Search results for: smoking-prevention-and-cessation

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Mirjana Rajer
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Smoking was and remains one of the most important public healthcare issues. It is estimated that every year six million people die as a result of tobacco consumption. Several diseases are caused or worsened by smoking: different cancer types, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases and others. In this book we describe the different toxic effects of smoke on the human body in active and in passive smokers. It is also well known that many people who smoke wish to quit, but they rarely succeed. Smoking prevention and cessation are of utmost importance, thus we also describe different strategies and aspects of these issues. We hope that this book will help readers to understand better the effects of smoking and learn about new ideas on how to effectively help other people to stop smoking.

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Giuseppe La Torre
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Tobacco smoking is considered the big killer and one of the most avoidable risk factors for many human pathologies. Reducing and controlling tobacco smoking should be a primary aim for a certain population, in order to reduce harms to health caused by this important risk factor, and it seems urgent to adopt intervention tools involved in responsibility fields such as health care, education, politics, economy and media. Among health professionals the prevalence of tobacco smoke is extremely high, more than other professional categories, and this could be partly attributed to a low weight that tobacco smoking has in the medical curriculum of future physicians, that will contribute in a determinant way to healthy choices of their patients. In order to realise that, the medical students need to be adequately trained with the aim of acquire competences and skills that help patients to prevent tobacco smoking and to increase smoking cessation, through a programme oriented to specific issue related to the potential harm of tobacco products. A survey conducted by Ferry et al. in the American Schools of Medicine underlined the lack of courses related to tobacco smoking. Moreover, a randomised trial carried out by Cummings et al., the Schools of Medicine result as the ideal setting to teach smoking cessation techniques to health professionals. The National Cancer Institute in 1992 recommended that primary and secondary prevention interventions on tobacco smoking will become mandatory in the curriculum of Medical USA students. However, until now this recommendation still is far from being fully implemented. The aim of the book is to give an overview on the epidemiology of tobacco smoking among different settings and populations, but with a special focus on health professionals and medicals students, and to show available examples of smoking prevention and cessation training in different settings.

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

Author : Mirjana Rajer
File Size : 47.47 MB
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Smoking was and remains one of the most important public healthcare issues. It is estimated that every year six million people die as a result of tobacco consumption. Several diseases are caused or worsened by smoking: different cancer types, heart disease, stroke, lung diseases and others. In this book we describe the different toxic effects of smoke on the human body in active and in passive smokers. It is also well known that many people who smoke wish to quit, but they rarely succeed. Smoking prevention and cessation are of utmost importance, thus we also describe different strategies and aspects of these issues. We hope that this book will help readers to understand better the effects of smoking and learn about new ideas on how to effectively help other people to stop smoking.

A Rationale for Effective Smoking Prevention and Cessation Interventions in Minority Communities

Author : J. Emilio Carrillo
File Size : 37.66 MB
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Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents

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BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent smoking uptake or encourage cessation among children or adolescents may help slow or halt increased tobacco-related illness. PURPOSE: To systematically review evidence for the efficacy and harms of primary care interventions to prevent tobacco initiation and encourage tobacco cessation among children and adolescents. METHODS: We identified three good-quality systematic reviews published since the previous USPSTF recommendation was released; two systematic reviews addressed smoking prevention that collectively covered the relevant literature through July 2002, and one Cochrane review addressed smoking cessation that included trials through August 2009. We examined the included and excluded studies of these reviews and then searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects to identify literature that was published after the search dates of the three prior systematic reviews. We also examined the references from 20 other good-quality systematic reviews and other relevant publications, searched Web sites of government agencies for grey literature (February to September 2011), and monitored health news Web sites and journal tables of contents (beginning in January 2011) to identify potentially eligible trials. Two investigators independently reviewed identified abstracts and full-text articles against a set of a priori inclusion and quality criteria. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. One investigator abstracted data into an evidence table and a second investigator checked these data. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to estimate the effect size of smoking prevention or cessation interventions on self-reported smoking status. We grouped trials based on the focus of the trial--combined prevention and cessation, prevention, or cessation. RESULTS: We included 24 articles representing 19 unique studies. None of the studies examined childhood or longer-term health outcomes (e.g., respiratory health or adult smoking). Seven trials evaluating combined prevention and cessation interventions were mainly rated as fair quality and included a diverse mix of intervention components and approaches. Pooled analyses of six of the combined trials (n=8,749) resulted in a nonstatistically significant difference in the smoking prevalence among the intervention group compared with the control group at 6- to 12-months followup. Pooled analyses across all of the prevention trials suggested a small reduction in smoking initiation at 6- to 12-months followup among intervention participants compared with control group participants (risk ratio, 0.81 [95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.93]; k=9; n=26,624). Meta-analyses of the behavior-based cessation trials (k=7; n=2,328) and the medication (bupropion) cessation trials (k=2; n=256) did not show a statistically significant effect on self-reported smoking status among baseline smokers at 6- to 12-months followup. No trials evaluating behavior-based interventions (both prevention and cessation) reported possible harms from interventions. Some trials, however, reported a higher absolute prevalence of smoking in the intervention groups compared with the control groups, although none were statistically significant. Three studies were included that examined adverse effects related to bupropion use, and findings were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among children and adolescents represent a clinically and methodologically heterogeneous body of literature. Overall, methodological differences between the included trials limits our ability to determine if the relatively small effect found on smoking initiation in this subset of trials represents true benefit across this body of literature. In particular, the measurement of smoking status, including what constituted smoking initiation and cessation, varied across all studies. In addition, the diversity of both the components and the intensity of the interventions limit our ability to draw conclusions about common efficacious elements.

Smoking Prevention and Cessation

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Changes in Cigarette related Disease Risks and Their Implication for Prevention and Control

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This volume presents results from three large, more contemporary prospective mortality studies and provides longer followup for two of the older studies dating from the 1950's. When observations from the more contemporary studies are compared with those from the 1950's, one important but disturbing conclusion is apparent - mortality risks among continuing smokers, both males and females, have increased. In fact, relative risks for smokers compared to never-smokers have increased for all major smoking-related diseases - coronary heart disease (CHD), lung cancer, other smoking-related cancers, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This increase over time in the relative risks for smokers compared to never-smokers has occured despite a dramatic decline in cardiovascular disease (CVD) death rates in the U.S. population, suggesting that the decline in CVD death rates has been proportionately greater among never-smokers than among continuing smokers. The clearest message that is drawn from the enormous quantity of data presented in this monograph is that smoking prevention and cessation efforts are complementary, not alternative, solutions to the current epidemic of diseases caused by smoking.

Primary Care Relevant Interventions for Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation in Children and Adolescents a Systematic Evidence Review for the U S Preventive Services Task Force

Author : U. S. Department of Health and Human Services
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In 2003, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued a recommendation on screening and counseling to prevent initiation and promote cessation of tobacco use in children and adolescents. This recommendation was based on evidence synthesized for the 2000 Public Health Service (PHS) “Clinical Practice Guideline on Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence.” The PHS report focused specifically on tobacco-use treatment, including a review of the effectiveness of tobacco-use interventions for adolescent smokers. In contrast, the current systematic review examines the benefits and harms of strategies designed to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use through primary care relevant prevention and cessation interventions in children and adolescents. The USPSTF will use this review to update its 2003 recommendation. Most tobacco users in the United States are cigarette smokers. As a result, the majority of research in this field has focused on the assessment, prevention, and treatment of cigarette smoking. In this report, every effort has been made to describe the research according to the specific form of tobacco (e.g., cigarette smoking or all tobacco use) that was examined. In particular, the term “smoker” is used instead of “tobacco user” to indicate if the evidence comes from studies of cigarette smokers. We included trials conducted in, referred from, or potentially feasible for (or referable from) health care settings. We describe these collectively as “primary care relevant.” In addition, in this report, “prevention” refers to preventing the initiation of tobacco use or maintaining abstinence among nonusers, whereas “cessation” refers to supporting a smoker or tobacco user in stopping use/quitting. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. An estimated 443,000 deaths occur annually that are attributable to smoking, including nearly 161,000 deaths from cancer, 128,000 by cardiovascular diseases, and 103,000 by respiratory diseases (excluding deaths from secondhand smoking and residential fires). Tobacco use leads to more deaths than HIV, illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined. Tobacco's toll is not only physical, but also economic, as smoking costs the United States approximately $96 billion each year in direct medical costs and $97 billion from productivity losses due to premature death. While cigarette smoking is the predominant form of tobacco use in the United States, other tobacco products include cigars, pipes, and smokeless tobacco products (e.g., chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco, and snuff). Newer tobacco products include bidis, kreteks, smoking tobacco through the use of a hookah (i.e., waterpipe), snus, dissolvables, electronic nicotine delivery systems, and little cigars/cigarillos.This review examined the benefits and harms of primary care relevant interventions designed to both prevent tobacco use in children and adolescents and help child and adolescent tobacco users stop using tobacco. The KQs we examined were: KQ 1. Do interventions in primary care designed to prevent tobacco use or improve tobacco cessation rates in children and adolescents improve health outcomes in children and adolescents (i.e., respiratory health, dental/oral health) and reduce the likelihood of adult smoking? KQ 2. Do interventions in primary care prevent tobacco use in children and adolescents or improve tobacco cessation rates in children and adolescents who use tobacco? What are elements of efficacious interventions? Are there differences in outcomes in different subgroups, as defined by age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, type or pattern of tobacco use, urban versus rural, depressed versus nondepressed? KQ 3. What adverse effects are associated with interventions to improve tobacco cessation rates or prevent tobacco use in children and adolescents?

Smoking Cessation with Weight Gain Prevention

Author : Bonnie Spring
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Cigarette smoking is the single greatest preventable cause of death, disease, and disability in the United States. It is the number one cancer killer of women, surpassing breast cancer. More than 70% of smokers have expressed a desire to quit, but are unable to do so alone. Independent cessation is extremely difficult, with a long-term success rate of 3-9%.Couple this difficulty with the fact that many female (and some male) smokers do not even try to quit because they are afraid of the resulting weight gain, and it seems a near impossibility for smokers to quit alone. Any amount of counseling, from even one ten-minute session, drastically improves a person's chances for cessation success. Many therapists have clients who smoke, yet they do not encourage them to quit because they feel under-equipped to help them. There are very few books for mental health workers that teach smoking cessation techniques; almost all of the books on the market are self-help based. Of those that are for the clinician, most are not user-friendly at all, and none discuss the secondary concerns of weight gain. This guide teaches therapists, in easy to follow session modules, proven methods for their clients to stop smoking, and to avoid the resulting weight gain. Structured as a 16-week group program, this treatment teaches clients to break their smoking habit first, then to avoid replacing that habit with unhealthy eating. Using cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), this treatment emphasizes skill-building and the use of self-monitoring forms (found in the accompanying workbook) to help clients take control of their health. TreatmentsThatWorkTM represents the gold standard of behavioral healthcare interventions! · All programs have been rigorously tested in clinical trials and are backed by years of research · A prestigious scientific advisory board, led by series Editor-In-Chief David H. Barlow, reviews and evaluates each intervention to ensure that it meets the highest standard of evidence so you can be confident that you are using the most effective treatment available to date · Our books are reliable and effective and make it easy for you to provide your clients with the best care available · Our corresponding workbooks contain psychoeducational information, forms and worksheets, and homework assignments to keep clients engaged and motivated · A companion website (www.oup.com/us/ttw) offers downloadable clinical tools and helpful resources · Continuing Education (CE) Credits are now available on select titles in collaboration with PsychoEducational Resources, Inc. (PER)

Smoking

Author : Li Ping Wong
File Size : 73.2 MB
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Smoking can lead to a variety of ongoing complications in the body, as well as long-term effects on body systems. While smoking can increase the risk of a variety of problems over several years, some of the bodily effects are immediate. This book provides a comprehensive overview of opinions and research findings on smoking and its harmful effects and serves as a valuable reference for researchers and the general public. The issue of electronic cigarettes is one of the most controversial topics in public health. This book also provides an overview of electronic cigarettes and their efficacy as smoking cessation aids. Because there is intense debate and dividing opinions about their use patterns and health concerns, up-to-date evidence of the health risks and safety of electronic cigarettes are discussed. This book also highlights the policies and regulations on electronic cigarettes that vary across countries. Lastly, readers are also enlightened on the future perspectives of electronic cigarettes and whether they are a threat or an opportunity for public health.