Search results for: structure-and-effects-in-eu-competition-law

Structure and Effects in EU Competition Law

Author : Basedow
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During the last decade the European Commission has progressively adopted what is called a and‘more economic approachand’ toward competition policy. This approach, which draws on U.S. antitrust policy, puts greater emphasis on possible welfare effects of business practices and is less concerned with competitive market structures. Under this school of thought concentration cannot be said to impede effective competition to the extent that efficiency gains outweigh market distortions. In order to stimulate the debate on this basic reorientation, in January 2009 the Max Planck Institute for Comparative and International Private Law at Hamburg convened economists, legal scholars, and practitioners for an exchange of views on these and‘newand’ methodological foundations of EU competition policy and competition law. Two especially controversial elements were chosen for in-depth discussion: the prohibition of abuses of dominant positions and the review of State aid. This book reproduces fourteen papers from this conference, representing the considered views of prominent European lawyers, economists, academics, policymakers, and enforcement officials in the competition field on matters such as: the objectives of EU competition law; the current enforcement guidelines of the EU Commission regarding Article 102 TFEU and? measuring market power; abusive low pricing strategies; the economics of competition law enforcemennt; recent developments in EU State aid law; economic justifications for State aid. A critical assessment of the Commissionand’s State aid action plan by the German Monopolies Commission is appended in English. Applying law and economics theory to competition law, this book shows that the and‘more economicand’ approach is exerting a considerable impact on various sectors of competition law. The authors clearly demonstrate the progress that can be made when lawyers and economists take notice of and respect the characteristics of each otherand’s discipline. Moreover, the authors show how new insights of economic theory may be integrated into the relevant legal analysis. The book will therefore be appreciated by academics, practitioners, and officials representing both fields.

The Shaping of EU Competition Law

Author : Pablo Ibáñez Colomo
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Based on a unique and comprehensive database, The Shaping of EU Competition Law combines qualitative and quantitative approaches to shed light on the evolution of EU competition law. It brings a new perspective to some of the most topical issues in the field including due process and the intensity of judicial review. The author's main purpose is to examine how the institutional structure influences the substance of EU competition law provisions. He seeks to identify patterns in the behaviour of the European Commission and the EU Courts and how they interact with each other. In particular, his analysis considers how the European Commission reacts to the case law and whether, and in what instances, the EU courts defer to the analysis of the administrative authority. The analysis is supported by the database and an unprecedented array of statistics and figures free to view online.

Comparative Competition Law and Economics

Author : Roger J. Van den Bergh
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Offering a concise and critical comparison of EU competition law and US antitrust law from an economic perspective, this is the ideal textbook for international and interdisciplinary courses combining law and economic approaches.

Identifying Exclusionary Abuses by Dominant Undertakings Under EU Competition Law

Author : Eirik Østerud
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The author also contrasts the Commission's decisional practice with the case law, assesses approaches under U.S. antitrust law to similar forms of conduct, and incorporates insights from economic theory. --

Cross Border EU Competition Law Actions

Author : Mihail Danov
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This book, written within the framework of a research project funded by the European Commission Civil Justice Programme, identifies the ways in which cross-border EU competition law actions can best be handled in Europe. Employing traditional library-based legal research methods as well as qualitative interviews with legal practitioners in Germany and England (countries sharing different legal traditions) and policy-makers in Brussels, the book considers how private EU competition law actions are functioning at the moment and how they could and should be developed. The study proposes solutions for some of the most pressing practical problems, and includes chapters by the following academics, legal practitioners and judges: Judge I Pelikánová (General Court of the EU); J Lawrence and A Morfey (Freshfields); P Lasok QC (Monckton Chambers); H Mercer QC (Essex Court Chambers); J Webber (Shearman & Sterling); T Reher (CMS Hasche Sigle, Germany); P Bos and J Möhlmann (BarentsKrans, the Netherlands); P Beaumont (Aberdeen); S Bariatti (Milan); G Howells (Manchester); D Fairgrieve (BIICL); J Fitchen (Aberdeen); A Andreangeli (Edinburgh); D Tzakas (Athens Bar, Greece); S Dnes (Sidley Austin, Brussels); F Becker and J Kammin (Kiel University, Germany); and M Danov (Brunel University).

The Atlantic Divide in Antitrust

Author : Daniel J. Gifford
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The United States and the European Union operate the world’s two most powerful systems of competition law and policy, whose enforcement and judicial institutions employ similar concepts and legal language. Yet the two regimes sometimes reach very different results on significant antitrust issues. In The Atlantic Divide in Antitrust, Daniel Gifford and Robert Kudrle show that a combination of differences in social values, political institutions, and legal precedent inhibit close convergence. The book explores the main contested areas of contemporary antitrust: mergers, price discrimination, predatory pricing, exclusive supply, conditional rebating, intellectual property, and Schumpeterian competition. The authors explore how the prevailing antitrust analyses differ in the EU and the U.S., the policy ramifications of these differences, and how the analyses used by the enforcement authorities or the courts in each of these several areas relate to each other. Several themes run through the substantive areas treated in the book: pricing incentives and constraints, welfare effects, and whether competition tends to be viewed as an efficiency generating process or as rivalry. The notorious Microsoft case offers a useful lens to examine copyright, patents, and trade secrets, and the authors take the opportunity to contemplate competition policy in dynamic, innovative industries more broadly. For the EU, competition policy has also functioned as a mechanism to bond national markets together in the EU structure; the USA, federal from the beginning, did not require this instrumental aspect in its antitrust doctrines. The Atlantic Divide concludes with forecasts and suggestions about how greater compatibility, if not convergence, might ultimately be attained.

Liner Shipping and EU Competition Law

Author : Alla Pozdnakova
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As of October 2008, liner shipping companies lose their privileged status under EU competition law due to withdrawal of the liner conference block exemption, which generously authorized horizontal price-fixing and similar agreements between liner shipping companies. Where the liner consortia block exemption does not apply, all cooperative activity should be carefully and individually assessed under the competition provisions of the EC Treaty. Alla Pozdnakova has taken this opportunity to research and write an in-depth study of competition law problems in the liner shipping context. Her analysis is not only the first to examine the new European regime, and thus the most up-to-date study of the subject; it is in fact the first major independent study of how Articles 81 and 82 EC are construed and applied to the market conduct of liner shipping companies. In particular, the author addresses the following legal questions: * Does cooperation between liner shipping companies infringe Article 81(1) even if it does not entail hard-core restrictions of competition? * Can a cooperative arrangement between liner shipping companies claim that the efficiencies they produce outweigh the negative impact on competition (Article 81(3))? * When do certain market strategies of liner carriers become an abuse of a collective or individual dominant position (Article 82)? * Does parallel pricing behaviour infringe EC Treaty competition rules? Systematically, the author considers various market strategies of liner shipping companies and tests them as to their compatibility with EC Treaty competition provisions. In doing so, she thoroughly analyses European Commission decisions and judgments of the European courts, applying them authoritatively to the liner shipping sector. In this way, her book provides a well-structured account that clearly identifies the legal issues that liner shipping companies are likely to face once the special treatment traditionally allowed them is withdrawn. A summary of current and prospective developments in EU competition regulation and policy in liner shipping rounds up the analysis. Liner Shipping and EU Competition Law will be a unique and powerful resource for practitioners and policymakers as liner shipping companies restructure their agreements and market strategies to accommodate loss of the block exemption. It is also sure to become a definitive analysis of the legal identity of the liner shipping market sector under European competition law.

Does EU Merger Control Discriminate Against Small Market Companies

Author : Mika Oinonen
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Although the question posed by the title of this book has generated considerable debate, the essential issue remains open and largely blurred. While some believe that there is no so-called 'small market problem', others discern discrimination against small market companies (i.e., companies with a strong position in their home markets but a modest position in the European and global markets) and a consequent need for changes in competition law. The author of this enormously helpful work here sets the stage for meaningful discussion by analysing the EC Merger Regulation's objectives, economic foundations, and application practice to present a reasoned view of the issues that can be considered relevant for such a discussion. Considering their effect on the 'small market problem', the author scrutinizes such factors as the following: the Commission's methodology for delineating relevant markets in merger assessments; unnecessary prohibition caused by overestimation of the market power of small market mergers; erroneous approval of cases that should actually be prohibited; impact of the so-called 'Harvard' and 'Chicago' schools of competition theory and their key policy implications; process-related alternative views of competition and new synthesizing approaches; relevant criteria for a proper analysis of market power; concentration measures and market shares; barriers to entry; price and profitability analyses; and product definition v. geographic definition of markets. In a final chapter, the author presents some tentative conclusions, normative in nature, concerning the problem and the relevant issues relating to it. As the first in-depth analysis of the issues that are actually involved - with its particular diagnosis of the assessment of market power in considering the relevant issues for the problem - this study brings into salience the terms of the debate on the 'problem', and thus takes a giant step forward towards defining what needs to be done. Competition lawyers, policymakers, and academics in Europe and elsewhere will find the discussion of great value.

Ten years of effects Based approach in EU competition law

Author : Jacques Bourgeois
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One of the key components of the modernization of competition rules has been a radical departure from the previous «form-based» enforcement to a so-called «effects-based» approach. Taking stock of ten years of experience under this new policy, the present book analyses the changes brought about, as well as the practical problems encountered in its day-to-day application, be it by competition law enforcers, judges or practitioners. This book compiles the reports prepared for the 2011 Annual Conference of the Global Competition Law Centre (“GCLC”). Each and every chapter of this volume formulates concrete proposals as to how the system can be clarified or even improved. The focus is not only on the enforcement of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU, but also in the file of merger control. Attempts are made to define more precisely the boundaries between anticompetitive object and effect, and to develop adequate safe harbours and presumptions. This book also casts a closer look at the analytical framework, possible theories of harm, evidence and defences. Overall the objective is to reconcile as best as possible law and economics, and to see how the goal to achieve the “right decision” in terms of economic outcome can be combined with the legitimate need for legal certainty.

European Union Institutions and Law

Author : Jacques N. Couvas
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"European Union: Institutions and Law" aims at familiarising management students, managers and executives with the institutional structure of the European Union, its legal system, and the decision-making process after the adoption by the Member States of the Treaty of Lisbon. It may also prove useful to students of political sciences and economics. Managers and executives, from EU Member States and from third countries, will find answer to practical questions concerning the role of the Commission, the Council and the Court, and their impact on business issues. In addition to covering the main subjects of constitutional, law-giving and competition policy of the EU, the author discusses the need for the Union to further reform its operating frame in order to set the foundation for 'Europe of the 21st century', and outlines possible scenarios for doing so.