Search results for: statistics-as-principled-argument

Statistics As Principled Argument

Author : Robert P. Abelson
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In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative evidence, using a form of principled rhetoric. Five criteria, described by the acronym MAGIC (magnitude, articulation, generality, interestingness, and credibility) are proposed as crucial features of a persuasive, principled argument. Particular statistical methods are discussed, with minimum use of formulas and heavy data sets. The ideas throughout the book revolve around elementary probability theory, t tests, and simple issues of research design. It is therefore assumed that the reader has already had some access to elementary statistics. Many examples are included to explain the connection of statistics to substantive claims about real phenomena.

Doing Collaborative Research in Psychology

Author : Jerusha B. Detweiler-Bedell
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Doing Collaborative Research in Psychology offers an engaging journey through the process of conducting research in psychology. Using an innovative team-based approach, this hands-on guide will assist undergraduates with their research—in their courses and in collaboration with faculty or graduate student mentors. The focus on this team-based approach reflects the collaborative nature of research methods and experimental psychology. Students learn how to work as a team, generate creative research ideas, design and pilot studies, recruit participants, collect and analyze data, write up results in APA style, and prepare and give formal research presentations. Students also learn practical ways in which they can promote their research skills as they apply to jobs or graduate school. A unique feature to this book is the ability to read chapters of the text either sequentially or separately, which allows the instructor or research mentor the flexibility to assign those chapters most relevant to the current state of the research project.

Cognition and Chance

Author : Raymond S. Nickerson
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Lack of ability to think probabilistically makes one prone to a variety of irrational fears and vulnerable to scams designed to exploit probabilistic naiveté, impairs decision making under uncertainty, facilitates the misinterpretation of statistical information, and precludes critical evaluation of likelihood claims. Cognition and Chance presents an overview of the information needed to avoid such pitfalls and to assess and respond to probabilistic situations in a rational way. Dr. Nickerson investigates such questions as how good individuals are at thinking probabilistically and how consistent their reasoning under uncertainty is with principles of mathematical statistics and probability theory. He reviews evidence that has been produced in researchers' attempts to investigate these and similar types of questions. Seven conceptual chapters address such topics as probability, chance, randomness, coincidences, inverse probability, paradoxes, dilemmas, and statistics. The remaining five chapters focus on empirical studies of individuals' abilities and limitations as probabilistic thinkers. Topics include estimation and prediction, perception of covariation, choice under uncertainty, and people as intuitive probabilists. Cognition and Chance is intended to appeal to researchers and students in the areas of probability, statistics, psychology, business, economics, decision theory, and social dilemmas.

Computer Applications for Handling Legal Evidence Police Investigation and Case Argumentation

Author : Ephraim Nissan
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This book provides an overview of computer techniques and tools — especially from artificial intelligence (AI) — for handling legal evidence, police intelligence, crime analysis or detection, and forensic testing, with a sustained discussion of methods for the modelling of reasoning and forming an opinion about the evidence, methods for the modelling of argumentation, and computational approaches to dealing with legal, or any, narratives. By the 2000s, the modelling of reasoning on legal evidence has emerged as a significant area within the well-established field of AI & Law. An overview such as this one has never been attempted before. It offers a panoramic view of topics, techniques and tools. It is more than a survey, as topic after topic, the reader can get a closer view of approaches and techniques. One aim is to introduce practitioners of AI to the modelling legal evidence. Another aim is to introduce legal professionals, as well as the more technically oriented among law enforcement professionals, or researchers in police science, to information technology resources from which their own respective field stands to benefit. Computer scientists must not blunder into design choices resulting in tools objectionable for legal professionals, so it is important to be aware of ongoing controversies. A survey is provided of argumentation tools or methods for reasoning about the evidence. Another class of tools considered here is intended to assist in organisational aspects of managing of the evidence. Moreover, tools appropriate for crime detection, intelligence, and investigation include tools based on link analysis and data mining. Concepts and techniques are introduced, along with case studies. So are areas in the forensic sciences. Special chapters are devoted to VIRTOPSY (a procedure for legal medicine) and FLINTS (a tool for the police). This is both an introductory book (possibly a textbook), and a reference for specialists from various quarters.

Understanding and Using Statistics in Psychology

Author : Jeremy Miles
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`There are few people who can write about research methods in a lively and engaging way, but Miles and Banyard are amongst them. As well as being an exceptionally clear introduction to research methods, it is full of amusing asides and anecdotes that make you want to read more. A hugely enjoyable book' - Dr Andy Field, University of Sussex Understanding and Using Statistics in Psychology takes the fear out of psychological statistics to help students understand why statistics are carried out, how to choose the best test and how to carry out the tests and understand them. Taking a non-technical approach, it encourages the reader to understand why a particular test is being used and what the results mean in the context of a psychological study, focusing on meaning and understanding rather than mindless numerical calculation. Key features include: - A light and accessible style - Descriptions of the most commonly used statistical tests and the principles that underlie them - Real world examples to aid the understanding of why statistics are valuable - Boxes on common errors, tips and quotes - Test yourself questions The perfect introductory resource, Understanding and Using Statistics in Psychology will guide any student new to statistics effortlessly through the process of test selection and analysis. (Read Jeremy Miles's blog and access other useful information on statistics now at www.jeremymiles.co.uk)

Doing Statistical Mediation and Moderation

Author : Paul E. Jose
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Written in a friendly, conversational style, this book offers a hands-on approach to statistical mediation and moderation for both beginning researchers and those familiar with modeling. Starting with a gentle review of regression-based analysis, Paul Jose covers basic mediation and moderation techniques before moving on to advanced topics in multilevel modeling, structural equation modeling, and hybrid combinations, such as moderated mediation. User-friendly features include numerous graphs and carefully worked-through examples; "Helpful Suggestions" about procedures and pitfalls; "Knowledge Boxes" delving into special topics, such as dummy coding; and end-of-chapter exercises and problems (with answers). The companion website (www.guilford.com/jose-materials) provides downloadable data and syntax files for the book's examples and exercises, as well as links to Jose's online programs, MedGraph and ModGraph. Appendices present SPSS, Amos, and Mplus syntax for conducting the key types of analyses.

Management of Industrial Cleaning Technology and Processes

Author : John Durkee
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More stringent quality standards and environmental/safety regulations as well as new process and chemical technology have changed industrial cleaning from a “wet and wipe application to a valued and demanding process operation. This book will help cleaning operatives, designers of equipment, metal finishers, industrial chemists and decontaminators understand the value and demands required within the industrial cleaning process and an environment of continuing change. * Covers all aspects of modern cleaning technologies, helping readers to understand basics of cleaning, equipment used, techniques and possible changes to come within the industry. * Includes environmental regulations and the basis for modern cleaning technologies, ensuring the reader is up to date on cleaning chemicals and their affects. * Covers testing for cleanliness, ensuring cleaning operatives, technicians and end users understand how to achieve the demands required within the industrial cleaning process and an environment of continuing change.

The SAGE Handbook of Interpersonal Communication

Author : Mark L. Knapp
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The revised Fourth Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Interpersonal Communication delivers a clear, comprehensive, and exciting overview of the field of interpersonal communication. It offers graduate students and faculty an important, state-of-the-art reference work in which well-known experts summarize theory and current research. The editors also explore key issues in the field, including personal relationships, computer-mediated communication, language, personality, skills, nonverbal communication, and communication across a person's life span. This updated handbook covers a wide range of established and emerging topics, including: Biological and Physiological Processes Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Studying Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication in Work, Family, Intercultural, and Health Contexts Supportive and Divisive Transactions Social Networks Editors Mark L. Knapp and John A. Daly have significantly contributed to the field of interpersonal communication with this important reference work—a must-have for students and scholars.

Handbook of Social Psychology

Author : Susan T. Fiske
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First published in 1935, The Handbook of Social Psychology was the first major reference work to cover the field of social psychology. The field has since evolved and expanded tremendously, and in each subsequent edition, The Handbook of Social Psychology is still the foremost reference that academics, researchers, and graduate students in psychology turn to for the most current, well-researched, and thorough information covering the field of social psychology. This two-volume Fifth Edition continues the tradition of representing the full field.

Explaining Social Behavior

Author : Jon Elster
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This book is an expanded and revised edition of the author's critically acclaimed volume Nuts and Bolts for the Social Sciences. In twenty-six succinct chapters, Jon Elster provides an account of the nature of explanation in the social sciences. He offers an overview of key explanatory mechanisms in the social sciences, relying on hundreds of examples and drawing on a large variety of sources - psychology, behavioral economics, biology, political science, historical writings, philosophy and fiction. Written in accessible and jargon-free language, Elster aims at accuracy and clarity while eschewing formal models. In a provocative conclusion, Elster defends the centrality of qualitative social sciences in a two-front war against soft (literary) and hard (mathematical) forms of obscurantism.

Bridging Case Conceptualization Assessment and Intervention

Author : Scott T. Meier
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Bridging Case Conceptualization, Assessment, and Intervention presents a new approach to the integration of science and practice in clinical work. Author Scott T. Meier systematically connects case conceptualization, assessment, and analysis of intervention effects. This integrative approach differs from traditional methods of teaching counseling in its emphasis on the inclusion of assessment data in the intervention process. With its emphasis on concepts and procedure, Bridging Case Conceptualization, Assessment, and Intervention is intended as a manual for students in psychology, psychiatry, social work, or counseling and practicing psychotherapists, psychiatrists, or counselors.

The Geography of Thought

Author : Richard Nisbett
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A “landmark book” (Robert J. Sternberg, president of the American Psychological Association) by one of the world's preeminent psychologists that proves human behavior is not “hard-wired” but a function of culture. Everyone knows that while different cultures think about the world differently, they use the same equipment for doing their thinking. But what if everyone is wrong? The Geography of Thought documents Richard Nisbett's groundbreaking international research in cultural psychology and shows that people actually think about—and even see—the world differently because of differing ecologies, social structures, philosophies, and educational systems that date back to ancient Greece and China. As a result, East Asian thought is “holistic”—drawn to the perceptual field as a whole and to relations among objects and events within that field. By contrast, Westerners focus on salient objects or people, use attributes to assign them to categories, and apply rules of formal logic to understand their behavior. From feng shui to metaphysics, from comparative linguistics to economic history, a gulf separates the children of Aristotle from the descendants of Confucius. At a moment in history when the need for cross-cultural understanding and collaboration have never been more important, The Geography of Thought offers both a map to that gulf and a blueprint for a bridge that will span it.

The Handbook of Crisis Communication

Author : W. Timothy Coombs
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Written as a tool for both researchers and communication managers, the Handbook of Crisis Communication is a comprehensive examination of the latest research, methods, and critical issues in crisis communication. Includes in-depth analyses of well-known case studies in crisis communication, from terrorist attacks to Hurricane Katrina Explores the key emerging areas of new technology and global crisis communication Provides a starting point for developing crisis communication as a distinctive field research rather than as a sub-discipline of public relations or corporate communication

Research Methods in Health Promotion

Author : Richard A. Crosby
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Research Methods in Health Promotion provides students (advanced undergraduate and graduate students) and practitioners with basic knowledge and skills regarding the design, implementation, analysis, and interpretation of research in the field of health promotion. Taking the perspective that research involves a predetermined series of well-defined steps, the book presents these steps in a sequential format.

The Art and Science of Teaching

Author : Robert J. Marzano
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Though classroom instructional strategies should clearly be based on sound science and research, knowing when to use them and with whom is more of an art. In The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction, author Robert J. Marzano presents a model for ensuring quality teaching that balances the necessity of research-based data with the equally vital need to understand the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. He articulates his framework in the form of 10 questions that represent a logical planning sequence for successful instructional design: 1. What will I do to establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? 2. What will I do to help students effectively interact with new knowledge? 3. What will I do to help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? 4. What will I do to help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? 5. What will I do to engage students? 6. What will I do to establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? 7. What will I do to recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? 8. What will I do to establish and maintain effective relationships with students? 9. What will I do to communicate high expectations for all students? 10. What will I do to develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit? For classroom lessons to be truly effective, educators must examine every component of the teaching process with equal resolve. Filled with charts, rubrics, and organizers, this methodical, user-friendly guide will help teachers examine and develop their knowledge and skills, so they can achieve that dynamic fusion of art and science that results in exceptional teaching and outstanding student achievement.

The Jury and Democracy

Author : John Gastil
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Alexis de Tocqueville, John Stuart Mill, and the U.S. Supreme Court have all alleged that jury service promotes civic and political engagement, yet none could prove it. Finally, The Jury and Democracy provides compelling systematic evidence to support this view. Drawing from in-depth interviews, thousands of juror surveys, and court and voting records from across the United States, the authors show that serving on a jury can trigger changes in how citizens view themselves, their peers, and their government--and can even significantly increase electoral turnout among infrequent voters. Jury service also sparks long-term shifts in media use, political action, and community involvement. In an era when involved Americans are searching for ways to inspire their fellow citizens, The Jury and Democracy offers a plausible and realistic path for turning passive spectators into active political participants.

Small Group Research

Author : Herbert Blumberg
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Small group research is of particularly wide interest to people working in a fairly broad variety of areas concerned with understanding conflict, especially for practitioners and researchers concerned with conflict resolution, peace, and related areas. The editors will focus on six main topical areas of small group research, which include: - Cooperation, competition, and conflict resolution - Coalitions, bargaining, and games - Group dynamics and social cognition - The group and organization - Team performance - Intergroup relations

Assessment Measurement and Prediction for Personnel Decisions

Author : Robert M. Guion
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Robert Guion’s best seller is now available in this new second edition. This noted book offers a comprehensive and practical view of assessment –based personnel decisions not available elsewhere in a single source. This edition more frankly evaluates the current research and practice and presents challenges that will change the basic thinking about staffing systems. This new edition suggests new directions for research and practice, includes emphasis on modern computers and technology useful in assessment, and pays more attention to prediction of individual growth and globalization challenges in the assessment process. The book will be of interest to faculty and students in Industrial Organizational psychology, human resource management and business. IO psychologists in private business and public sector organizations who have responsibilities for staffing and an interest in measurement and statistics will find this book useful.

Theory and Methods in Social Research

Author : Bridget Somekh
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This new edition provides a scholarly and readable introduction to all the key qualitative and quantitative research methodologies and methods, enabling postgraduate and masters-level students and new researchers to reflect on which ones suit their needs and to receive guidance on how to find out more. With chapters written by experienced research practitioners, this second edition has been extensively expanded and updated. There are seven completely new chapters, as well as new material on literature reviews, a new introduction to quantitative methods, an expanded glossary, weblinks with free access to a wide range of peer-reviewed journal articles, and an annotated bibliography with conversational notes from authors in each chapter. This book will act as your ‘expert friend’ throughout your research project, providing advice, explaining key concepts and the implications for your research design, and illustrating these with examples of real research studies.

Informal Logic

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