Search Results for "symmetry-and-the-beautiful-universe"

Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe

Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe

  • Author: Leon M. Lederman,Christopher T. Hill
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1615920412
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 363
  • View: 9863
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When scientists peer through a telescope at the distant stars in outer space or use a particle-accelerator to analyze the smallest components of matter, they discover that the same laws of physics govern the whole universe at all times and all places. Physicists call the eternal, ubiquitous constancy of the laws of physics symmetry. Symmetry is the basic underlying principle that defines the laws of nature and hence controls the universe. This all-important insight is one of the great conceptual breakthroughs in modern physics and is the basis of contemporary efforts to discover a grand unified theory to explain all the laws of physics. Nobel Laureate Leon M. Lederman and physicist Christopher T. Hill explain the supremely elegant concept of symmetry and all its profound ramifications to life on Earth and the universe at large in this eloquent, accessible popular science book. They not only clearly describe concepts normally reserved only for physicists and mathematicians, but they also instill an appreciation for the profound beauty of the universe’s inherent design. Central to the story of symmetry is an obscure, unpretentious, but extremely gifted German mathematician named Emmy Noether. Though still little known to the world, she impressed no less a scientist than Albert Einstein, who praised her "penetrating mathematical thinking." In some of her earliest work she proved that the law of the conservation of energy was connected to the idea of symmetry and thus laid the mathematical groundwork for what may be the most important concept of modern physics. Lederman and Hill reveal concepts about the universe, based on Noether’s work, that are largely unknown to the public and have wide-reaching implications in connection with the Big Bang, Einstein’s theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, and many other areas of physics. Through ingenious analogies and illustrations, they bring these astounding notions to life. This book will open your eyes to a universe you never knew existed.

Quantum Physics for Poets

Quantum Physics for Poets

  • Author: Leon M. Lederman,Christopher T. Hill
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1616142812
  • Category: Science
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 2610
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The Times Literary Supplement called their previous book, Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe: [A] tour de force of physics made simple.Quantum theory is the bedrock of contemporary physics and the basis of understanding matter in its tiniest dimensions and the vast universe as a whole. But for many, the theory remains an impenetrable enigma.Nobel Prize laureate Leon M. Lederman and Fermi lab theoretical physicist Christopher T. Hill seek to remedy this situation by both drawing on their scientific expertise and their talent for communicating science to the general reader. In this lucid, informative book, designed for the curious, they make the seemingly daunting subject of quantum physics accessible, appealing, and exciting.Their story is partly historical, covering the many Eureka moments when great scientists-Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, and others-struggled to come to grips with the bizarre realities that quantum research revealed. Although their findings were indisputably proven in experiments, they were so strange and counterintuitive that Einstein refused to accept quantum theory, despite its great success.The authors explain the many strange and even eerie aspects of quantum reality at the subatomic level, from particles that can be many places simultaneously and sometimes act more like waves, to the effect that a human can have on their movements by just observing them!Finally, Drs. Lederman and Hill delve into quantum physics' latest and perhaps most breathtaking offshoots-field theory and string theory. The intricacies and ramifications of these two theories will give the reader much to ponder. In addition, the authors describe the diverse applications of quantum theory in its almost countless forms of modern technology throughout the world.Using eloquent analogies and illustrative examples, Quantum Physics for Poets render even the most profound reaches of quantum theory understandable and something for us all to savor.Leon M. Lederman, Nobel Laureate (Batavia, IL), is Resident Scholar at the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Director Emeritus of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Pritzker Professor of Science at the Illinois Institute of Technology, the author of the highly acclaimed The God Particle, the editor of Portraits of Great American Scientists, and a contributor to Science Literacy for the Twenty-First Century. Dr. Lederman and coauthor Christopher T. Hill are also the coauthors of Symmetry and the Beautiful Universe.Christopher T. Hill, PhD (Batavia, IL), is chairman of the Department of Theoretical Physics and a theoretical physicist (Scientist III) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

Beyond the God Particle

Beyond the God Particle

  • Author: Leon M. Lederman,Christopher T. Hill
  • Publisher: Prometheus Books
  • ISBN: 1616148020
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 325
  • View: 5653
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Two leading physicists discuss the importance of the Higgs Boson, the future of particle physics, and the mysteries of the universe yet to be unraveled. On July 4, 2012, the long-sought Higgs Boson--aka "the God Particle"--was discovered at the world's largest particle accelerator, the LHC, in Geneva, Switzerland. On March 14, 2013, physicists at CERN confirmed it. This elusive subatomic particle forms a field that permeates the entire universe, creating the masses of the elementary particles that are the basic building blocks of everything in the known world--from viruses to elephants, from atoms to quasars. Starting where Nobel Laureate Leon Lederman's bestseller The God Particle left off, this incisive new book explains what's next. Lederman and Hill discuss key questions that will occupy physicists for years to come: * Why were scientists convinced that something like the "God Particle" had to exist? * What new particles, forces, and laws of physics lie beyond the "God Particle"? * What powerful new accelerators are now needed for the US to recapture a leadership role in science and to reach "beyond the God Particle," such as Fermilab's planned Project-X and the Muon Collider? Using thoughtful, witty, everyday language, the authors show how all of these intriguing questions are leading scientists ever deeper into the fabric of nature. Readers of The God Particle will not want to miss this important sequel.

The New Ambidextrous Universe

The New Ambidextrous Universe

Symmetry and Asymmetry from Mirror Reflections to Superstrings

  • Author: Martin Gardner
  • Publisher: Courier Corporation
  • ISBN: 0486442446
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 401
  • View: 4528
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This newly updated edition of a well-known work explores a pair of modern science's most fundamental discoveries: the asymmetric DNA helix and the overthrow of parity (left-right symmetry) in particle physics. Absorbing and thought-provoking, The New Ambidextrous Universe was written by Martin Gardner, one of Dover's most popular authors,.

Neutrino Hunters

Neutrino Hunters

The Thrilling Chase for a Ghostly Particle to Unlock the Secrets of the Universe

  • Author: Ray Jayawardhana
  • Publisher: Scientific American / Farrar, Straus and Giroux
  • ISBN: 0374709424
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 3788
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Winner of the Canadian Science Writers Association 2014 Science in Society Book Award A Publishers Weekly Top 10 Science Book of the Season A Book to Watch Out For, The New Yorker's Page-Turner Blog A Los Angeles Times Gift Guide Selection One of the Best Physics Books of 2013, Cocktail Party Physics Blog, Scientific American Detective thriller meets astrophysics in this adventure into neutrinos and the scientists who pursue them The incredibly small bits of matter we call neutrinos may hold the secret to why antimatter is so rare, how mighty stars explode as supernovae, what the universe was like just seconds after the big bang, and even the inner workings of our own planet. For more than eighty years, adventurous minds from around the world have been chasing these ghostly particles, trillions of which pass through our bodies every second. Extremely elusive and difficult to pin down, neutrinos are not unlike the brilliant and eccentric scientists who doggedly pursue them. In Neutrino Hunters, the renowned astrophysicist and award-winning writer Ray Jayawardhana takes us on a thrilling journey into the shadowy world of neutrinos and the colorful lives of those who seek them. Demystifying particle science along the way, Jayawardhana tells a detective story with cosmic implications—interweaving tales of the sharp-witted theorist Wolfgang Pauli; the troubled genius Ettore Majorana; the harbinger of the atomic age Enrico Fermi; the notorious Cold War defector Bruno Pontecorvo; and the dynamic dream team of Marie and Pierre Curie. Then there are the scientists of today who have caught the neutrino bug, and whose experimental investigations stretch from a working nickel mine in Ontario to a long tunnel through a mountain in central Italy, from a nuclear waste site in New Mexico to a bay on the South China Sea, and from Olympic-size pools deep underground to a gigantic cube of Antarctic ice—called, naturally, IceCube. As Jayawardhana recounts a captivating saga of scientific discovery and celebrates a glorious human quest, he reveals why the next decade of neutrino hunting will redefine how we think about physics, cosmology, and our lives on Earth.

A Beautiful Question

A Beautiful Question

Finding Nature's Deep Design

  • Author: Frank Wilczek
  • Publisher: Penguin
  • ISBN: 0698195620
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 400
  • View: 4902
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Does the universe embody beautiful ideas? Artists as well as scientists throughout human history have pondered this “beautiful question.” With Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek as your guide, embark on a voyage of related discoveries, from Plato and Pythagoras up to the present. Wilczek’s groundbreaking work in quantum physics was inspired by his intuition to look for a deeper order of beauty in nature. In fact, every major advance in his career came from this intuition: to assume that the universe embodies beautiful forms, forms whose hallmarks are symmetry—harmony, balance, proportion—and economy. There are other meanings of “beauty,” but this is the deep logic of the universe—and it is no accident that it is also at the heart of what we find aesthetically pleasing and inspiring. Wilczek is hardly alone among great scientists in charting his course using beauty as his compass. As he reveals in A Beautiful Question, this has been the heart of scientific pursuit from Pythagoras, the ancient Greek who was the first to argue that “all things are number,” to Galileo, Newton, Maxwell, Einstein, and into the deep waters of twentiethcentury physics. Though the ancients weren’t right about everything, their ardent belief in the music of the spheres has proved true down to the quantum level. Indeed, Wilczek explores just how intertwined our ideas about beauty and art are with our scientific understanding of the cosmos. Wilczek brings us right to the edge of knowledge today, where the core insights of even the craziest quantum ideas apply principles we all understand. The equations for atoms and light are almost literally the same equations that govern musical instruments and sound; the subatomic particles that are responsible for most of our mass are determined by simple geometric symmetries. The universe itself, suggests Wilczek, seems to want to embody beautiful and elegant forms. Perhaps this force is the pure elegance of numbers, perhaps the work of a higher being, or somewhere between. Either way, we don’t depart from the infinite and infinitesimal after all; we’re profoundly connected to them, and we connect them. When we find that our sense of beauty is realized in the physical world, we are discovering something about the world, but also something about ourselves. Gorgeously illustrated, A Beautiful Question is a mind-shifting book that braids the age-old quest for beauty and the age-old quest for truth into a thrilling synthesis. It is a dazzling and important work from one of our best thinkers, whose humor and infectious sense of wonder animate every page. Yes: The world is a work of art, and its deepest truths are ones we already feel, as if they were somehow written in our souls.

The Symmetry Norm and the Asymmetric Universe

The Symmetry Norm and the Asymmetric Universe

Fourth Edition

  • Author: Michael Selzer
  • Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
  • ISBN: 9781544105611
  • Category:
  • Page: 408
  • View: 9271
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The concept of symmetry (as in shapes whose left and right halves mirror each other) did not originate in the Classical world, as is often supposed, but in Italy at the beginning of the Renaissance. From the outset it was associated with the belief that Nature's forms are symmetric and that nothing can be beautiful unless it too has a symmetric shape. Michael Selzer calls this the symmetry norm. The symmetry norm was soon adopted throughout western Europe. It literally changed the face of the continent, for its advocates not only demanded that all new buildings henceforth be symmetric, but that important medieval churches and other public buildings be given new, symmetric facades. The free-flowing and visually-complex textures of the medieval hortus conclusus too were replaced by the stiff, symmetric and instantly comprehended forms of the Renaissance garden. Since the Renaissance the authority and scope of the symmetry norm have continued to be enlarged. It is now a byword among archaeologists that Greek temples are symmetric; among physicists that crystals, including snowflakes are symmetric; among anthropologists that the art of primitive peoples everywhere has always been symmetric; and among psychologists that humans find symmetric shapes more attractive than asymmetric ones. The Symmetry Norm and the Asymmetric Universe is an important and original contribution to an understanding of the origins, persistence and consequences of the fallacies that have preserved the symmetry norm in full vigor for over five hundred years

Portraits of Great American Scientists

Portraits of Great American Scientists

  • Author: Leon M. Lederman,Judith A. Scheppler
  • Publisher: N.A
  • ISBN: N.A
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Page: 305
  • View: 408
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In this era of genetic engineering, nanotechnology, cell phones, computers, and the Internet, science literacy becomes an essential element of survival for both individuals and society as a whole. This unique work makes a positive contribution to that end through the biographies of fifteen American scientists, men and women from paleontology to artificial intelligence, thoroughly researched and written by high school students from the Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy.

The Accelerating Universe

The Accelerating Universe

Infinite Expansion, the Cosmological Constant, and the Beauty of the Cosmos

  • Author: Mario Livio
  • Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
  • ISBN: 047143714X
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 288
  • View: 6518
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Advance Praise for The Accelerating Universe "The Accelerating Universe is not only an informative book about modern cosmology. It is rich storytelling and, above all, a celebration of the human mind in its quest for beauty in all things." —Alan Lightman, author of Einstein's Dreams "This is a wonderfully lucid account of the extraordinary discoveries that have made the last years a golden period for observational cosmology. But Mario Livio has not only given the reader one clear explanation after another of what astronomers are up to, he has used them to construct a provocative argument for the importance of aesthetics in the development of science and for the inseparability of science, art, and culture." —Lee Smolin, author of The Life of the Cosmos "What a pleasure to read! An exciting, simple account of the universe revealed by modern astronomy. Beautifully written, clearly presented, informed by scientific and philosophical insights." —John Bahcall, Institute for Advanced Study "A book with charm, beauty, elegance, and importance. As authoritative a journey as can be taken through modern cosmology." —Allan Sandage, Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington

The Beauty of Physics: Patterns, Principles, and Perspectives

The Beauty of Physics: Patterns, Principles, and Perspectives

  • Author: A. R. P. Rau
  • Publisher: OUP Oxford
  • ISBN: 0191019895
  • Category: Science
  • Page: 256
  • View: 9089
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The beauty of physics lies in its coherence in terms of a few fundamental concepts and principles. Even physicists have occasion to marvel at the overarching reach of basic principles and their ability to account for features stretching from the microscopic sub-atomic world to the cosmological expanses of the Universe. While mathematics is its natural language, physics is mostly about patterns, connections, and relations between objects and phenomena, and it is this aspect that is emphasized in this book. Since science tries to connect phenomena that at first sight appear widely different, while boiling them down to a small set of essential principles and laws, metaphor and analogy pervade our subject. Consider the pendulum, its swing from one extreme to the other often invoked in social or economic contexts. In molecular vibrations, such as in the CO2 molecule, the quantum motions of electrons and nuclei are metaphorically the pendulums. In electromagnetic radiation, including the visible light we observe, there are not even any concrete material particles, only electric and magnetic fields executing simple harmonic motion. But, to a physicist, they are all "just a pendulum". The selection of topics reflects the author's own four-decade career in research physics and his resultant perspective on the subject. While aimed primarily at physicists, including junior students, this book also addresses other readers who are willing to think with symbols and simple algebra in understanding the physical world around us. Each chapter, on themes such as dimensions, transformations, symmetries, or maps, begins with simple examples accessible to all while connecting them later to more sophisticated realizations in more advanced topics of physics.