Search results for: social-adaptation-to-food-stress

Social Adaptation to Food Stress

Author : Paul E. Minnis
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Combining anthropology, archeology, and evolutionary theory, Paul E. Minnis develops a model of how tribal societies deal with severe food shortages. While focusing on the prehistory of the Rio Mimbres region of New Mexico, he provides comparative data from the Fringe Enga of New Guinea, the Tikopia of Tikopia Island, and the Gwembe Tonga of South Africa. Minnis proposes that, faced with the threat of food shortages, nonstratified societies survive by employing a series of responses that are increasingly effective but also are increasingly costly and demand increasingly larger cooperative efforts. The model Minnis develops allows him to infer, from evidence of such factors as population size, resource productivity, and climate change, the occurrence of food crises in the past. Using the Classic Mimbres society as a test case, he summarizes the regional archeological sequence and analyzes the effects of environmental fluctuations on economic and social organization. He concludes that the responses of the Mimbres people to their burgeoning population were inadequate to prevent the collapse of the society in the late twelfth century. In its illumination of the general issue of responses to food shortages, Social Adaptation to Food Stress will interest not only archeologists but also those concerned with current food shortages in the Third World. Cultural ecologists and human geographers will be able to derive a wealth of ideas, methods, and data from Minnis's work.

Social Adaptation to Food Stress

Author : Paul E. Minnis
File Size : 41.81 MB
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Combining anthropology, archeology, and evolutionary theory, Paul E. Minnis develops a model of how tribal societies deal with severe food shortages. While focusing on the prehistory of the Rio Mimbres region of New Mexico, he provides comparative data from the Fringe Enga of New Guinea, the Tikopia of Tikopia Island, and the Gwembe Tonga of South Africa. Minnis proposes that, faced with the threat of food shortages, nonstratified societies survive by employing a series of responses that are increasingly effective but also are increasingly costly and demand increasingly larger cooperative efforts. The model Minnis develops allows him to infer, from evidence of such factors as population size, resource productivity, and climate change, the occurrence of food crises in the past. Using the Classic Mimbres society as a test case, he summarizes the regional archeological sequence and analyzes the effects of environmental fluctuations on economic and social organization. He concludes that the responses of the Mimbres people to their burgeoning population were inadequate to prevent the collapse of the society in the late twelfth century. In its illumination of the general issue of responses to food shortages, Social Adaptation to Food Stress will interest not only archeologists but also those concerned with current food shortages in the Third World. Cultural ecologists and human geographers will be able to derive a wealth of ideas, methods, and data from Minnis's work.

Sociologies of Food and Nutrition

Author : Wm. Alex McIntosh
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Here, Wm. Alex McIntosh analyzes the relationship between food and nutrition and social factors, using a wide array of sociological theories. The author applies theories of social organization, culture, social stratification, social change, rural sociology, the sociology of the body, and social problems to empirical problems in food and nutrition. By doing so, he sheds light on issues such as the rise of the state; population growth; famine; obesity; eating disorders; the maldistribution of food across class, gender, and ethnic boundaries; and the changing nature of the food industry.

Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology

Author : Tim Ingold
File Size : 57.18 MB
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* Provides a comprehensive survey of contemporary thinking in biological, social and cultural anthropology and establishes the interconnections between these three fields. * Useful cross-references within the text, with full biographical references and suggestions for further reading. * Carefully illustrated with line drawings and photographs. 'The Companion Encyclopedia of Anthropology is a welcome addition to the reference literature. Bringing together authoritative, incisive and scrupulously edited contributions from some three dozen authors. The book achieves an impressive breadth of coverage of specialist areas.' - Times Higher Educational Supplement 'Recommended for all anthropology collections, especially those in academic libraries.' - Library Journal 'This is a marvellous book and I am very happy to recommend it.' - Reference Reviews

Mimbres Archaeology at the NAN Ranch Ruin

Author : Harry J. Shafer
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Following two decades of excavations and research at the NAN Ranch Ruin in southwestern New Mexico, Harry Shafer offers new information and interpretations of the rise and disappearance of the ancient Mimbres culture that thrived in the area from about A.D. 600 to 1140. The NAN Ranch site gives evidence of a fascinating restructuring of Mimbres culture and society, owing to the introduction of irrigation agriculture in the late ninth century. The social restructuring that accompanied this shift in technology resulted in changes that are visible in architecture, mortuary practices, and ceramic decoration. The NAN Ranch ruin has yielded the largest body of evidence ever gathered at a single Mimbres site and thus offers the clearest picture to date of who the ancient Mimbreños were in relation to their Anasazi and Hohokam neighbors to the north and east. Shafer introduces us to the Mimbres people, gives a history of archaeological research in the Mimbres Valley, and traces the occupation of the NAN Ranch site from pithouses to classic pueblo to abandonment. Social customs, subsistence, biological information, and the symbolism of the distinctive Mimbres designs in their ceramics, pottery, stone artifacts, textiles, and jewelry are all addressed in this comprehensive survey.

People and plants in ancient western North America

Author : Paul E. Minnis
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"The environmental diversity of western North America is astounding: from the wind-scoured tundra of the high mountains to the seemingly desolate lowland deserts. No less remarkable is the record of plant usage by the various indigenous peoples who have been living there for more than twelve millennia. For the vast majority of this time, their livelihood, food, shelter, fuel, and medicine depended on their knowledge and use of the plants that surrounded them. The most comprehensive overview in more than half a century on the interconnectedness of people and plants, this book and its companion volume, People and Plants in Ancient Eastern North America, present the latest information on three major topics: the uses of native plants, the history of crops and their uses, and the impact of humans on their environment. They not only contribute to our understanding of the lives of prehistoric people but also serve as guides for designing sustainable living today."--NHBS Environment Bookstore.

Race and Human Diversity

Author : Robert L. Anemone
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Race and Human Diversity is an introduction to the study of human diversity in both its biological and cultural dimensions. Robert L. Anemone examines the biological basis of human difference and how humans have biologically and culturally adapted to life in different environments. The book discusses the history of the race concept, evolutionary theory, human genetics, and the connections between racial classifications and racism. It invites students to question the existence of race as biology, but to recognize race as a social construction with significant implications for the lived experience of individuals and populations. This second edition has been thoroughly revised, with new material on human genetic diversity, developmental plasticity and epigenetics. There is additional coverage of the history of eugenics; race in US history, citizenship and migration; affirmative action; and white privilege and the burden of race. Fully accessible for undergraduate students with no prior knowledge of genetics or statistics, this is a key text for any student taking an introductory class on race or human diversity.

The Give and Take of Sustainability

Author : Michelle Hegmon
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In this book, ethnographical and archaeological perspectives on tradeoffs help the reader to think about hard choices, and how to make better decisions today and tomorrow.

Evolving Complexity And Environmental Risk In The Prehistoric Southwest

Author : Joseph A. Tainter
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This book explores how and why prehistoric Southwestern societies changed in complexity, and offers important new perspectives on evolution of culture. It discusses the factors that made prehistoric Southwesterners vulnerable to an arid environment, and their strategies to lessen risk and stress.

Mimbres Society

Author : Valli S. Powell-Mart’
File Size : 84.5 MB
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Drawing on architecture and pottery, US and Canadian archaeologists explore the organizational complexity of the Mimbres people before, during, and after the Classic period, AD 1000-1130, in the southwestern US. They use architectural data to provide insight into family, household, communal, and community structure and also to complement analysis of the composition and design of the painted pottery that the Mimbres are best known for.