Search results for: space-policy-in-developing-countries

Space Policy in Developing Countries

Author : Robert C. Harding
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This book analyses the rationale and history of space programs in countries of the developing world. Space was at one time the sole domain of the wealthiest developed countries. However, the last couple of decades of the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century have witnessed the number of countries with state-supported space programs blossom. Today, no less than twenty-five developing states, including the rapidly emerging economic powers of Brazil (seventh-largest), China (second-largest), and India (fourth-largest), possess active national space programs with already proven independent launch capability or concrete plans to achieve it soon. This work places these programs within the context of international relations theory and foreign policy analysis. The author categorizes each space program into tiers of development based not only on the level of technology utilised, but on how each fits within the country's overall national security and/or development policies. The text also places these programs into an historical context, which enables the author to demonstrate the logical thread of continuity in the political rationale for space capabilities generally. This book will be of much interest to students of space power and politics, development studies, strategic studies and international relations in general.

Space Policy in the Twenty First Century

Author : W. Henry Lambright
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Though more than forty years old, the space age has just begun, and questions about its future abound. What will replace the Space Shuttle? Will the International Space Station justify its $100 billion potential cost? Are asteroids real threats to Earth or just the subject of science fiction movies? Will humans land on Mars? Will the search for extraterrestrial life be rewarded? In Space Policy in the Twenty-First Century, W. Henry Lambright brings together ten top-ranking observers of United States space exploration to address these and other issues relating to the future of the space program. While the U.S. no longer competes with the Soviets for technological "firsts," they argue, ideology and national image remain at the core of space policy, with other factors playing subordinate roles. Reminding readers of the historical highlights, the authors pose searching questions about the priorities and applications of space science, manned vs. unmanned flights, and commercial access to the space enterprise. Contributors include: Christopher F. Chyba, SETI Institute and Stanford University; Ronald J. Deibert, University of Toronto; Daniel H. Deudney, the Johns Hopkins University; W. Henry Lambright, Syracuse University; Roger D. Launius, NASA; Karl A. Leib, Syracuse University; John M. Logsdon, George Washington University; Howard E. McCurdy, American University; Scott N. Pace, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy; and Debora L. VanNijnatten, Wilfrid Laurier University.

Yearbook on Space Policy 2016

Author : Cenan Al-Ekabi
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The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies, industry professionals, as well as the service sectors, researchers and scientists and the interested public.

Civilian Space Policy and Applications

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Growth and Policy in Developing Countries

Author : José Antonio Ocampo
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Economic structuralists use a broad, systemwide approach to understanding development, and this textbook assumes a structuralist perspective in its investigation of why a host of developing countries have failed to grow at 2 percent or more since 1960. Sensitive to the wide range of factors that affect an economy's strength and stability, the authors identify the problems that have long frustrated growth in many parts of the developing world while suggesting new strategies and policies to help improve standards of living. After a survey of structuralist methods and post-World War II trends of global economic growth, the authors discuss the role that patterns in productivity, production structures, and capital accumulation play in the growth dynamics of developing countries. Next, it outlines the evolution of trade patterns and the effect of the terms of trade on economic performance, especially for countries that depend on commodity exports. The authors acknowledge the structural limits of macroeconomic policy, highlighting the negative effects of financial volatility and certain financial structures while recommending policies to better manage external shocks. These policies are then further developed through a discussion of growth and structural improvements, and are evaluated according to which policy options-macro, industrial, or commercial best fit within different kinds of developing economies.

Role and Impact of Space Research in Developing Countries

Author : COSPAR. Plenary Meeting
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Remote sensing and the private sector issues for discussion

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The Washington Consensus Reconsidered

Author : Narcís Serra
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This volume brings together many of the leading international figures in development studies, such as Jose Antonio Ocampo, Paul Krugman, Dani Rodrik, Joseph Stiglitz, Daniel Cohen, Olivier Blanchard, Deepak Nayyar and John Williamson to reconsider and propose alternative development policies to the Washington Consensus. Covering a wide range of issues from macro-stabilization to trade and the future of global governance, this important volume makes a real contribution to this important and ongoing debate. The volume begins by introducing the Washington Consensus, discussing how it was originally formulated, what it left out, and how it was later interpreted, and sets the stage for a formulation of a new development framework in the post-Washington Consensus era. It then goes on to analyze and offer differing perspectives and potential solutions to a number of key development issues, some which were addressed by the Washington Consensus and others which were not. The volume concludes by looking toward formulating new policy frameworks and offers possible reforms to the current system of global governance.

Seminars of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications

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The Exploitation of Natural Resources of the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

Author : Fabio Tronchetti
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The purpose of this book is to propose a legal regime to govern the exploitation of natural resources of the moon and other celestial bodies. Considering, on the one side, the interest shown by states and private operators to extract and use extraterrestrial natural resources and, on the other, the absence of specific rules dealing with such an option, the establishment of a legal framework to regulate the exploitation of natural resources of the moon and other celestial bodies is needed so as to ensure its peaceful, safe and orderly development.

Development Policy in Small Countries

Author : Percy Selwyn
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First published in 1975, the main emphasis of this reissued collection is on the various aspects of dependence to which small countries as such are subject, and the policy options in the political and economic field which are open to them.

The Fair and Responsible Use of Space

Author : Wolfgang Rathgeber
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As space applications become central to modern interaction, more and more entities are becoming involved in space activities. Consequently, strategies to establish the coordinated, ethically justifiable and sustainable conduct of space activities have to be found. Such an endeavour requires addressing current questions regarding the use of space, dealing with fair rules in orbit and discussing the way towards achieving truly global engagement on space security issues. The book outlines the current situation and identifies key challenges from the policy perspective. Taking this one step further, it also formulates principles and recommendations for global action. Nineteen eminent personalities from the space sector have united for this project, which is based on a conference organised at the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI) in November 2008 in Vienna.

International Space Policy

Author : Daniel S. Papp
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This book brings together experts and analysts in international space policy from academia, government, and corporations, and from the technical and legal spheres. It was felt that this broad cross section of expertise would result in the miltidimensional and multidisciplinary treatment this complex issue requires. This volume provides a valuable mix of perspectives by experts examining the important issues of this new era of space exploration.

Policy Transfer and Learning in Public Policy and Management

Author : Peter Carroll
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A typical image of the making and administration of policy suggests that it takes place on an incremental basis, involving public servants, their ministers and, to a more limited extent, a variety of interest groups. Yet, much policy making is based on similar policy developed in other jurisdictions and in the major international organizations such as the WTO and the OECD. In other words, significant aspects of nationally developed policies are copied from elsewhere in what is described as a process of policy transfer and learning. Hence, studies of policy transfer have pointed to a distinct limitation in most existing theoretical and empirical explanations as to how policy is made and implemented through their neglect of the role of policy transfer and learning. Moreover, policy transfer is not only a concern of academics, but a growing concern for governments. The latter are concerned to improve the performance of their policy and several have placed a greater, more systematic focus on policy transfer as a means to increasing performance. This book presents a variety of cases from differing national and international contexts that enable a valuable, comparative analysis that is absent from most literature currently available and that suggest a number of exciting research directions with implications for policy making, transference and implementation in the future.

The Utilization of the World s Air Space and Free Outer Space in the 21st Century Proceedings of the International Conference on Air and Space Policy Law and Industry for the 21st Century Held in Seoul from 23 25 June 1997

Author : Jiarui Cheng
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Proceedings of the International Conference on Air and Space Policy, Law, and Industry for the 21st Century, held in Seoul from 23-25 June 1997.

Developing Countries and World Trade

Author : Yilmaz Akyüz
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Increased participation in world trade is conventionally seen as the key to economic growth and development. Yet, as this book shows through its detailed examination of world trade patterns over the last 20 years, while developing country exports have grown faster than the world average, the rich countries have meanwhile increased their share in world manufacturing valued added. This poses the vitally important policy challenge of what poor countries, confronted by the vigorous expansion of their foreign trade but no comparable rise in income, should do. Primary commodity prices have collapsed in value, and there is a real danger that the terms of trade for their exports of manufactured goods may do the same. The key challenge confronting poor countries today is not more trade liberalization on their part, but how to improve the terms of their participation in world trade and to increase the still limited and unstable benefits they derive from it.

Towards a Better Global Economy

Author : Franklin Allen
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Substantial progress in the fight against extreme poverty was made in the last two decades. But the slowdown in global economic growth and significant increases in income inequality in many developed and developing countries raise serious concerns about the continuation of this trend into the 21st century. The time has come to seriously think about how improvements in official global governance, coupled with and reinforced by rising activism of 'global citizens' can lead to welfare-enhancing and more equitable results for global citizens through better national and international policies. This book examines the factors that are most likely to facilitate the process of beneficial economic growth in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. It examines past, present, and future economic growth; demographic changes; the hyperglobalization of trade; the effect of finance on growth; climate change and resource depletion; and the sense of global citizenship and the need for global governance in order to draw longer-term implications, identify policy options for improving the lives of average citizens around the world, and make the case for the need to confront new challenges with truly global policy responses. The book documents how demographic changes, convergence, and competition are likely to bring about massive shifts in the sectoral and geographical composition of global output and employment, as the center of gravity of the global economy moves toward Asia and emerging economies elsewhere. It shows that the legacies of the 2008-09 crisis-high unemployment levels, massive excess capacities, and high debt levels-are likely to reduce the standard of living of millions of people in many countries over a long period of adjustment and that fluctuations in international trade, financial markets, and commodity prices, as well as the tendency of institutions at both the national and international level to favor the interests of the better-off and more powerful pose substantial risks for citizens of all countries. The chapters and their policy implications are intended to stimulate public interest and facilitate the exchange of ideas and policy dialogue.

Proceedings of the United Nations European Space Agency Symposium on Economic Benefits of Using Space Technology Applications in Developing Countries

Author : United Nations. Office for Outer Space Affairs
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Sixteen contributions from international space experts, policy makers, and industry representatives discuss the role of space technology in securing the economic growth of developing countries. A sampling of topics includes a regional mobile personal communications system in the United Arab Emirates; space remote sensing for surveying and resources mapping; and Chinese experiments in seed growth after space flight. The volume is not indexed. c. Book News Inc.

Development Cooperation in Times of Crisis

Author : José Antonio Alonso
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Leading governments undertook extraordinary measures to offset the 2008 economic crisis, shoring up financial institutions, stimulating demand to reverse recession, and rebalancing budgets to alleviate sovereign debt. While productive in and of themselves, these solutions were effective because they were coordinated internationally and were matched with sweeping global financial reforms. Unfortunately, coordination has weakened after these initial steps, indicating one of the crisis's adverse effects will be a significant reduction in development cooperation. Urging advanced nations to improve their support for development, the contributors to this volume revisit the causes of the 2008 collapse and the ongoing effects of recession on global and developing economies. They reevaluate the international response to crisis and suggest more effective approaches to development cooperation. Experts on international aid join together to redesign the cooperation system and its governance, so it can accept new actors and better achieve the Millennial Development Goals of 2015 within the context of severe global crisis. In their introduction, José Antonio Alonso and José Antonio Ocampo summarize different chapters and the implications of their analyses, concluding with a frank assessment of global economic imbalance and the ability of increased cooperation to rectify these inequalities.

Mainstreaming Building Energy Efficiency Codes in Developing Countries

Author : Feng Liu
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Urbanization and growing wealth in developing countries portend a large increase of demand for modern energy services in residential, commercial and public-service buildings in the coming decades. Pursuing energy efficiency in buildings is vital to energy security in developing countries and is identified by the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change as having the greatest potential for cost-effective reduction of CO2 emissions by 2030 among all energy-consuming sectors. Building energy efficiency codes (BEECs), along with energy efficiency standards for major appliances and equipment, are broadly recognized as a necessary government intervention to overcome persistent market barriers to capturing the economic potential of energy efficiency gains in the residential, commercial and public-service sectors. Implementation of BEECs help prevent costly energy wastes over the lifecycles of buildings in space heating, air conditioning, lighting, and other energy service requirements. Nonetheless, achieving the full potential of energy savings afforded by more energy-efficient buildings requires holding people who live or work in buildings accountable for the cost of energy services. Compliance enforcement has been the biggest challenge to implementing BEECs. This report summarizes the findings of an extensive literature survey of the experiences of implementing BEECs in developed countries, as well as those from case studies of China, Egypt, India, and Mexico. It also serves as a primer on the basic features and contents of BEECs and the commonly adopted compliance and enforcement approaches. This report highlights the key challenges to improving compliance enforcement in developing countries, including government commitment to energy efficiency, the effectiveness of government oversight of the construction sector, the compliance capacity of building supply chain, and financing constraints. The report notes that the process of transforming a country s building supply chain toward delivering increasingly more energy-efficient buildings takes time and requires persistent government intervention through uniformly enforced and regularly updated BEECs. The report recommends increased international support in strengthening the enforcement infrastructure for BEECs in middle-income developing countries. For low- and lower-middle-income countries, there is an urgent need to assist in improving the effectiveness of government oversight system for building construction, laying the foundation for the system to also cover BEECs.