Search results for: root-causes-of-suicide-terrorism

Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism

Author : Ami Pedahzur
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This highly topical new study clearly shows how there are at least two reasons to question the central role that is assigned to religion, in particular Islam, when explaining suicide terrorism. suicide terrorism is a modern phenomenon, yet Islam is a very old religion. Except for two periods in the twelfth and eighteenth centuries, suicide was never part of Islamist beliefs and behaviours. Actually, Islam clearly forbids suicide, hence, the argument that Islamic religious beliefs are the main cause of suicide terrorism is inherently dubious many suicide attacks have been carried out by secular organizations with little connection to fundamentalist Islam: Palestinian Fatah; the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine; and the Kurdish Workers Party. Moreover, one of the organizations that has employed this strategy devastatingly and regularly is the LTTE (Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam). Not only are members of this organization not Muslim, most of them are not religious at all. This superb new book contains essays by some of the world's leading scholars of terrorism and political violence. It is essential reading for students of terrorism, political science and Middle Eastern politics, and useful to students of social psychology, theology and history.

Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism

Author : Ami Pedahzur
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Root Causes of Terrorism

Author : Tore Bjørgo
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This team of international experts analyses the possibilities and limitations of preventing or reducing terrorism by addressing the factors that give rise to it and sustain it. The key questions raised include: * what are the main circumstances that provide preconditions for the emergence of various types of terrorism? * what are the typical precipitants that trigger terrorist campaigns? * to what extent is it possible to reduce the problem of terrorism by influencing these causes and circumstances? * should we address those factors that sustain terrorist campaigns rather than root causes? This book is edited by Tore Bjørgo - Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Professor and Research Director at the Norwegian Police University College.

Suicide Terrorism

Author : Ami Pedahzur
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Over the last quarter of a century, terrorist attacks have become a major threat to the governments and citizens of many countries. This title looks at the root causes of suicide terrorism, and its rapid proliferation in recent years.

Contemporary Issues in Terrorism Studies

Author : Dennis Lawrence
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Cutting the Fuse

Author : Robert A. Pape
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Cutting the Fuse offers a wealth of new knowledge about the origins of suicide terrorism and strategies to stop it. Robert A. Pape and James K. Feldman have examined every suicide terrorist attack worldwide from 1980 to 2009, and the insights they have gleaned from that data fundamentally challenge how we understand the root causes of terrorist campaigns today—and reveal why the War on Terror has been ultimately counterproductive. Through a close analysis of suicide campaigns by Al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Lebanon, Israel, Chechnya, and Sri Lanka, the authors provide powerful new evidence that, contrary to popular and dangerously mistaken belief, only a tiny minority of these attacks are motivated solely by religion. Instead, the root cause is foreign military occupation, which triggers secular and religious people alike to carry out suicide attacks. Cutting the Fuse calls for new, effective solutions that America and its allies can sustain for decades, relying less on ground troops in Muslim countries and more on offshore, over-the-horizon military forces along with political and economic strategies that empower local communities to stop terrorists in their midst.

Suicide Terrorism

Author : Stacey P. Corn
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"Since the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003, suicide terrorism incidents have been on the rise. Suicide terrorism is a unique form of terrorism in that it specifically requires the terrorist to purposefully give up their life in order to accomplish their mission. Much has been written about suicide terrorism and the causes of suicide terrorism, but little has explored how the United States Army can prevent or reduce suicide terrorism. This paper explores the root causes of suicide terrorism, what role religion plays in recruiting people as suicide terrorist, and recommendations for the United States Army can do to reduce suicide terrorist attacks against its forces."--Abstract.

Contemporary Suicide Terrorism Origins Trends and Ways of Tackling It

Author : T. Dronzina
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Suicide terrorism represents a tangible challenge to national, regional and global security. This much is not in question; but opinions differ, conceptually and normatively, as to its root causes, factors and motives.This book presents the research papers delivered at the conference ‛Contemporary Suicide Terrorism: Origins, Trends and Ways of Tackling it’ held in Astana, Kazakhstan, in September 2010. The conference was funded by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme, and provided a forum for dialogue and discussion between scholars and security practitioners from Azerbaijan, Armenia, Bulgaria, Spain, Italy, Israel, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Morocco, Romania and Russia. The focus of the conference was on methodological and theoretical approaches to suicide terrorism researches. Topics addressed include: the effectiveness of suicide terrorism; the roots of suicide terrorism and its religious legitimation; the impact of new technologies on the radicalization process; terrorism and the drug trade; female suicide bombers; and migration, radicalization and disorder in the EU. Examples are drawn from experiences in the Maghreb, the West Bank and Gaza Strip in Israel, Dagestan, Romania, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The book conveys the spirit of tolerance, exchange of ideas, dialogue and convergence that dominated the conference. It offers a contribution to better understanding between societies and the fostering of a culture of peace and non-violence.

What motivates suicide terrorism

Author : Mariya Grozdanova
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Essay from the year 2016 in the subject Politics - International Politics - Topic: Peace and Conflict Studies, Security, grade: First-class Honours, Royal Holloway, University of London, course: Terrorism and Counterterrorism, language: English, abstract: While in recent years suicide terrorism proved itself as one of the fastest growing threats to peace and security and a preferred weapon of choice of terrorists, there is a profound confusion as to why. Although suicide attacks have occurred during the course of history, they were often part of states’ military campaigns rather than the preferred modus operandi of violent non-state groups which during the period between 1982 and 2015 became responsible for 4,814 attacks in over 40 countries. As recently illustrated by the atrocities in Istanbul’s Sultanahmet district, Morocco’s coastal city of Casablanca, and Cameroon’s far north village of Bodo, the problem of suicide terrorism is gaining momentum and the insufficient knowledge that we have about the root causes of the phenomenon made it extremely difficult for policymakers to design effective counter-terrorist measures and adequately allocate attention and resources. Therefore, this study would try to shed light on this issue by arguing that suicide terrorism is motivated by the interaction between (1) psychologically traumatized individuals who are determined that death is the only salvation and desire to contribute to the fight against the injustice that generated their agony in the first place and (2) terrorist organizations which offer an outlet for these emotions and exploit personal emotional vulnerabilities in order to push through their political and/or religious ideological propaganda and advance their objectives. Nonetheless, what makes suicide terrorism resonant on both levels is arguably an enabling socio-political context which generates profound personal and communal grievances and provides suicide terrorism with a fertile ground to breed and expand. To support its argument, this study will firstly put the topic in its empirical context and briefly emphasize on the nature of suicide terrorism. Consequently, it will critically evaluate what drives individuals and terrorist organizations to engage in suicide terrorism and specifically focus on their ‘explosive’ interaction. Finally, this study will make its conclusions and identify areas for further research.

Hamas and Suicide Terrorism

Author : Rashmi Singh
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This book analyses the root causes of suicide terrorism at both the elite and rank-and- file levels of the Hamas and also explains why this tactic has disappeared in the post-2006 period. This volume adopts a multi-causal, multi-level approach to analyse the use of suicide bombings by Hamas and its individual operatives in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It uses extensive fieldwork and on-the-ground interviews in order to delve beneath the surface and understand why and how suicide operations were adopted as a sustained mechanism of engagement within the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Three core factors fuelled Hamas’s suicide bombing campaigns. First, Palestinian suicide operations are a complex combination of instrumental and expressive violence adopted by both organisations and individuals to achieve political and/or societal survival, retaliation and competition. In other words, suicide bombings not only serve distinct political and strategic goals for both Hamas and its operatives but they also serve to convey a symbolic message to various audiences, within Israel, the Palestinian territories and around the world. Second, suicide operations perform a crucial role in the formation and consolidation of Palestinian national identity and are also the latest manifestation of the historically entrenched cultural norm of militant heroic martyrdom. Finally, Hamas’s use of political Islam also facilitates the articulation, justification and legitimisation of suicide operations as a modern-day jihad against Israel through the means of modern interpretations and fatwas. This approach not only facilitates a much needed, multifaceted, holistic understanding of suicide bombings in this particular region but also yields policy-relevant lessons to address extreme political violence in other parts of the world. This book will be of much interest to students of Hamas, terrorism, Middle East politics and security studies.

Suicide Bombers in Iraq

Author : Mohammed M. Hafez
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The war in Iraq was supposed to be easy. Instead it has delivered the message that Islamic resistance and martyrdom can defeat the only remaining superpower, just as jihadists drove the Soviet Union from Afghanistan during the 1980s. Now a haven for jihadists, Iraq has entered a civil war whose duration, scope, and magnitude have yet to be determined.The overwhelming majority of suicide attacks in Iraq have targeted Iraqi security forces and Shia civilians, not coalition forces. The perpetrators appear to be largely non-Iraqi volunteers. Many are from Saudi Arabia, but substantial numbers have come from Europe, Syria, Kuwait, Jordan and North Africa. They are foiling U.S. plans to stabilize the country and turn it into a democratic regime and an ally in a region of religious radicalism, entrenched authoritarianism, and hostile states with nuclear ambitions.Understanding the phenomenon of suicide bombing in Iraq is therefore vitally important for U.S. national security, foreign policy in the Muslim world, and the war on terrorism. This study, the first of its kind on the Iraqi insurgency, draws extensively on open-source intelligence and papers of record, primary sources from insurgent groups including online documents and videos, and interviews with U.S. servicemen who have served in Iraq. It examines the history of suicide bombing in Iraq and many other countries, theoretical perspectives on suicide bombing, the varied factions that comprise the insurgency, the ideology and theology of martyrdom supporting suicide bombers, their national origins and characteristics, and the prospects for a third generation of transnational jihadists forged in the crucible of Iraq."

Hamas and Suicide Terrorism

Author : Rashmi Singh
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This book analyses the root causes of suicide terrorism at both the elite and rank-and- file levels of the Hamas.Using extensive fieldwork and on-the-ground interviews, the volume seeks to delve beneath the surface and understand why and how suicide operations were adopted as a sustained mechanism of engagement within the Israeli-Palestinian landscape of conflict. Challenging widespread arguments that tend to either emphasise the role of religion, particularly Islam, in propelling suicide terrorism or to trace its roots to the power struggles between Palestinian political players, this work locates the emergence and spread of this phenomenon in a complex network of interrelated factors.This multifaceted approach, combined with extensive research conducted in Israel and the Palestinian territories, enables the author to identify three core factors that fuel suicide bombing campaigns in the region. First, Palestinian suicide operations as a complex combination of instrumental and expressive violence which are adopted by rational organisations and individuals to assert power, achieve political and/or societal survival, and enable retaliation as well as competition. In other words, suicide bombings not only serve distinct political and strategic goals for both Hamas and its operatives but they also serve to convey a symbolic message to various audiences, within Israel, the Palestinian territories and around the world. Second, how suicide operations not only perform a crucial role in the formation and consolidation of Palestinian national identity but also how they are the latest manifestation of the historically entrenched norm of militant heroic martyrdom. Finally, it illustrates how political Islam is systematically employed by organisations like Hamas in order to facilitate the articulation, justification and legitimisation of suicide operations as a modern-day jihad against Israel through the means of modern interpretations and fatwas.In short, the main themes of this work counter approaches that juxtapose social and/or political motivations against religious ones in favour of studying suicide terrorism in the Palestinian territories from a combined socio-political cultural perspective which acknowledges the roles played by not only the organisation and the individual â?martyr' but also that of Palestinian society. This approach not only facilitates a much needed, multifaceted, holistic understanding of suicide bombings in this particular region but also yields policy-relevant lessons to address extreme political violence in other parts of the world. By adopting such a multi-level and multi-causal approach, this work fills a fundamental gap in contemporary terrorism literature.This book will be of much interest to students of Hamas, terrorism, Middle East politics and security studies. (Global Books in Print).

The Root Causes of Terrorism

Author : Mahmoud Masaeli
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Fifteen years after the tragic events of 9/11, bombs are still exploding and innocent people are being killed by terrorist groups in both western and Islamic societies. Most of these sinisterly threatening events are motivated by religious claims, or are taking place in religiously affected places. Is religion the main cause of terrorism, or does terrorism still arise because of leaders who brainwash and coach future terrorists so that they kill under the banner of religion? The religious imagination seems to hold here an influential power in the creation of ‘delusion’ to orient the ‘bigot’ believers toward fulfilling their religious duty against those who are religious in a different way or are not religious at all. Religion, in this sense, is tightly allied with political aspirations. In spite of the religious justification of the act of killing, ‘enlightened’ religious leaders and religious-minded people believe and argue that religion is a source of love and affection. Therefore, the sacred texts of religious tradition must be read from a ‘humanist’ perspective because the ultimate message of religion is about the appreciation of the principle of humanity. This is a growing attitude among many religious people today who believe that God is merciful and compassionate, and never orders resentment, violence, and killing of innocent people. In addition, no true religious tradition appreciates self-serving interpretations promoting violence against others. If religion disregards love, affection, and compassion as its essence, it drops into the dire vortex of ideological dogma, as it is in the case for the Taliban, ISIS, Boko Haram, and Al-Shabab. Therefore, any interpretation that admits violence and killing would be a mere provincial reading of the religious texts agitated by purposeful intentions aimed at political goals. This book investigates and addresses the root causes of terrorism from a religious studies perspective. The themes analysed and discussed here mainly include a range of religious and philosophical issues such as religious violence in scriptural monotheism, radical interpretations of religious texts, militancy and sacrifice, apocalypticism and terrorism, and religious terrorism today. The book brings together new approaches adopted by the authors to not only trace the causes of terrorism in various religious interpretations and realms, but also reach a common definition of the main religious causes beyond diverse perspectives, and advance solutions against religious-inspired terrorism.

Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Author : Stuart Gottlieb
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Featuring paired pro/con pieces written specifically for this volume, Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism : Conflicting Perspectives on Causes, Contexts, and Responses encourages students to grapple with the central debates surrounding the field of terrorism. With topics ranging from the root causes of terrorism, the role of religion in terrorism, whether suicide terrorism is ever justified, whether the spread of democracy can help defeat terrorism, and what trade-offs should exist between security and civil liberties, Gottlieb's outstanding cast of contributors returns, compelling students to wrestle with the conflicting perspectives that define the field. Stuart Gottlieb frames the paired essays with incisive headnotes, providing historical context and preparing students to read each argument critically. Each selection has been updated to account for recent world events, policy changes, and new scholarship. New to the reader, and by reviewer request, is a chapter, "Can Global Institutions Make a Difference in Fighting Terrorism?"

The Banality of Suicide Terrorism

Author : Nancy Hartevelt Kobrin
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Terrorist organizations have been able to market mass murder under hysteria's banner of alleged martyrdom. But when it comes to understanding Islamic suicide terrorism in particular, there is much more to it than martyrdom. In this groundbreaking book, Nancy Kobrin dismantles the psychological dynamics of suicide terrorism to help the reader gain a new perspective on one of the most destructive forces the world has witnessed to date. Until now, no one has explained why the mother-child relationship is central to understanding Islamic suicide terrorism. The Banality of Suicide Terrorism exposes the very ordinariness of one of the deepest yet most poorly understood causes of the suicide bomber's motivation: a profound terror of abandonment that is rooted in the mother-child relationship. According to Kobrin, this terror is so great in the would-be suicide terrorist that he or she must commit suicide (and mass murder in the process) in order to fend off that terror of dependency and abandonment. Suicide terrorists seek a return to the bond with the mother of early childhood-- known as maternal fusion--by means of a "death fusion" with their enemies, who subconsciously represent the loved (and hated) maternal figure. The terrorist's political struggle merely serves as cover for this emotionally terrifying inner turmoil, which can lead down the path of ultimate destruction.

Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism

Author : Andrew Silke
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This new Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of current knowledge and debates on terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as providing a benchmark for future research. The attacks of 9/11 and the ‘global war on terror’ and its various legacies have dominated international politics in the opening decades of the 21st century. In response to the dramatic rise of terrorism, within the public eye and the academic world, the need for an accessible and comprehensive overview of these controversial issues remains profound. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism and Counterterrorism seeks to fulfil this need. The volume is divided into two key parts: Part I: Terrorism: This section provides an overview of terrorism, covering the history of terrorism, its causes and characteristics, major tactics and strategies, major trends and critical contemporary issues such as radicalisation and cyber-terrorism. It concludes with a series of detailed case studies, including the IRA, Hamas and Islamic State. Part II: Counterterrorism: This part draws on the main themes and critical issues surrounding counterterrorism. It covers the major strategies and policies, key events and trends and the impact and effectiveness of different approaches. This section also concludes with a series of case studies focused on major counterterrorism campaigns. This book will be of great interest to all students of terrorism and counterterrorism, political violence, counter-insurgency, criminology, war and conflict studies, security studies and IR more generally.

The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism

Author : Erica Chenoweth
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The Oxford Handbook of Terrorism systematically integrates the substantial body of scholarship on terrorism and counterterrorism before and after 9/11. In doing so, it introduces scholars and practitioners to state of the art approaches, methods, and issues in studying and teaching these vital phenomena. This Handbook goes further than most existing collections by giving structure and direction to the fast-growing but somewhat disjointed field of terrorism studies. The volume locates terrorism within the wider spectrum of political violence instead of engaging in the widespread tendency towards treating terrorism as an exceptional act. Moreover, the volume makes a case for studying terrorism within its socio-historical context. Finally, the volume addresses the critique that the study of terrorism suffers from lack of theory by reviewing and extending the theoretical insights contributed by several fields - including political science, political economy, history, sociology, anthropology, criminology, law, geography, and psychology. In doing so, the volume showcases the analytical advancements and reflects on the challenges that remain since the emergence of the field in the early 1970s.

Organizational and Psychological Aspects of Terrorism

Author : Centre of Excellence Defence Against Terrorism
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Considers terrorism in its broad outlines, and highlights such aspects as organizational structure of terrorist groups, their psychology and group dynamics, financing, and recruitment. This book highlights: the causes of terrorism; recruitment methods of terrorist organizations; and psychology of terrorists and profile of suicide bombers.

Contending with Terrorism

Author : Michael E. Brown
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The essays in Contending with Terrorism address some of the central topics in the analysis of contemporary terrorism. They promise to guide future policy and inspire further research into one of the most important security issues of the twenty-first century.

Theories of Terrorism

Author : Murat Haner
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Theories of Terrorism explains and advances the major theories of terrorism that address issues of becoming a terrorist, being a terrorist, and leaving terrorism, in a clear and accessible format. Readers will gain an understanding of the most promising explanations of terrorism that have been developed to date and how they can be used to explore core substantive issues related to the topic. The content is delivered with a scholarly depth, though still accessible by students at different levels. The book offers explanations from prominent scholars for the three phases of radicalization, covering emerging topics such as women’s involvement in terrorism, fear of terrorism, the code of the terrorist, and suicide terrorism. This is the first book in the Advances in Criminological Theory series to address the issue of terrorism and emphasizes the use of theory to direct research development in the future. The style and content coverage of the book make it appropriate as a supplemental text in undergraduate courses on terrorism and political violence. The inclusion of current empirical literature and guidance for future research efforts gives the text appeal for graduate students and academics in the disciplines of criminology/criminal justice, political science, sociology, and interdisciplinary terrorism studies. The emphasis on theory and the radicalization process throughout the text will also make the book useful as a reference for general graduate-level theory courses within these areas.