Search results for: shield-earth-one

One Earth One Future

Author : National Academy of Sciences
File Size : 66.43 MB
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Written for nonscientists, One Earth, One Future can help individuals understand the basic science behind changes in the global environment and the resulting policy implications that the population of the entire planet must face. The volume describes the earth as a unified system--exploring the interactions between the atmosphere, land, and water and the snowballing impact that human activity is having on the system--and presents perspectives on policies and programs that can both develop and protect our natural resources. One Earth, One Future discusses why such seemingly diverse issues as historical climate change, species diversity, and sea-level rise are part of a single picture--and how human activity is the critical element in that picture. The book concludes with practical examinations of economic, security, and development questions, with a view toward achieving improvements in quality of life without further environmental degradation. One Earth, One Future is must reading for anyone interested in the interrelationship of environmental matters and public policy issues.

Research and Design of Snow Hydrology Sensors and Instrumentation

Author : Raman K. Attri
File Size : 46.79 MB
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This book is a collection of seven in-depth and detailed research papers authored by Dr. Raman K Attri between 1996 to 2005. The book presents early-career scientific work by the author as a scientist at a research organization. The book provides the conceptual background and key electronics and mechanical design principles used in designing sensors and instrumentation systems to measure snow hydrological parameters. The systems discussed in this book can be used to measure snow depth, layer temperature, temperature distribution profile, surface porosity, etc. The snow parameters measured from instruments and sensors discussed in this book are integrated into larger systems and are used in computer-driven models for snow avalanche predictions. The book presents the design challenges and design methods from electronics and instrumentation design point of view. While the book provides essential understanding of analog electronics design and associated mechanical design for snow hydrological sensors, the book also presents the background theoretical and mathematical models from snow hydrology physics that governs this electronics design. The first research paper discusses the design control techniques used to the design a remote surface detector to detect objects with porous, uneven, irregular surfaces like snow using ultrasonic beams. The second research paper describes signal processing techniques and electronics design approaches to design a snow depth sensor with improved sensitivity and directional response using Ultrasonic Pulse-Transit Method. The third research paper explains theoretical and mathematical model that governs the physical, mechanical, and electronics design to implement the theory of Arrayed Ultrasonic transducers to shape up the directional response and beam width of an ultrasonic beam to improve the chances of receiving sufficient reflection from the non-smooth, highly porous, uneven, non-planar, irregular snow surface. The fourth paper presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of Snow Temperature Profile Sensing System used to measure the temperature gradient and temperature distributions within and outside the snowpack at different depths. The fifth research paper focuses on describing the design of Snow Temperature Profile Sensing System in details and discusses the theoretical and mathematical model that outline important temperature parameters. Then the paper describes how the system is implemented to record or measure those parameters. The sixth paper presents the design considerations, constraints and design techniques used to use RTD temperature sensors for snow temperature measurement applications. The paper also presents the performance evaluation and suitability of such sensors. The seventh paper focuses design techniques for front-end analog signal conditioning module and the design challenges faced when interfacing analog unit to a data acquisition system. The eighth paper describes the design of snow air temperature sensing probe and methods to ensure that it measures true air temperature over a snow cover and is not influenced by solar radiations and winds. The book may be read as an applied text-book in conjunction with standard electronics and instrumentation design textbooks. The book will guide students on how to apply basic principles of instrumentation systems design, integrate concepts of physical sciences and measurement sciences for the field applications.

Mechanised Shield Tunnelling

Author : Bernhard Maidl
File Size : 59.45 MB
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Since its early beginnings in 1806, this type of tunnelling has become one of the most important techniques. While Japan's current pioneering role cannot be denied, the state of development in Europe has reached a high level of international recognition. This book explains the history of this construction method, outlining basic information and presenting the various types of shields and linings with the corresponding equipment and range of applications. It examines various projects, including not only such large ones as the Channel or the Belt tunnel, but also small, equally interesting projects such as underground railways. The problems involved as well the technology used to confront them are fully described, and the text is structured in such a way that readers are led from the basics of this construction method, via the essential functional elements of the shield machines and on to the different types of shields. The universality of the book is guaranteed by the three expert authors, a researcher, machine manufacturer and contractor respectively. Invaluable for current and future tunnelling projects and a must for all those working in the field.

Conference on Shielding of High energy Accelerators Held at New York April 11 to 13 1957

Author : U.S. Atomic Energy Commission
File Size : 63.18 MB
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Coming Back to Earth

Author : James Clarke
File Size : 66.62 MB
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This book is a current, comprehensive and holistic assessment of the challenges facing a developing African state within the global context and is an up-to-the-minute review of the state of the South African environment.

Mysteries of Mars

Author : Fabio Vittorio De Blasio
File Size : 32.65 MB
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This book introduces the reader to the wonders of Mars, covering all aspects from our past perceptions of the planet through to the latest knowledge on its history, its surface processes such as impact cratering, volcano formation, and glaciation, and its atmosphere and climate. In addition, a series of ten intriguing open issues are considered in a more advanced way. These include such thought-provoking questions as What turned off the planet’s magnetic field?, Why are the northern and southern hemispheres so different?, What was the fate of the once abundant water?, and Is there, or was there, life on Mars? Numerous original figures, unavailable elsewhere, reproduce details of images from Viking, CTX, MOC, HiRISE, THEMIS, and HRSC. The book will appeal especially to general readers interested in planetary sciences, astronomy, astrogeology, and space exploration and to students of Earth Sciences and Natural and Environmental Sciences. The higher-level material on the remaining mysteries of Mars will also be of interest to astrogeologists and other researchers.

Parametric Model of a Lunar Base for Mass and Cost Estimates

Author : Peter Eckart
File Size : 30.73 MB
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London s Underground

Author : Oliver Green
File Size : 83.27 MB
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It is impossible to imagine London without the Tube: the beating heart of the city, the Underground shuttles over a billion passengers each year below its busy streets and across its leafy suburbs. The distinctive roundel, colour-coded maps and Johnston typeface have become design classics, recognised and imitated worldwide. Opening in 1863, the first sections were operated by steam engines, yet throughout its long history the Tube has been at the forefront of contemporary design, pioneering building techniques, electrical trains and escalators, and business planning. Architects such as Leslie W. Green and Charles Holden developed a distinctively English version of Modernism, and the latest stations for the Jubilee line extension, Overground and Elizabeth line carry this aesthetic forward into the twenty-first century. In this major work published in association with Transport for London, Tube expert Oliver Green traces the history of the Underground, following its troubles and triumphs, its wartime and peacetime work, and the essential part it has played in shaping London’s economy, geography, tourism and identity. Specially commissioned photography by Benjamin Graham (UK Landscape Photographer of the Year 2017) brings the story to life in vivid portraits of London Underground’s stations, tunnels and trains.

Functionality Advancements and Industrial Applications of Heat Pipes

Author : Bahman Zohuri
File Size : 67.78 MB
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Functionality, Advancements and Industrial Applications of Heat Pipes introduces heat pipe technologies and highlights a variety of applications for passive thermal control. The book begins with a thorough analysis of heat pipe infrastructure, including principles of operation, temperature limits, reliability and lessons learned from worked examples and case studies. It also presents a concise design guideline for the assembly of heat pipes. The second part moves on to consider a variety of modern day applications for the heat pipe principles discussed, covering nuclear and solar thermal energy engineering facilities as well as applications in space, in the sea and in the air. A final section works through manufacturing elements of different types of heat pipe to ensure they are well maintained and remain fully operational. This section includes the cleaning of parts, the assembly of the heat pipe, an analysis of gas blockages and how to deal with them, as well as performance versification. Analyzes a wide variety of heat pipes used in various settings, including constant-conductance heat pipes, loop heat pipes and wrap around heat pipes Considers applications at sea, in the air, on land and in space, including the nuclear and solar energy industries, heat pipes in spacecraft and heat pipe reactors Includes a heat pipe assembly and design guide, as well as an analysis of lessons learned from different case studies

Mountains of Fire

Author : Robert W. Decker
File Size : 77.49 MB
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Discusses the causes and nature of volcanic eruptions and includes eyewitness accounts of major eruptions