Search results for: secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-and-metabolism

Secondary Metabolite Biosynthesis and Metabolism

Author : Richard J. Petroski
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This book was developed from the proceedings of the American Chemical Society, Division of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, subdivision of Natural Products Symposium "Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Secondary Natural Products" held in Atlanta, Georgia, April 1991. The objective of the conference was to bring together people from apparently diverse fields, ranging from biotechnology, metabolism, mechanistic organic chemistry, enzymology, fermentation, and biosynthesis, but who share a common interest in either the biosynthesis or the metabolism of natural products. It is our intention to help bridge the gap between the fields of mechanistic bio-organic chemistry and biotechnology. Our thanks go to Dr. Henry Yokoyama, co-organizer of the symposium, the authors who so kindly contributed chapters, the conference participants, and to those who assisted in the peer review process. We also thank the financial supporters of the symposium: ACS/AGFD, NIH General Medical Sciences, and the agricultural, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and chromatography companies. A full list of the supporting corporations and institutions is given on the following page. Pharma-Tech and P.C., Inc. are manufacturers of instrumentation for high-speed countercurrent chromatography. We thank the Agricultural Research Service and the U. S. Department of Agriculture for granting me permission to co-organize the conference and for us to complete the book. Richard J. Petroski Susan P. McCormick USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research Peoria, IL 61604 June 10, 1992 vii CONTENTS ANTIBIOTICS Polyketide Synthetases: Enzyme Complexes and Multifunctional Proteins Directing the Biosynthesis of Bacterial Metabolites from Fatty Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . .

Metabolic Engineering of Plant Secondary Metabolism

Author : R. Verpoorte
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Plant secondary metabolism is an economically important source of fine chemicals, such as drugs, insecticides, dyes, flavours, and fragrances. Moreover, important traits of plants such as taste, flavour, smell, colour, or resistance against pests and diseases are also related to secondary metabolites. The genetic modification of plants is feasible nowadays. What does the possibility of engineering plant secondary metabolite pathways mean? In this book, firstly a general introduction is given on plant secondary metabolism, followed by an overview of the possible approaches that could be used to alter secondary metabolite pathways. In a series of chapters from various authorities in the field, an overview is given of the state of the art for important groups of secondary metabolites. No books have been published on this topic so far. This book will thus be a unique source of information for all those involved with plants as chemical factories of fine chemicals and those involved with the quality of food and ornamental plants. It will be useful in teaching graduate courses in the field of metabolic engineering in plants.

Fungal Jewels Secondary Metabolites

Author : Nancy Keller
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Fungal natural products are friends and foes of humans such as deleterious mycotoxins, cytotoxic, carcinogenic compounds or beneficial compounds such as antibiotics, fungicides, insecticides, antiviral and antitumor metabolites. Understanding fungal diversity and estimation of fungal species on our planet poses a great challenge to researchers. This complexity is further multiplied by secondary metabolite diversity of fungi, which requires interdisciplinary studies. It is extremely important to understand the fungal secondary metabolism to stop human, animal and plant diseases caused by fungi and harvest their valuable metabolites. Furthermore, many secondary metabolite gene clusters are silenced under laboratory conditions. It is vital to develop effective methods to activate those clusters in order to discover novel potent metabolites. This e-book is a compilation of original review articles contributed by leading fungal secondary metabolite researchers with a wide range of expertise. Important aspects of fungal secondary metabolism, including regulation, genome mining, evolution, synthetic biology and novel methods have been discussed. This book will be a great source to those people, who are interested in understanding overall structure, diversity and regulation of production of these tiny but precious chemicals.

Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae Secondary Metabolites

Author : Eckart Eich
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This comprehensive and interdisciplinary handbook provides a bird’s-eye view of two centuries of research on secondary metabolites of the two large Solanales families, Solanaceae and Convolvulaceae. In this book they’re arranged according to their biosynthetic principles, while the occurrence and chemical structures of almost all known individual secondary metabolites are covered, which are found in hundreds of wild as well as cultivated solanaceous and convolvulaceous species.

Biochemistry of Plant Secondary Metabolism

Author : Michael Wink
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The secondary metabolites of plants were once considered to be waste products - today, their true value is understood. New methods of separation and structural elucidation, and advances in the investigation of biochemical activities, have increased our understanding of secondary metabolites. Their function as a defense mechanisms offers a great potential for technological gain. Secondary metabolites can be utilized in agriculture to breed stronger crops and in the manufacture of biorational pesticides. They can also be exploited by medicine as theraputic agents. And these are just two of the likely uses. This landmark volume presents articles by an impressive team of experts from leading laboratories. Each chapter considers a current understanding of secondary metabolites in nature and the potential exploitation of those qualities by the biotechnology industry.

The Biosynthesis of Secondary Metabolites

Author : R.B. Herbert
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The chief purpose of such new editions is to bring the text up to date. This I have tried to do. The danger with such endeavours is that the book becomes corpulent. This I have tried to avoid. In so doing I am evermore conscious of how much material has had to be omitted. As before the references (ca. 770 of them) which are cited are intended in part to provide the reader with access to material that has been omitted. I am deeply grateful to Mrs Marjorie Romanowicz for preparing the typed manuscript for this edition with customary accuracy and efficiency, to my wife Margaret for checking the references, and to research students Karl Cable, Lucy Hyatt, Mashupye Kgaphola and Andrew Knaggs for helping with the checking of the manuscript. Richard Herbert April 1988 Preface to the first edition This is a book about experiments and results of experiments. The results described are the fruit of thirty years' labour in the field of secondary metabolism. Secondary metabolism, more than any other part of the chemistry of life, has been the special preserve of organic chemists. Investigation of secondary metabolism began with curiosity about the structures of compounds isolated from natural sources, i.e. secondary metabolites. Coeval with structure determination there has been a curiosity about the origins and mechanism of formation of secondary metabolites (or natural products as they have been called). It is the experimental outcome of this curiosity that is described here.

Secondary Metabolism

Author : J. Mann
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This book is concerned with the biosynthesis, biological activity, and ecological significance of secondary metabolites (natural products).These include alcaloids such as morphine, steroids like cholesterol, and antibiotics like the penicillins. The author considers each of the major classes of secondary metabolites according to the basic 'building blocks' from which they are derived and highlights the pharmacological and toxicological properties of compounds found in insects, plants, and microorganisms. The final chapter explores the possible ecological significance of these products. The second edition incorporates new material on the isolation and characterization of the enzymes of secondary metabolism and on the new NMR techniques which have revolutionized the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways. The book is important reading for advanced undergraduates and graduates in chemistry, biochemistry, and botany, as well as researchers in the pharmaceutical industry.

Microbial Secondary Metabolites Recent Developments and Technological Challenges

Author : Bhim Pratap Singh
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Research on microbes plays an essential role in the improvement of biotechnological and biomedical areas. It has turned into a subject of expanding significance as new organisms and their related biomolecules are being characterized for several applications in health and agriculture. Microbial biomolecules confer the ability of microbes to cope with a range of adverse conditions. However, these biomolecules have several advantages over the plant origin, which makes them a suitable target in drug discovery and development. The reasons could be that microbial sources can be genetically engineered to enhance the production of desired natural production by large-scale fermentation. The interaction between microbes and their biotic and abiotic environment is fundamental to numerous processes taking place in the biosphere. The natural environments and hosts of these microorganisms are extremely diverse being reflected by the fact that microbes are widespread and occur in nearly every biological community on Earth. This metabolic versatility makes microbes interesting objects for a range of economically important biotechnological applications. Most of the biotechniques are established but inefficient genetic engineering strategies are still a bottleneck for selected microbe producing industrial scale biomolecules. Therefore, untapped microbial biodiversity and related metablomics, give a noteworthy wellspring of biologicals for the advancement of meds, immunizations, enhanced plants and for other natural applications. The present eBook volume contains articles on microbial secondary metabolites, microbial biosynthetic potential including biosynthetic gene expression, and metagenomics obtained from microorganism isolated unique from habitats like marine sources, endophytes, thermal springs, deserts, etc.

The Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

Author : Pieter Steyn
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The Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins: A Study in Secondary Metabolism focuses on the biosynthetic analysis of mycotoxins, which are inherently a heterogeneous group of metabolites that are formed along the terpene route and the route polyketide, as well as from amino acids. This book discusses the unique biological properties and structural complexity of the highly specialized secondary microbial metabolites. Organized into 12 chapters, this book starts with an overview of the characteristics of secondary metabolites, including their problematic function and the combination of their structural diversity with their restricted biological occurrence. This text then explains the sporadic occurrence of the mycotoxins as fungal metabolites. Other chapters explore ergochromes, which are a group of light yellow mycotoxins that are isolated from ergot, mold fungi, and lichens. The final chapter discusses the biosynthesis of several unrelated fungal metabolites for which toxicological data are reported. Biochemists, organic chemists, mycologists, enzymologists, plant pathologists, toxicologists, and graduate students will find this book useful.

Plant Secondary Metabolism

Author : David S. Seigler
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Life has evolved as a unified system; no organism exists similar role also has been suggested for fatty acids from alone, but each is in intimate contact with other organisms cyanolipids. Nonprotein amino acids, cyanogenic glyco and its environment. Historically, it was easier for workers sides, and the non-fatty-acid portion of cyanolipids also are in various disciplines to delimit artificially their respective incorporated into primary metabolites during germination. areas of research, rather than attempt to understand the entire Secondary metabolites of these structural types are accumu system of living organisms. This was a pragmatic and neces lated in large quantities in the seeds of several plant groups sary way to develop an understanding for the various parts. where they probably fulfill an additional function as deter We are now at a point, however, where we need to investi rents to general predation. gate those things common to the parts and, specifically, those The second type of relationship involves interaction of things that unify the parts. The fundamental aspects of many plants with other organisms and with their environment. Bio of these interactions are chemical in nature. Plants constitute logical interactions must be viewed in the light of evolution an essential part of all life systems; phytochemistry provides ary change and the coadaptation, or perhaps coevolution, of a medium for linking several fields of study.

Biotechnological Production of Plant Secondary Metabolites

Author : Ilkay Erdogan Orhan
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Modern techniques have been developed to overcome problems associated with the extraction of natural products from plants. These techniques include production of secondary metabolites by biotechnological methods such as plant tissue culture and microbial

Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Fungal Secondary Metabolites

Author : Susanne Zeilinger
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​Fungi produce many chemically diverse secondary metabolites whose biological roles largely remain elusive. Within the increasing number of sequenced fungal genomes several important genes involved in secondary metabolite formation have been identified. Most of these genes are clustered and their coordinated transcription is controlled in a complex way by both narrow pathway-specific regulators as well as broad global transcription factors responsive to environmental cues. In recent years it was discovered many of the newly identified gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions suggesting that the biosynthetic potential of fungi is far from being exploited. Besides identifying novel bioactive metabolites from still unexplored sources, the activation of these gene clusters by several approaches may result in the discovery of new substances with antibiotic and pharmaceutical benefits. This book covers recent advances in the field of fungal secondary metabolisms ranging from methodologies to biological aspects and will include the latest knowledge on fungal molecular biology, genomics, and metabolomics. With the related volume by Professor Juan-Francisco Martin, where the most relevant and well-studied fungal secondary metabolites are compiled, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art of research on fungal secondary metabolites.

Secondary Metabolites

Author : Derek J. Chadwick
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A comprehensive review of current thinking on the biosynthesis, function and evolution of secondary metabolites in animals, plants and microorganisms. Examines the traditional context of secondary metabolites as natural products having no obvious part to play in the producing organism's life cycle. Covers issues related to genetic and antibiotic applications.

Biotechnology

Author : K. G. Ramawat
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The language of the book is simple and various terms have been defined for better understanding. References and further readings are included for advanced knowledge. This makes the book a valuable inclusion in all the laboratories and libraries involved in research and teaching on plant metabolism, particularity secondary metabolites. The chapters are an excellent compilation of background information for beginners and of recent information for researchers. The book will serve as a source material for students, teachers and researchers working in agriculture, botany, biotechnology, pharmacy and environmental sciences."--Jacket.

Secondary Metabolism and Cell Differentiation

Author : M. Luckner
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1. Secondary Metabolism and Differentiation In addition to the primary metabolic reactions, which are similar in all living beings (formation and breakdown of nucleic acids and proteins as well as of their precursors, of most carbohy drates, of some carboxylic acids, etc. ), a vast number of metab olic pathways lead to the formation of compounds peculiar to a few species or even to a single chemical race only. These reac tions, in accord with CZAPEK (1921) and PAECH (1950), are summed up under the term "secondary metabolism", and their products are called "secondary metabolites. " The wide variety of secondary products formed in nature includes such well-known groups as alkaloids, antibiotics, cardiac glyco sides, tannins, saponins, volatile oils, and others. A consider able number of them are of economic importance in therapeutics or technology. Although secondary products are produced by micro organisms, higher plants, and animals (cf. LUCKNER, 1972), most of the substances are found in the plant kingdom. The lack of mechanisms for true excretion in higher plants may result in this unequal distribution, the "waste products" of metabolism in plants instead being accumulated in the vacuoles, the cell walls, or in special excretory cells or spaces of the organism ("metabolic excretion," cf. FREY-WYSSLING, 1935, 1970; MOTHES, 1966a, b, 1972; LUCKNER et al. , 1976. Many secondary substances have, however, a direct biologic func tion. They can be regulatory effectors, e. g.

Regulation of Secondary Metabolism in Actinomycetes

Author : Stuart Shapiro
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This book provides a comprehensive examination of biochemical and genetic regulatory phenomena as they relate to the activity of actinomycete secondary metabolic pathways and the functioning of secondary metabolites as endogenous effectors of cytodifferentiation. Approximately 50 illustrations accompany the text.

Evolution of Metabolic Pathways

Author : R. Ibrahim
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The past decade has seen major advances in the cloning of genes encoding enzymes of plant secondary metabolism. This has been further enhanced by the recent project on the sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome. These developments provide the molecular genetic basis to address the question of the Evolution of Metabolic Pathways. This volume provides in-depth reviews of our current knowledge on the evolutionary origin of plant secondary metabolites and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis. The chapters cover five major topics: 1. Role of secondary metabolites in evolution; 2. Evolutionary origins of polyketides and terpenes; 3. Roles of oxidative reactions in the evolution of secondary metabolism; 4. Evolutionary origin of substitution reactions: acylation, glycosylation and methylation; and 5. Biochemistry and molecular biology of brassinosteroids.

Plant Specialized Metabolism

Author : Gen-ichiro Arimura
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Recent advances in science have clarified the role of plant specialized metabolites (classically known as plant secondary metabolites), which cannot be considered only bioactive molecules used for human health but also pivotal factors for the global ecosystem. They play major roles in plant life, evolution, and mutualism. To provide the reader a general view of plant specialized metabolites, it is important to consider both the biochemistry and the functional/ecological role of these important compounds. Around 200,000 specialized metabolites are formed by a wide array of plant metabolic pathways from numerous plant taxa and through learning how other species (including human beings) rely on them. Plant Specialized Metabolism: Genomics, Biochemistry, and Biological Functions will provide the reader with special insights into the sophisticated nature of these metabolites and their various and valuable uses based on the most recent findings in science. The field of plant specialized metabolism has witnessed tremendous growth in the past decade. This growth has had a profound impact on multiple disciplines in life science, including biochemistry, metabolism, enzymology, natural product chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemical ecology, and evolution. It also has yielded valuable knowledge and technology readily applicable in various industries, such as agriculture, horticulture, energy, renewable chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The book focuses on the molecular background of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, their functional role, and potential applications.

Secondary Metabolites

Author : Ramasamy Vijayakumar
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This book consists of an introductory overview of secondary metabolites, which are classified into four main sections: microbial secondary metabolites, plant secondary metabolites, secondary metabolites through tissue culture technique, and regulation of secondary metabolite production. This book provides a comprehensive account on the secondary metabolites of microorganisms, plants, and the production of secondary metabolites through biotechnological approach like the plant tissue culture method. The regulatory mechanisms of secondary metabolite production in plants and the pharmaceutical and other applications of various secondary metabolites are also highlighted. This book is considered as necessary reading for microbiologists, biotechnologists, biochemists, pharmacologists, and botanists who are doing research in secondary metabolites. It should also be useful to MSc students, MPhil and PhD scholars, scientists, and faculty members of various science disciplines.

Hairy Roots

Author : Pauline M. Doran
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Hairy roots are plant roots that have been genetically transformed and can be cultured on a large scale to replace whole plants for investigating plant secondary metabolism and its genetic manipulation, producing foreign proteins, propagating plants in agriculture, environmental research, and developing new engineering technology for the large-scale production of plant chemicals. The 21 papers cover culture and synthesis, plant propagation, and environmental and bioprocessing aspects. They include detailed instructions for experimental procedures and review recent developments with an emphasis on the cross-disciplinary nature of the research and the direction of future developments. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR