Search results for: smoking-prevention-and-cessation

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Giuseppe La Torre
File Size : 49.50 MB
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Tobacco smoking is considered the big killer and one of the most avoidable risk factors for many human pathologies. Reducing and controlling tobacco smoking should be a primary aim for a certain population, in order to reduce harms to health caused by this important risk factor, and it seems urgent to adopt intervention tools involved in responsibility fields such as health care, education, politics, economy and media. Among health professionals the prevalence of tobacco smoke is extremely high, more than other professional categories, and this could be partly attributed to a low weight that tobacco smoking has in the medical curriculum of future physicians, that will contribute in a determinant way to healthy choices of their patients. In order to realise that, the medical students need to be adequately trained with the aim of acquire competences and skills that help patients to prevent tobacco smoking and to increase smoking cessation, through a programme oriented to specific issue related to the potential harm of tobacco products. A survey conducted by Ferry et al. in the American Schools of Medicine underlined the lack of courses related to tobacco smoking. Moreover, a randomised trial carried out by Cummings et al., the Schools of Medicine result as the ideal setting to teach smoking cessation techniques to health professionals. The National Cancer Institute in 1992 recommended that primary and secondary prevention interventions on tobacco smoking will become mandatory in the curriculum of Medical USA students. However, until now this recommendation still is far from being fully implemented. The aim of the book is to give an overview on the epidemiology of tobacco smoking among different settings and populations, but with a special focus on health professionals and medicals students, and to show available examples of smoking prevention and cessation training in different settings.

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Mirjana Rajer
File Size : 26.79 MB
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Smoking was and remains one of the most important public healthcare issues. It is estimated that every year six million people die as a result of tobacco consumption. Several diseases are caused or worsened by smoking: different cancer types, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases and others. In this book we describe the different toxic effects of smoke on the human body in active and in passive smokers. It is also well known that many people who smoke wish to quit, but they rarely succeed. Smoking prevention and cessation are of utmost importance, thus we also describe different strategies and aspects of these issues. We hope that this book will help readers to understand better the effects of smoking and learn about new ideas on how to effectively help other people to stop smoking.

Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents

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BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent smoking uptake or encourage cessation among children or adolescents may help slow or halt increased tobacco-related illness. PURPOSE: To systematically review evidence for the efficacy and harms of primary care interventions to prevent tobacco initiation and encourage tobacco cessation among children and adolescents. METHODS: We identified three good-quality systematic reviews published since the previous USPSTF recommendation was released; two systematic reviews addressed smoking prevention that collectively covered the relevant literature through July 2002, and one Cochrane review addressed smoking cessation that included trials through August 2009. We examined the included and excluded studies of these reviews and then searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects to identify literature that was published after the search dates of the three prior systematic reviews. We also examined the references from 20 other good-quality systematic reviews and other relevant publications, searched Web sites of government agencies for grey literature (February to September 2011), and monitored health news Web sites and journal tables of contents (beginning in January 2011) to identify potentially eligible trials. Two investigators independently reviewed identified abstracts and full-text articles against a set of a priori inclusion and quality criteria. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. One investigator abstracted data into an evidence table and a second investigator checked these data. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to estimate the effect size of smoking prevention or cessation interventions on self-reported smoking status. We grouped trials based on the focus of the trial--combined prevention and cessation, prevention, or cessation. RESULTS: We included 24 articles representing 19 unique studies. None of the studies examined childhood or longer-term health outcomes (e.g., respiratory health or adult smoking). Seven trials evaluating combined prevention and cessation interventions were mainly rated as fair quality and included a diverse mix of intervention components and approaches. Pooled analyses of six of the combined trials (n=8,749) resulted in a nonstatistically significant difference in the smoking prevalence among the intervention group compared with the control group at 6- to 12-months followup. Pooled analyses across all of the prevention trials suggested a small reduction in smoking initiation at 6- to 12-months followup among intervention participants compared with control group participants (risk ratio, 0.81 [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.93]; k=9; n=26,624). Meta-analyses of the behavior-based cessation trials (k=7; n=2,328) and the medication (bupropion) cessation trials (k=2; n=256) did not show a statistically significant effect on self-reported smoking status among baseline smokers at 6- to 12-months followup. No trials evaluating behavior-based interventions (both prevention and cessation) reported possible harms from interventions. Some trials, however, reported a higher absolute prevalence of smoking in the intervention groups compared with the control groups, although none were statistically significant. Three studies were included that examined adverse effects related to bupropion use, and findings were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among children and adolescents represent a clinically and methodologically heterogeneous body of literature. Overall, methodological differences between the included trials limits our ability to determine if the relatively small effect found on smoking initiation in this subset of trials represents true benefit across this body of literature. In particular, the measurement of smoking status, including what constituted smoking initiation and cessation, varied across all studies. In addition, the diversity of both the components and the intensity of the interventions limit our ability to draw conclusions about common efficacious elements.

Smoking Prevention and Smoking Cessation

Author : New Jersey Smoking and Health Project
File Size : 37.76 MB
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A Rationale for Effective Smoking Prevention and Cessation Interventions in Minority Communities

Author : J. Emilio Carrillo
File Size : 34.78 MB
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Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Mirjana Rajer
File Size : 37.13 MB
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Smoking was and remains one of the most important public healthcare issues. It is estimated that every year six million people die as a result of tobacco consumption. Several diseases are caused or worsened by smoking: different cancer types, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases and others. In this book we describe the different toxic effects of smoke on the human body in active and in passive smokers. It is also well known that many people who smoke wish to quit, but they rarely succeed. Smoking prevention and cessation are of utmost importance, thus we also describe different strategies and aspects of these issues. We hope that this book will help readers to understand better the effects of smoking and learn about new ideas on how to effectively help other people to stop smoking.

Supporting Tobacco Cessation

Author : Ravara, Sofia Belo
File Size : 55.25 MB
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This Monograph provides a comprehensive overview of tobacco cessation, from health policy to patient care. Broad in scope, this state-of-the art collection is broken down into four sections: the changing landscape of the tobacco epidemic and challenges to curb it; treatment of tobacco dependence (pharmacotherapy, behavioural support); improving the care of patients with particular conditions who smoke (asthma, COPD, TB, cardiovascular diseases, etc.); and prevention. It also deals with some of the more controversial topics such as e-cigarettes and web applications. Readers will gain an understanding of how to implement smoking cessation into their everyday practice, but will also expand their knowledge about the policy and systems changes needed for population-wide smoking cessation.

Adolescent Smoking and Health Research

Author : Martin M. Lapointe
File Size : 40.89 MB
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Cigarette smoking during childhood and adolescence produces significant health problems among young people, including cough and phlegm production, an increase in the number and severity of respiratory illnesses, decreased physical fitness, an unfavourable lipid profile and potential retardation in the rate of lung growth and the level of maximum lung function in addition to leading to long-term smoking and the numerous diseases connected with that including cancer and others. In this new book adolescent smoking is researched pertaining to the health complications that young adults will endure, as well as the different social aspects of what causes an adolescent to begin smoking in the first place including peer pressure. Several methods of smoking cessation are discussed.

Ending the Tobacco Problem

Author : Institute of Medicine
File Size : 74.66 MB
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The nation has made tremendous progress in reducing tobacco use during the past 40 years. Despite extensive knowledge about successful interventions, however, approximately one-quarter of American adults still smoke. Tobacco-related illnesses and death place a huge burden on our society. Ending the Tobacco Problem generates a blueprint for the nation in the struggle to reduce tobacco use. The report reviews effective prevention and treatment interventions and considers a set of new tobacco control policies for adoption by federal and state governments. Carefully constructed with two distinct parts, the book first provides background information on the history and nature of tobacco use, developing the context for the policy blueprint proposed in the second half of the report. The report documents the extraordinary growth of tobacco use during the first half of the 20th century as well as its subsequent reversal in the mid-1960s (in the wake of findings from the Surgeon General). It also reviews the addictive properties of nicotine, delving into the factors that make it so difficult for people to quit and examines recent trends in tobacco use. In addition, an overview of the development of governmental and nongovernmental tobacco control efforts is provided. After reviewing the ethical grounding of tobacco control, the second half of the book sets forth to present a blueprint for ending the tobacco problem. The book offers broad-reaching recommendations targeting federal, state, local, nonprofit and for-profit entities. This book also identifies the benefits to society when fully implementing effective tobacco control interventions and policies.

Smoking Cessation with Weight Gain Prevention

Author : Bonnie Spring
File Size : 62.10 MB
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Cigarette smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of death, disease, and disability in the United States. It is the number one cancer killer of women, surpassing breast cancer. More than 70% of smokers have expressed a desire to quit, but are unable to do so alone. Independent cessation is extremely difficult, with a long-term success rate of 3-9%.Couple this difficulty with the fact that many female (and some male) smokers do not even try to quit because they are afraid of the resulting weight gain, and it seems a near impossibility for smokers to quit alone. Any amount of counseling, from even one ten-minute session, drastically improves a person's chances for cessation success. Many therapists have clients who smoke, yet they do not encourage them to quit because they feel under-equipped to help them. There are very few books for mental health workers that teach smoking cessation techniques; almost all of the books on the market are self-help based. Of those that are for the clinician, most are not user-friendly at all, and none discuss the secondary concerns of weight gain. This guide teaches therapists, in easy to follow session modules, proven methods for their clients to stop smoking, and to avoid the resulting weight gain. Structured as a 16-week group program, this treatment teaches clients to break their smoking habit first, then to avoid replacing that habit with unhealthy eating. Using cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), this treatment emphasizes skill-building and the use of self-monitoring forms (found in the accompanying workbook) to help clients take control of their health. TreatmentsThatWorkTM represents the gold standard of behavioral healthcare interventions! · All programs have been rigorously tested in clinical trials and are backed by years of research · A prestigious scientific advisory board, led by series Editor-In-Chief David H. Barlow, reviews and evaluates each intervention to ensure that it meets the highest standard of evidence so you can be confident that you are using the most effective treatment available to date · Our books are reliable and effective and make it easy for you to provide your clients with the best care available · Our corresponding workbooks contain psychoeducational information, forms and worksheets, and homework assignments to keep clients engaged and motivated · A companion website (www.oup.com/us/ttw) offers downloadable clinical tools and helpful resources · Continuing Education (CE) Credits are now available on select titles in collaboration with PsychoEducational Resources, Inc. (PER)