Search results for: silicon-in-the-quantum-limit

Silicon in the Quantum Limit

Author : Charles George Tahan
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Approaching the Quantum Limit of Photodetection in Solid State Detectors with Internal Signal Amplification

Author : David Hall
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This thesis offers three physical device concepts to overcome limitations in conventional solid-state photodetectors. Tradeoff between sensitivity, bandwidth and dynamic range is a pressing issue for detectors that must meet the demands of imaging and communications applications. Single photon sensitivity has long been possible in a solid-state detector, but with no dynamic range at the device level, and bandwidth on the order of 10 MHz, far below the requirements for modern communications. Detectors reaching 40 GHz bandwidth and exceeding 20 dB dynamic range are now in wide use, but the fundamental physics of these devices limits the sensitivity to only 1000 photons in practical operating conditions. This thesis presents theoretical and experimental progress in three main thrusts that are promising in developing a detector that can maintain large dynamic range and high bandwidth while reaching the ultimate sensitivity limit of a single photon. The first device covered is a device which incorporates multiple gain mechanisms in a single device. Rather than relying solely on avalanche gain, this device incorporates bipolar gain which relaxes the excess noise burden experienced by conventional avalanche detectors. Negative feedback is also shown to play a role in regulating the gain and reducing noise. The second and third device concepts utilize localized states in disordered material to exploit a host of physical phenomena. Localized states are known to increase carrier excitation probability by relaxing the k-selection rule of momentum conservation. Auger excitation and electron phonon coupling play a role in this new internal signal amplification mechanism, called Cycling Excitation Processes (CEP). CEP is first presented in crystalline silicon, where localization is achieved through heavy doping and partial compensation. Impressive performance in terms of gain, responsivity and noise are promising for realizing the goal of a next generation solid-state detector approaching the quantum limit. Despite the merits, CEP in crystalline silicon suffers from high dark current due to heavy doping. Amorphous silicon is presented as an alternative means of achieving localization to realize CEP. High speed and high sensitivity capability is demonstrated. While the work is ongoing as of the writing of this thesis, a clear research plan is in place for realizing an amorphous silicon CEP detector capable of high bandwidth and single photon detection.

Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits

Author : Horst Zimmermann
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Explains the circuit design of silicon optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs), which are central to advances in wireless and wired telecommunications. The essential features of optical absorption are summarized, as is the device physics of photodetectors and their integration in modern bipolar, CMOS, and BiCMOS technologies. This information provides the basis for understanding the underlying mechanisms of the OEICs described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, Silicon Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits presents detailed descriptions of many OEICs for a wide variety of applications from various optical sensors, smart sensors, 3D-cameras, and optical storage systems (DVD) to fiber receivers in deep-sub-μm CMOS. Numerous detailed illustrations help to elucidate the material.

Journal of the Physical Society of Japan

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Miniaturized Silicon Photodetectors

Author : Maurizio Casalino
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Silicon (Si) technologies provide an excellent platform for the design of microsystems where photonic and microelectronic functionalities are monolithically integrated on the same substrate. In recent years, a variety of passive and active Si photonic devices have been developed, and among them, photodetectors have attracted particular interest from the scientific community. Si photodiodes are typically designed to operate at visible wavelengths, but, unfortunately, their employment in the infrared (IR) range is limited due to the neglectable Si absorption over 1100 nm, even though the use of germanium (Ge) grown on Si has historically allowed operations to be extended up to 1550 nm. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved both by improving the performance of Si-based photodetectors in the visible range and by extending their operation to infrared wavelengths. Near-infrared (NIR) SiGe photodetectors have been demonstrated to have a “zero change” CMOS process flow, while the investigation of new effects and structures has shown that an all-Si approach could be a viable option to construct devices comparable with Ge technology. In addition, the capability to integrate new emerging 2D and 3D materials with Si, together with the capability of manufacturing devices at the nanometric scale, has led to the development of new device families with unexpected performance. Accordingly, this Special Issue of Micromachines seeks to showcase research papers, short communications, and review articles that show the most recent advances in the field of silicon photodetectors and their respective applications.

Silicon Earth

Author : John D. Cressler
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We are in the center of the most life-changing technological revolution the Earth has ever known. In little more than 65 years, an eye-blink in human history, a single technological invention has launched the proverbial thousand ships, producing the most sweeping and pervasive set of changes ever to wash over humankind; changes that are reshaping the very core of human existence, on a global scale, at a relentlessly accelerating pace. And we are just at the very beginning. Silicon Earth: Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology introduces readers with little or no technical background to the marvels of microelectronics and nanotechnology, using straightforward language, an intuitive approach, minimal math, and lots of pictures. The general scientific and engineering underpinnings of microelectronics and nanotechnology are described, as well as how this new technological revolution is transforming a broad array of interdisciplinary fields, and civilization as a whole. Special "widget deconstruction" chapters address the inner workings of ubiquitous micro/nano-enabled pieces of technology, such as smartphones, flash drives, and digital cameras. Completely updated and upgraded to full color, the Second Edition: Includes new material on the design of electronic systems, the future of electronics, and the societal impact of micro/nanotechnology Provides new widget deconstructions of cutting-edge tech gadgets like the GPS-enabled smartwatch Adds end-of-chapter study questions and hundreds of new color photos Silicon Earth: Introduction to Microelectronics and Nanotechnology, Second Edition is a pick-up-and-read-cover-to-cover book for those curious about the micro/nanoworld, as well as a classroom-tested, student-and-professor-approved text ideal for an undergraduate-level university course. Lecture slides, homework examples, a deconstruction project, and discussion threads are available via an author-maintained website.

Physics Briefs

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Silicon based Heterostructure Materials

Author : Zhizhen Ye
File Size : 30.76 MB
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Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Heterostructures Based on Calcium Fluoride silicon 111

Author : Robert W. Fathauer
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IEICE Transactions on Electronics

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Semiconductors

Author :
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English translation of Fizika i tekhnika poluprovodnikov; covers semiconductor research in countries of the Former Soviet Union. Topics include semiconductor theory, transport phenomena in semiconductors, optics, magneto-optics, and electro-optics of semiconductors, semiconductor lasers, and semiconductor surface physics. Includes book reviews.

The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Author : Tapash Chakraborty
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There have been tremendous theoretical and experimental developments in recent years in the field of the fractional quantum Hall effect. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect presents a general survey of most of the theoretical work and briefly reviews the experimental results on the excitation gap. Researchers, experimentalists and research students with a background in quantum mechanics and statistical physics should find this book useful.

Fiber Optics

Author : Peter K. Cheo
File Size : 75.66 MB
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International Aerospace Abstracts

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Electronic Properties of Two dimensional Systems

Author : Gerhard Dorda
File Size : 81.60 MB
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Silicon Nanowires for Nanoelectromechanical Systems

Author : Rongrui He
File Size : 44.31 MB
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Novel Processing Toward Obtaining Functionally graded Silicon based Optoelectronic Materials

Author : David John Duval
File Size : 73.3 MB
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The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect

Author : Tapash Chakraborty
File Size : 56.20 MB
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There have been tremendous theoretical and experimental developments in recent years in the field of the fractional quantum Hall effect. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect presents a general survey of most of the theoretical work and briefly reviews the experimental results on the excitation gap. Researchers, experimentalists and research students with a background in quantum mechanics and statistical physics should find this book useful.

The Quantum Hall Effects

Author : Tapash Chakraborty
File Size : 56.65 MB
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Dissertation Abstracts International

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