Crozier
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After Life in Roman Paganism

Author : Cumont Franz Valery Marie
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