Search results for: the-apollo-guidance-computer

The Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Frank O'Brien
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The technological marvel that facilitated the Apollo missions to the Moon was the on-board computer. In the 1960s most computers filled an entire room, but the spacecraft’s computer was required to be compact and low power. Although people today find it difficult to accept that it was possible to control a spacecraft using such a ‘primitive’ computer, it nevertheless had capabilities that are advanced even by today’s standards. This is the first book to fully describe the Apollo guidance computer’s architecture, instruction format and programs used by the astronauts. As a comprehensive account, it will span the disciplines of computer science, electrical and aerospace engineering. However, it will also be accessible to the ‘space enthusiast’. In short, the intention is for this to be the definitive account of the Apollo guidance computer. Frank O’Brien’s interest in the Apollo program began as a serious amateur historian. About 12 years ago, he began performing research and writing essays for the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, and the Apollo Flight Journal. Much of this work centered on his primary interests, the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) and the Lunar Module. These Journals are generally considered the canonical online reference on the flights to the Moon. He was then asked to assist the curatorial staff in the creation of the Cradle of Aviation Museum, on Long Island, New York, where he helped prepare the Lunar Module simulator, a LM procedure trainer and an Apollo space suit for display. He regularly lectures on the Apollo computer and related topics to diverse groups, from NASA's computer engineering conferences, the IEEE/ACM, computer festivals and university student groups.

Journey to the Moon

Author : Eldon C. Hall
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evolution of the Apollo Guidance Computer, Mr. Hall contends that the development of the Apollo computer supported and motivated the semiconductor industry during a time when integrated circuits were just emerging. This was the period just before the electronics revolution that gave birth to modern computers. In addition, the book recalls the history of computer technology, both hardware and software, and the applications of digital computing to missile guidance systems and manned spacecraft. The book also offers graphics and photos drawn from the Draper Laboratories archives that illustrate the technology and related events during the Apollo project. Written for experts as well as lay persons, Journey to the Moon is the first book of its kind and a must for anyone interested in the history of science and the relevance of computer technology to space exploration.

Case History of the Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Eldon C. Hall
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The Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Ramon L. Alonso
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Journey to the Moon

Author : Albert C. Piccirillo
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Avionics Computers

Author : Source Wikipedia
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 24. Chapters: AN/USQ-20, Apollo Abort Guidance System, Apollo Guidance Computer, ASC-15, AviatorCalc, Avionics software, Central Air Data Computer, CP-823/U, DF-224, E6B, Ferranti Argus, Flight computer, IBM AP-101, IBM RAD6000, IBM System/4 Pi, KOMDIV-32, MIL-STD-1750A, Mongoose-V, OpenPilot, Proton200k, RAD750, Radiation hardening, RH1750, RHPPC, RTX2010, Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer.

Reliability History of the Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Eldon C. Hall
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Digital Apollo

Author : David A. Mindell
File Size : 78.16 MB
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In each of the six Apollo landings, the astronaunt in command seized control from the computer and landed with his hand on the stick. Here, Mindell recounts the story of these astronauts' desire to control their spacecraft in parallel with the Apollo Guidance Computer, and muses on human-computer interaction

Operations and Functions of the Apollo Guidance Computer During Rendezvous

Author : Stephen L. Copps
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Organization of Computation and Control in the Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Thomas J. Lawton
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Recovery from Transient Failures of the Apollo Guidance Computer

Author : Edward M. Copps
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Apollo s Computers

Author : Patrick Stakem
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Apollo was built in the era of "big iron" computer mainframes. The concept of an onboard computer for space missions was radically new. There was only one place in the world that could design the Apollo Guidance Computers, and that was MIT. It took most of the U.S.'s production of integrated circuits, another radical idea replacing individual vacuum tubes, to build the AGC's. It took 2,000 person-years of independent code review and validation to ensure that they would operate properly. Besides the technical challenges, the Apollo missions were a matter of National Prestige. In the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union, President Kennedy said we were going to the Moon and return safely before the end of the (1960's) decade, so we did. The flight computers for the Saturn launch vehicle were an evolution of earlier missile guidance efforts. The massive Saturn-V first stage was built from clustered Jupiter rockets. The earlier and smaller Saturn-I was built of clustered Redstone rockets, which were themselves a derivative of the early German V-2 rockets by the Von Braun Team. The Saturn's upper stages were all new technology, using liquid hydrogen and oxygen. The vehicle had to achieve and maintain a precise trajectory from its launch site in Florida, to lunar orbit, to the lunar surface and back, and then return to Earth. All this took unprecedented computing power. This book is a brief synopsis of the architecture and applications of the Apollo computers. There is a lot of archived material on the topic, and the list of references in this book is a good starting point. The amazing thing is, the first computer on another world was designed and built before computers were commodity items. It worked as planned. Although your phone has more computing power than the entire Saturn vehicle, you shouldn't trust it to get you to the moon and back.

Moon Mission

Author : Sigmund Brouwer
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A unique look at the successful Ñ though nearly disastrous Ñ Apollo 11 moon landing! In a riveting narrative told from the astronautsÕ points of view, readers get to relive every step of Apollo 11Õs 1969 mission Ñ from ignition to moon walk to splashdown Ñ including the nail-biting (and relatively unknown) crucial moments when it came close to failure. And, setting this book apart, each step is linked to the innovations and discoveries from the past four centuries that made it possible. ItÕs a fascinating new perspective on an epic journey Ñ and how STEM set it in motion! Readers better fasten their seat belts, theyÕre in for the ride of a lifetime!

Early Exploration of the Moon

Author : Tom Lund
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Luna 2, launched by the USSR in 1959, was the first spacecraft from Earth to land on the moon. That first voyage was followed by increasingly capable lunar exploration spacecraft from Russia and the United States. A total of 36 successful lunar exploration missions were conducted from 1959 to the last Apollo manned exploration in 1972 and the final travels of the Lunokhod lunar rover in 1973. Of all the missions, that of Apollo 17 was the pinnacle of manned space exploration. Apollo 17 astronauts traveled 21 miles on the lunar surface in a dune buggy-type vehicle, stopping frequently to explore and gather samples. The spacecraft that enabled lunar exploration were ingenious, and reflected the best efforts of talented people working with the technology of the day. This book showcases the engineering involved in those incredible machines. The spacecraft covered, and their missions, are listed below. From the United States: • Ranger – Photography en route to lunar impact • Lunar Orbiter – Photography of front and back side of moon • Surveyor – Soft landing, photography, and soil analysis • Apollo – Manned exploration. Lunar Rover expanded range From the USSR: • Luna 2 – Photography en route to lunar impact • Luna 3 – Photography of back side of moon on flyby • Luna 9 and 13 – Soft landing, photography, and soil analysis • Luna 10, 11, 12, 14 – Photography from lunar orbit • Luna 16, 20, 24 – Soft landing, return of soil sample to Earth • Lunokhod-1, -2 – Lunar roving vehicle driven from Earth • L1 – Planned manned lunar flyby but only flew unmanned • L3 – Planned manned lunar landing but never flew to moon To tell the story of these spacecraft, Tom Lund draws on over 40 years’ work on aircraft and spacecraft systems. He was technical lead for the landing radars for the Surveyor and Apollo spacecraft, and his practical experience is augmented by master’s degrees in electrical engineering, physics, and business administration.

THE APOLLO MOON MISSIONS

Author : Randy Walsh
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As a child I was fascinated by the Apollo Moon missions. As I got older the fascination never waned, until, approximately 15 years ago, I happened to watch a documentary on one of the Apollo missions. In that they discussed the method used for circumnavigating the Moon during the missions. As a trained pilot I remember questioning that method of navigation and from there I started to doubt the validity of the Apollo Moon missions itself, which led to subsequent years of research. This book is culmination of that research and the reasons why I believe that the Apollo Moon missions were faked. Included in Part 1 of this series I discuss the following key factors:  The Saturn V rocket and the fraudulent claims on the powerful F-1 engines, without which the Apollo landings could not have taken place.  The non-existent capabilities of the Apollo guidance computer and the fact that this computer was a fake.  The conflicting and contradictory information regarding the radiation intensity between the Earth and Moon which would have prevented any manned lunar landing.  The inadequate shielding for both the Command Module and Lunar Module which would have ended any manned mission outside of Low Earth Orbit in a matter of minutes if not seconds.  And the incomplete, missing and/or destroyed documents along with the thousands of missing reels of telemetry tapes containing data that has been 'lost' forever

The Apollo Spacecraft

Author : Frank O'Brien
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'The Apollo Spacecraft: Evolution, Engineering, and Flight Operations' is the definitive description of the spacecraft and the technologies used for the journey to the Moon. The spacecraft that eventually landed on the Moon did not spring fully formed because of Kennedy's May 1961 challenge. 'The Apollo Spacecraft' begins by tracing its origins from 1959 when contract bids were already being prepared for a lunar spacecraft. Caught unprepared for a full lunar landing mission, von Braun and other NASA engineers recognized that the spacecraft already under development could never be reconciled with the mission architectures under consideration. Changing the mission architecture and introducing a new spacecraft, the Lunar Module, threw the development of the Apollo CSM into a lurch by requiring significant modifications to the vehicle. The resulting spacecraft, while pushing the limits of the possible, became a complex set of compromises. By tracking the spacecraft's development with its numerous fits and false starts, 'Apollo Spacecrafts' describes how the final mission design and flight operations reflected these early engineering decisions.

Sunburst and Luminary

Author : Don Eyles
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In 1966 the author, newly graduated from college, went to work for the MIT laboratory where the Apollo guidance system was designed. His assignment was to program the complex lunar landing phase in the Lunar Module's onboard computer. As Apollo 11 approaches, the author flies lunar landings in simulators and meets the astronauts who will fly the LM for real. He explains the computer alarms that almost prevented Neil Armstrong from landing and describes a narrow escape from another dangerous problem. On Apollo 14 he devises a workaround when a faulty pushbutton threatens Alan Shepard's mission, earning a NASA award, a story in Rolling Stone, and a few lines in the history books. This memoir is a new kind of book about Apollo. It tells a story never told before by an insider -- the development of the onboard software for the Apollo spacecraft. It makes a vertical connection between technical details and historic events, but by broadening the story using his own experiences as he grows into adulthood in the 1960s the author draws a parallel between that era of successful space exploration, and the exploration, inner and outer, that was taking place in the culture.

NASA Spaceflight

Author : Roger D. Launius
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This book presents the first comprehensive history of innovation at NASA, bringing together experts in the field to illuminate how public-private and international partnerships have fueled new ways of exploring space since the beginning of space travel itself. Twelve case studies trace the messy, risky history of such partnerships, exploring the role of AT&T in the early development of satellite technology, the connections between the Apollo program and Silicon Valley, the rise of SpaceX, and more. Some of these projects have succeeded, and some have failed; all have challenged conventional methods of doing the public’s business in space. Together, these essays offer new insights into how innovation happens, with invaluable lessons for policymakers, investors, economists, and members of the space community.

THE APOLLO MOON MISSIONS

Author : Randy Walsh
File Size : 58.2 MB
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As a child I was fascinated by the Apollo Moon missions. As I got older the fascination never waned, until, approximately 15 years ago, I happened to watch a documentary on one of the Apollo missions. In that they discussed the method used for circumnavigating the Moon during the missions. As a trained pilot I remember questioning that method of navigation and from there I started to doubt the validity of the Apollo Moon missions itself, which led to subsequent years of research. This book is culmination of that research and the reasons why I believe that the Apollo Moon missions were faked. Included in Part 1 of this series I discuss the following key factors:  The Saturn V rocket and the fraudulent claims on the powerful F-1 engines, without which the Apollo landings could not have taken place.  The non-existent capabilities of the Apollo guidance computer and the fact that this computer was a fake.  The conflicting and contradictory information regarding the radiation intensity between the Earth and Moon which would have prevented any manned lunar landing.  The inadequate shielding for both the Command Module and Lunar Module which would have ended any manned mission outside of Low Earth Orbit in a matter of minutes if not seconds.  And the incomplete, missing and/or destroyed documents along with the thousands of missing reels of telemetry tapes containing data that has been 'lost' forever

Apollo America s Moon Landing Program

Author : National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
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The primary objective of this paper is to present an analysis and a historical review of the Apollo Lunar Module landing dynamics from the standpoint of touchdown dynamic stability, landing system energy absorption performance, and evaluation of the first-order terms of lunar soil mechanical properties at the Apollo 11 landing site. The first-order terms of lunar surface mechanical properties consisted primarily of the surface bearing strength and sliding friction coefficient. The landing dynamic sequence started at first footpad contact. The flight dynamics data used to assess the Apollo 11 landing system performance and the lunar soil mechanical properties included the body axis pitch, roll, and yaw rate time histories as measured by the on-board guidance computer during the Apollo 11 Lunar Module touchdown maneuver, and the landing gear stroke data derived from post-landing photographs. The conclusions drawn from these studies were that the landing gear system performance was more than adequate from a stability and energy absorption standpoint for all Apollo lunar landings, and the lunar soil parameters were well within the limits of the design assumptions for all Apollo landing sites. Chapter 1.0 - Introduction * Chapter 2.0 - Landing Dynamic Analysis * Chapter 3.0 - Drop Testing of Subscale and Full-scale Lunar Module Models * Chapter 4.0 - The Lunar Module * Chapter 5.0 - Critical Design Cases * Chapter 6.0 - Analysis of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module Landing Dynamics and Lunar Surface Mechanical Properties * Chapter 7.0 - The Apollo Lunar Module Landings * 7.1 Apollo 11 Lunar Landing * 7.1.1 Summary: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Landing * 7.2 Apollo 12 Lunar Landing * 7.2.1 Summary: Apollo 12 Lunar Module Landing * 7.3 Apollo 13 Lunar Landing (Aborted) * 7.4 Apollo 14 Lunar Landing * 7.4.1 Summary: Apollo 14 Lunar Module Landing * 7.5 Apollo 15 Lunar Landing * 7.5.1 Summary: Apollo 15 Lunar Module Landing * 7.6 Apollo 16 Lunar Landing * 7.6.1 Summary: Apollo 16 Lunar Module Landing * 7.7 Apollo 17 Lunar Landing * 7.7.1 Summary: Apollo 17 Lunar Module Landing * Chapter 8.0 - Author's Annotation - Apollo 16 and 17 Landings * Chapter 9.0 - Conclusions * Chapter 10.0 - References * Appendix A: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Touchdown Dynamics * Appendix B: Lunar Soil Mechanical Properties Model * Appendix C: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Mass Properties at Touchdown * Appendix D: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Landing Gear Load Stroke Characteristics * Appendix E: Apollo 11 Lunar Module Descent Engine Thrust Tail-off Characteristics