Search results for: security-and-global-health

Security and Global Health

Author : Stefan Elbe
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Every era, it is said, has its defining malady. What will be ours? Will it be a new human pandemic caused by an animal-borne infectious disease, such as swine flu? Will it be a lethal microbe like anthrax deliberately released by terrorists bent on causing mass civilian casualties? Or will it be one of our new 'lifestyle' diseases - the epidemics of smoking, obesity and excessive alcohol consumption that threaten to engulf modern societies? Perhaps our era will even be remembered for its tragic neglect of certain health issues - endemic diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS that continue to ravage millions in developing countries. In this book Stefan Elbe shows that in the new millennium international politics is no longer characterized by its preoccupation with a single disease, but precisely by its need to urgently confront what is now an epidemic of epidemics. Over the past decade a whole host of diverse global health issues have raised the highest levels of political concern, provoking governments and international institutions to tackle such health threats through the prism of security - be it national security, biosecurity, or human security. This convergence between health issues and security concerns has also produced the new notion of health security, which has already begun to shape the way international health policy is formulated. The intersection of the worlds of health and security is beginning to change our very ideas of what security means and how it is achieved. At the outset of the twenty-first century, practising security increasingly demands that citizens become patients, that states resemble huge hospitals, and that security itself becomes a technology of medical control. It is this transformation of security, Elbe argues in an innovative and engaging re-conceptualization of the health-security nexus, that marks nothing short of the medicalization of security.

Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security

Author : Simon Rushton
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This new Handbook presents an overview of cutting-edge research in the growing field of global health security. Over the past decade, the study of global health and its interconnection with security has become a prominent and rapidly growing field of research. Ongoing debates question whether health and security should be linked; which (if any) health issues should be treated as security threats; what should be done to address health security threats; and the positive and negative consequences of ‘securitizing’ health. In academic and policy terms, the health security field is a timely and dynamic one and this handbook will be the first work comprehensively to address this agenda. Bringing together the leading experts and commentators on health security issues from across the world, the volume comprises original and cutting-edge essays addressing the key issues in the field and also highlighting currently neglected avenues for future research. The book intends to provide an accessible yet sophisticated introduction to the key topics and debates and is organised into four key parts: Health Securities: the fundamental conceptual issues, historical links between health and security and the various ways of conceptualising health as a security issue Threats: those health issues which have been most frequently discussed in security terms Responses: the wide range of contemporary security-driven responses to health threats Controversies: the securitization of health, its impact on rights and justice and the potential distortion of the global health agenda This book will be of great interest to students of global health security, public health, critical security studies, and International Relations in general.

Feminist Global Health Security

Author : Clare Wenham
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"Global health security, focused on a firefighting short-term response efforts fail to consider the differential impacts of outbreaks on women. For example, the policy response to the Zika outbreak centred on limiting the spread of the vector through civic participation and asking women to defer pregnancy. Both actions are inherently gendered and reveal a distinct lack of consideration of the everyday lives of women. These policies placed women in a position whereby were blamed if they had a child born with Congenital Zika Syndrome, and at the same time governments required women to undertake invisible labour for vector control. What does this tell us about the role of women in global health security? This feminist critique of the Zika outbreak, argues that global health security has thus far lacked a substantive feminist engagement, with the result that the very policies created to manage an outbreak of disease disproportionately fail to protect women. Women are both differentially infected and affected by epidemics. Yet, the dominant policy narrative of global health security has created pathways which focus on protecting the international spread of disease to state economies, rather than protecting those who are most at risk. As such, the state-based structure of global health security provides the fault-line for global health security and women. This book highlights the ways in which women are disadvantaged by global health security policy, through engagement with feminist security studies concepts of visibility; social and stratified reproduction; intersectionality; and structural violence. It argues that it was no coincidence that poor, black women living in low quality housing were the most affected by the Zika outbreak and will continue to be so, until global health security is gender mainstreamed. More broadly, I ask what would global health policy look like if it were to take gender seriously, and how would this impact global disease control sustainability?"--

Global Health Challenges for Human Security

Author : Lincoln C Chen
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The goals of health and human security are fundamentally valued in all societies, yet the breadth of their interconnections are not properly understood. This volume explores the evolving relationship between health and security in today's interdependent world, and offers policy guidelines for global health action. This volume underscores three basic principles. First, recent developments in the changing security landscape present enormous challenges for human security and global health. Second, although the connections between health and security are long-standing, the current context of new conflicts, pervasive poverty, and accelerating global flows has brought the fields closer together. Finally, a human security approach dependent upon individual and collective action can identify new strategies for meeting the goals of global health and security. The distinguished contributions to this volume were commissioned by Harvard University's Global Equity Initiative, a research unit supporting the work of the International Commission on Human Security.

Global Health and Security

Author : Colleen O'Manique
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The past decade has witnessed a significant increase in the construction of health as a security issue by national governments and multilateral organizations. This book provides the first critical, feminist analysis of the flesh-and-blood impacts of the securitization of health on different bodies, while broadening the scope of what we understand as global health security. It looks at how feminist perspectives on health and security can lead to different questions about health and in/security, problematizing some of the ‘common sense’ assumptions that underlie much of the discourse in this area. It considers the norms, ideologies, and vested interests that frame specific ‘threats’ to health and policy responses, while exposing how the current governance of the global economy shapes new threats to health. Some chapters focus on conflict, war and complex emergencies, while others move from a ‘high political’ focus to the domain of subtler and often insidious structural violence, illuminating the impacts of hegemonic masculinities and the neoliberal governance of the global economy on health and life chances. Highlighting the critical intersections across health, gender and security, this book is an important contribution to scholarship on health and security, global health, public health and gender studies.

Global Health and International Relations

Author : Colin McInnes
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The long separation of health and International Relations, as distinct academic fields and policy arenas, has now dramatically changed. Health, concerned with the body, mind and spirit, has traditionally focused on disease and infirmity, whilst International Relations has been dominated by concerns of war, peace and security. Since the 1990s, however, the two fields have increasingly overlapped. How can we explain this shift and what are the implications for the future development of both fields? Colin McInnes and Kelley Lee examine four key intersections between health and International Relations today - foreign policy and health diplomacy, health and the global political economy, global health governance and global health security. The explosion of interest in these subjects has, in large part, been due to "real world" concerns - disease outbreaks, antibiotic resistance, counterfeit drugs and other risks to human health amid the spread of globalisation. Yet the authors contend that it is also important to understand how global health has been socially constructed, shaped in theory and practice by particular interests and normative frameworks. This groundbreaking book encourages readers to step back from problem-solving to ask how global health is being problematized in the first place, why certain agendas and issue areas are prioritised, and what determines the potential solutions put forth to address them? The palpable struggle to better understand the health risks facing a globalized world, and to strengthen collective action to deal with them effectively, begins - they argue - with a more reflexive and critical approach to this rapidly emerging subject.

Disease Diplomacy

Author : Sara E. Davies
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In the age of air travel and globalized trade, pathogens that once took months or even years to spread beyond their regions of origin can now circumnavigate the globe in a matter of hours. Amid growing concerns about such epidemics as Ebola, SARS, MERS, and H1N1, disease diplomacy has emerged as a key foreign and security policy concern as countries work to collectively strengthen the global systems of disease surveillance and control. The revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR), eventually adopted by the World Health Organization’s member states in 2005, was the foremost manifestation of this novel diplomacy. The new regulations heralded a profound shift in international norms surrounding global health security, significantly expanding what is expected of states in the face of public health emergencies and requiring them to improve their capacity to detect and contain outbreaks. Drawing on Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink’s “norm life cycle” framework and based on extensive documentary analysis and key informant interviews, Disease Diplomacy traces the emergence of these new norms of global health security, the extent to which they have been internalized by states, and the political and technical constraints governments confront in attempting to comply with their new international obligations. The authors also examine in detail the background, drafting, adoption, and implementation of the IHR while arguing that the very existence of these regulations reveals an important new understanding: that infectious disease outbreaks and their management are critical to national and international security. The book will be of great interest to academic researchers, postgraduate students, and advanced undergraduates in the fields of global public health, international relations, and public policy, as well as health professionals, diplomats, and practitioners with a professional interest in global health security.

21st Century Global Health Diplomacy

Author : Thomas E Novotny
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Global health diplomacy begins with a recognition that the most effective international health interventions are carried out with sensitivity to historical, political, social, economic, and cultural differences. It focuses on the interplay of globalization, economic interdependence, social justice, and the enlightened self-interests of nations. Global health diplomacy can help sustain peace and economic stability in a globalized world, but the skills necessary for this endeavour are not taught in standard health sciences curricula or in Foreign Service academies. However, they bear directly on the success of international health cooperation, be it from the global north to the global south or south-to-south cooperation. Global health diplomacy can be a critical pathway to assure good global governance and improved international relations among the great powers and between these powers and the developing world. It can be a mechanism to avert conflict and to augment health, peace, solidarity, economic progress, and multinational cooperation. Contents:21st Century Health Diplomacy: A New Relationship Between Foreign Policy and Health (Ilona Kickbusch)A History of International Health Encounters: Diplomacy in Transition (Vincanne Adams)Governance and Actors in Global Health Diplomacy (Wolfgang Hein)Instruments of Health Diplomacy (Ebony Bertorelli, Steven A Solomon and Nick Drager)Global Health in International Politics (Harley Feldbaum)Health is an Integral Part of Foreign Policy (Santiago Alcázar and Paulo Buss)Global Health and Security (Kristofer Bergh and Bates Gill)Military Health Diplomacy (Eugene V Bonventre and Lt Col Valérie Denux)Health Diplomacy in Humanitarian Action (Valerie Percival)Key Factors in Negotiations for Health (Kelley Lee)Global Health Begins at Home: Policy Coherence (Gaudenz Silberschmidt and Thomas Zeltner)The Way Forward in Global Health Diplomacy: Definitions, Research, and Training (Thomas E Novotny and Sebastian Kevany) Readership: Graduate students in global health masters and PhD programs. Students doing short courses in health diplomacy. Keywords:Global Health;Global Health Diplomacy;Foreign Policy;Global Health GovernanceKey Features:This is the first time different perspectives of global health diplomacy (i.e. foreign policy, security, policy cohesion, and governance) are brought together in one volume. This volume clearly articulates the formation of global health diplomacy as a new field of studyReviews: "Health diplomacy is a complicated, multi-disciplinary challenge that needs both intellectual, and more importantly, practical attention from our best diplomats and public health professionals. Professors Novotny and Kickbusch have assembled such a group for this comprehensive review of all the components of this emerging field. 21st Century Health Diplomacy can serve as a valuable reference manual for students, researchers, and diplomats from across foreign policy, security, public health, history and political science disciplines." RADM Kenneth Bernard, MD, DTMH Assistant Surgeon General (Ret.) Former Special Assistant to the President for Health and Security "21st Century Global Health Diplomacy is a must read for those interested in how things now work in the complex architectures of public health, security, and foreign policy. Globalization has presented both challenges and opportunities in public health, and by better understanding the history, politics, governance issues, and trends regarding these challenges, we can embrace more effectively the opportunities now available in health diplomacy. Professors Novotny, Kickbusch, and colleagues have provided a remarkable set of readings that will be of great value to today's public health students, foreign policy scholars, and practicing health diplomats." Professor David L Heymann, CBE Head and Senior Fellow, Centre on Global Health Security, Chatham House, and Professor, Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine "‘Health diplomacy’ remains an awkward theme, lacking global consensus in both definition and implementation. All global health practitioners and observers are struggling with the political and economic sides of the diplomacy equation, while political leaders remain flummoxed regarding ‘health’ and governments' obligations to the well-being of their own citizenries, much less humanity, planet-wide. Novotny and Kickbusch's compendium of essays helps a great deal. The book reveals the facets of debate, and evolving thinking. I very much doubt we will reach any consensus on the boundaries and implementation of ‘global health diplomacy’ during my lifetime, but this book will help sort out many of the issues, and guide the debate." Laurie Garrett Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations, and author of I HEARD THE SIRENS SCREAM: How Americans Responded to the 9/11 and Anthrax Attacks

Managing Global Health Security

Author : A. Kamradt-Scott
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Drawing on insights from international organization and securitization theory, the author investigates the World Health Organization and how its approach to global health security has changed and adapted since its creation in 1948. He also examines the organization's prospects for managing global health security now and into the future.

Global Health Diplomacy

Author : Ilona Kickbusch
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The world’s problems are indeed world problems: social and environmental crises, global trade and politics, and major epidemics are making public health a pressing global concern. From this constantly changing scenario, global health diplomacy has evolved, at the intersection of public health, international relations, law, economics, and management—a new discipline with transformative potential. Global Health Diplomacy situates this concept firmly within the human rights dialogue and provides a solid framework for understanding global health issues and their negotiation. This up-to-the-minute guide sets out defining principles and the current agenda of the field, and examines key relationships such as between trade and health diplomacy, and between global health and environmental issues. The processes of global governance are detailed as the UN, WHO, and other multinational actors work to address health inequalities among the world’s peoples. And to ensure maximum usefulness, the text includes plentiful examples, discussion questions, reading lists, and a glossary. Featured topics include: The legal basis of global health agreements and negotiations. Global public goods as a foundation for global health diplomacy. Global health: a human security perspective. Health issues and foreign policy at the UN. National strategies for global health. South-south cooperation and other new models of development. A volume of immediate utility with a potent vision for the future, Global Health Diplomacy is an essential text for public health experts and diplomats as well as schools of public health and international affairs.

Impact of Global Health Governance on Transnational Health Security Threats

Author : Naomi Elizabeth DeShore
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Barefoot Global Health Diplomacy

Author : Sebastian Kevany
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Barefoot Global Health Diplomacy: Field Experiences in International Relations, Security, and Public Health Epidemics fills real-world gaps in training for those destined to work on health and health systems in challenging, resource-deprived environments. Key topics include global health programs and individual adaptability for developing country settings, the interface between different actors in the global health diplomacy realm (e.g. ambassadors, embassies and the military), the ethical and economic implications of global health diplomacy at the service delivery level, the definition and illustration of the ‘smart global health’ paradigm, and the essential elements for individuals and organizations to design and deliver advances in international relations and altruism. This book provides an accessible, practical resource on advanced aspects of global health program design and delivery for global health practitioners and other international staff working on public health initiatives and programs in developing countries. Offers an innovative, accessible field guide for global health workers in diplomatic aspects of their work Provides helpful insight on how to resolve ethical dilemmas in global health (e.g. resource allocation decisions) Maintains a high level of focus on advanced aspects of global health program design and delivery

The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health

Author : Ronald Ross Watson
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The Role of Functional Food Security in Global Health presents a collective approach to food security through the use of functional foods as a strategy to prevent under nutrition and related diseases. This approach reflects the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the World Health Organization, the World Heart Federation and the American Heart Association who advise Mediterranean, Paleolithic, plant food based diets, and European vegetarian diets for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition, the book also emphasizes the inclusion of spices, herbs and millets, as well as animal foods. This book will be a great resource to the food industry as it presents the most efficient ways to use technology to manufacture slowly absorbed, micronutrient rich functional foods by blending foods that are rich in healthy nutrients. Provides greater knowledge on functional food security Highlights the necessary changes to the western diet that are needed to achieve food security Explains the utility and necessity of functional food security in the prevention of noncommunicable diseases Presents policy changes in food production for farmers and the larger food industry Offers suggestions on what can be done to enhance functional food production while simultaneously decreasing production costs

Global Health and Security

Author : Kathryn Bouskill
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The spread of infectious disease can be deadlier than world wars-the Spanish flu, for instance, killed millions more people than World War I, one of the deadliest conflicts in human history. Yet present threats to public health, though less overt, could be considered more insidious than a deadly pandemic. In this Perspective, the authors review the current scope and operation of global health security, identify emerging threats, and assess how adequately current visions of global health security account for these threats. The authors identify two main threats to global health security: slow-burn problems-whose long-term effects are underestimated, potentially causing them to receive insufficient attention until it is too late to reverse the damage-and emerging technologies that have beneficial uses but that also can be used as weapons. The authors propose that a broader definition of global health security should be considered-one that would extend well beyond the threats of pandemics and bioweapons of mass destruction. They also maintain that global health security requires greater systematic focus on the complex interlinkages among human physical and mental health, animal health, and the environment. Policymakers will face the challenge of balancing agility and rapid decisionmaking during times of crisis with a holistic scope that encompasses both imminent and future threats. The authors recommend that infectious disease remain a priority of global health security and that efforts to increase collaboration and trust among international leaders be fostered. In addition, the authors argue that global health security must not come at the expense of efforts to advance global public health, well-being, and human rights.

Global Health Security

Author : Anthony J. Masys
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With our highly connected and interdependent world, the growing threat of infectious diseases and public health crisis has shed light on the requirement for global efforts to manage and combat highly pathogenic infectious diseases and other public health crisis on an unprecedented level. Such disease threats transcend borders. Reducing global threats posed by infectious disease outbreaks – whether naturally caused or resulting from a deliberate or accidental release – requires efforts that cross the disaster management pillars: mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. This book addresses the issues of global health security along 4 themes: Emerging Threats; Mitigation, Preparedness, Response and Recovery; Exploring the Technology Landscape for Solutions; Leadership and Partnership. The authors of this volume highlight many of the challenges that confront our global security environment today. These range from politically induced disasters, to food insecurity, to zoonosis and terrorism. More optimistically, the authors also present some advances in technology that can help us combat these threats. Understanding the challenges that confront us and the tools we have to overcome them will allow us to face our future with confidence.

Security and Public Health

Author : Simon Rushton
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For most Western governments, defending against the threat of infectious disease is now an accepted security priority. Deciding what resources and policies to put in place to protect populations from pandemics, however, involves difficult political choices. How can we get these decisions right? And what are we prepared to sacrifice to achieve better health security? In this book, Simon Rushton explores the politics of pandemics in the contemporary world. Looking back over three decades of public health, he traces national and international efforts to tackle infectious disease, focusing in-depth on three core areas in which securitization has been particularly successful: rapidly spreading pandemic diseases, HIV/AIDS and man-made pathogenic threats, such as biological weapons. Three central problems raised by common responses to disease as a security threat are then examined: the impact upon individuals and civil liberties; the tendency to treat the symptoms and not the underlying causes of disease outbreaks; and the limited range of diseases deemed worthy of global attention and action. Arguing against a tendency to treat global health security as a technical challenge, the book stresses the need for a vibrant, and even confrontational, political engagement around the implications of securitizing public health.

U S National Security and Global Health

Author : Eugene V. Bonventre
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Author : Andrew Lakoff
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"This book tells the story of how the fragile and still-uncertain machinery of global health security was cobbled together over a two-decade period, beginning in the early 1990s. It is neither a heroic account of visionary planning by enlightened health authorities, nor a sinister story of the securitization of disease by an ever-expansive governmental apparatus. Rather, it is a story of the assemblage of disparate elements - adapted from fields such as civil defense, emergency management and international public health - by well-meaning experts and officials, and of response failures that have typically led, in turn, to reforms that seek to strengthen or refocus the apparatus. The analysis centers on the ways that authorities - whether public health officials, national security experts, life scientists, or other privileged observers - conceptualize and act on an encroaching future of disease emergence. This uncertain future can be taken up and made into an object of present intervention according to multiple rationalities: as an object of probabilistic calculation, as a specter that must be avoided through precautionary intervention, or as a potential catastrophe that cannot be evaded but can only be prepared for. In the chapters that follow, we see how these various logics come into tension or combine in response to actual and anticipated disease emergencies."--Provided by publisher.

Global Health Governance

Author : Jeremy Youde
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In recent years the spread of diseases such as AIDS, SARS and avian flu has pushed health issues towards the top of the international agenda. Such outbreaks have serious political, economic, and social consequences and remind the world of the necessity of global cooperation in order to deal effectively with the challenges they pose. Global Health Governance offers a comprehensive introduction to the changing international legal environment, the governmental and non-governmental actors involved with health issues, and the current regime’s ability to adapt to new crises. Part 1 focuses on the evolution of international regulations aimed at stopping the spread of health problems across borders. Over the last 150 years, the nature of such cooperation, the motivations of the parties involved, and the diseases covered, has changed radically. Part 2 examines some of the most prominent actors in global health governance today, ranging from traditional intergovernmental organizations, such as the WHO and the World Bank, to private philanthropic organizations that exist outside regular global governance structures. Part 3 concentrates on some of the most pressing issues facing global health governance today, including access to pharmaceuticals, the costs and benefits of making health a security issue, and the role of civil society organizations. Global Health Governance provides an accessible and insightful analysis of an evolving realm of global governance and cooperation. It will appeal to students of global health politics, global governance, international organization, and human security.

Routledge Handbook of Global Health Security

Author : Simon Rushton
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"This new Handbook presents an overview of cutting-edge research in the growing field of global health security. Over the past decade, the study of global health has become an increasingly mainstream part of the International Relations agenda. Over the same period, scholars working in Public Health have begun to investigate the politics of global public health in more depth than ever before. The coming together of these two scholarly communities has resulted in the creation of a vibrant, cross-disciplinary and rapidly-growing field of research. One of the major themes apparent in this scholarly literature has been an examination of the linkages between security and health. This has been an area of lively debate, with discussions ongoing over the appropriate conceptualisation of health security; which (if any) health issues should be treated as security threats; what should be done to address health security threats; and the positive and negative consequences of securitizing health. In raising these questions, the academic literature has been critically reflecting on an emergent policy discourse in which states and other actors have increasingly been discussing and addressing selected health issues in security terms. Again, this has come from both sides of the health/security divide: security policy communities have added health (especially infectious disease threats) to their remits; and the Public Health community has attempted to leverage securitization in order to gain increased attention and resources for health issues. The health security field is, then, a timely and dynamic one in both academic and policy terms - an area of significant contemporary interest for scholars, students and policy-makers alike.This handbook would be the first work comprehensively to address the health security agenda. Bringing together the leading experts and commentators on health security issues from across the world, the volume comprises original and cutting-edge essays addressing the key issues in the field and also highlighting currently neglected avenues for future research. Aimed at an audience spanning academic researchers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students and policymakers and professionals, the book is intended to provide an accessible yet sophisticated introduction to the key topics and debates.The book is organized into four sections. Section I addresses some of the fundamental conceptual issues, including the historical links between health and security and the various ways of conceptualising health as a security issue. Section II focuses upon those health issues which have been most frequently discussed in security terms in the academic and policy discourses, in each case identifying the ways in which those issues have been discussed in health security terms, and assessing the evidence for and consequences of addressing them through a security lens. Section III of the book examines the wide range of contemporary security-driven responses to health threats, from state pandemic preparedness programmes to the various global efforts to mitigate health risk. Section IV takes a step back from these discussions, unpacking some of the major controversies which have attended the securitization of health, not least those concerns about its impact on rights and justice, as well as the potential distortion of the global health agenda. The volume will not take a position in the ongoing pro/anti-securitization debate. Rather it deliberately brings in authors from both sides of that debate, and those authors will be given the freedom to take their own position on the issues within their chapters. This book will of great interest to students of global health security, public health, critical security studies, and International Relations in general"--