Search results for: the-case-for-withdrawal-from-afghanistan

The Case for Withdrawal from Afghanistan

Author : Nick Turse
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In a collection of essays that argue against President Obama's policy in Afghanistan, leading analysts examine the current U.S. strategy and offer sobering conclusions about its parallels to the British and Soviet wars in the region and reasons why it is so unlikely to succeed. Original.

Changing Course

Author : Sarah E. Mendelson
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Soviet foreign policy changed dramatically in the 1980s. The shift, bitterly resisted by the country's foreign policy traditionalists, ultimately contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. In Changing Course, Sarah Mendelson demonstrates that interpretations that stress the impact of the international system, and particularly of U.S. foreign policy, or that focus on the role of ideas or politics alone, fail to explain the contingent process of change. Mendelson tells a story of internal battles where "misfit" ideas--ones that severely challenged the status quo--were turned into policies. She draws on firsthand interviews with those who ran Soviet foreign policy and the war in Afghanistan and on recently declassified material from Soviet archives to show that both ideas and political strategies were needed to make reform happen. Focusing on the Soviet decision to withdraw from Afghanistan, Mendelson details the strategies used by the Gorbachev coalition to shift the internal balance of power in favor of constituencies pushing new ideas--mutual security, for example--while undermining the power of old constituencies resistant to change. The interactive dynamic between ideas and politics that she identifies in the case of the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan is fundamental to understanding other shifts in Soviet foreign policy and the end of the Cold War. Her exclusive interviews with the foreign policy elite also offer a unique glimpse of the inner workings of the former Soviet power structure. Originally published in 1998. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Withdrawal Deadlines in War

Author : Paul D. Miller
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Withdrawal from Conflict

Author : Mark E. Calvert
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"My thesis is that given the nature of the threat and strategic environment in Iraq and Afghanistan, we will likely meet our political objective prior to the termination of conflict; history may provide us with some valuable lessons to consider as we develop and implement a plan for withdrawing forces in the midst of ongoing conflict. The purpose of this paper is to explore a historical case study where military forces were withdrawn in the midst of conflict, and look at possible lessons that might be applied to strategic and operational planning in the future. Understanding and applying these could allow the successful transfer of operations to the host nation without losing ground on our political objective. First, I will examine withdrawal from conflict at the strategic and operational level as it relates to our doctrine. Second, I will look at a historical case study where withdrawal from ongoing conflict was executed in the past. The case study I will look at is the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988-1989. In this study, I will examine the National Policy changes that precipitated the withdrawal, the withdrawal plan and withdrawal execution. Third I will analyze the case study in the context of the elements of strategy and operational art. Finally, I will discuss some recommendations that might be used in the development of a future strategy that that might involve the withdrawal of forces prior to actual conflict termination."--Abstract from web site.

Afghanistan and Its Neighbors after the NATO Withdrawal

Author : Amin Saikal
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The planned reductions in NATO troop numbers in Afghanistan through 2015 and a final withdrawal at the end of 2016 brings up numerous pressing questions about the security and national interests of not just Afghanistan, but of the broader region itself. The problem of a chaotic Afghanistan—or of an outright Taliban victory—is of great concern to not only immediate neighbors such as Iran, Pakistan, and the former Soviet Central Asian republics to the north, but also to those countries in the region with Afghanistan-related security or economic concerns, such as China and India. Further abroad, Russian, American and European interests and plans for dealing with the fallout from Afghanistan must also be taken into account as these major powers have enduring interests in Afghanistan and the region. This volume puts the prospects for short- and mid-term security dynamics at the core of the analysis, with each case being placed in its proper contemporary historical, economic, and political context. The book will offer a truly comprehensive, nuanced, and timely account of the security situation in and around Afghanistan.

Withdrawal from Afghanistan

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Armed Services. Oversight and Investigations Subcommittee
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Call for Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

Author : Jeane J. Kirkpatrick
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The Afghanistan Wars

Author : William Maley
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A whole generation has grown up in Afghanistan knowing little but the ravages of war. The dramatic overthrow of the Taliban regime in 2001 was simply one event in a series of interrelated struggles which have blighted ordinary people's lives over the last three decades, and which continue to interfere with reconciliation and reconstruction. This new edition of The Afghanistan Wars provides a meticulously-documented history of these successive waves of conflict. It explores in detail: • the roots of Afghanistan's slide into disorder in the late 1970s • how the Soviet Union came to the rescue of unworthy clients and was then sucked into a quagmire • the frightening consequences of state breakdown and self-interested meddling by Afghanistan's neighbours in the period after communist rule collapsed • the rise and fall of the Taliban regime. Thoroughly revised in the light of the latest research, the second edition also features a new final chapter which examines post-Taliban Afghanistan, bringing the story up to the present day and mounting a strong case for continuing support for this troubled country.

The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

Author : Amin Saikal
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Nearly ten years of bloodshed and political turmoil have followed the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Soviet occupation not only proved a major trauma for the people of Afghanistan; invasion ended the growth in superpower dentents that had characterised the late 1970s; and in the Soviet Union the effects of escalating military costs and over 13,000 young military casualties have been felt at every level of society. The decision to withdraw combat forces under the provisions of the Geneva Accords of April 1988 is one of the most dramatic developments in the international system since the end of the Second World War. The effects of this decision will be felt not only in Afghanistan, but in the Soviet Union, in Southwest Asia, and in the wider world. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan has been designed to explore the background to the decision to withdraw and its broader implications. The authors, all established specialists, examine the Geneva Accords; the future for post-withdrawal Afghanistan; and the impact of withdrawal on regional states, Soviet foreign and domestic policies, the Soviet armed forces, Sino-Soviet relations and world politics. They write from diverse disciplinary traditions, while bringing together a shared sensitivity to the issues which complicate the Afghan question.

Hubris Self Interest and America s Failed War in Afghanistan

Author : Thomas P. Cavanna
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This book describes the conduct of the US-led post-9/11 war in Afghanistan. Adopting a long-term perspective, it argues that even though Washington initially had an opportunity to achieve its security goals and give Afghanistan a chance to enter a new era, it compromised any possibility of success from the very moment it let bin Laden escape to Pakistan in December 2001, and found itself locked in a strategic overreach. Given the bureaucratic and rhetorical momentum triggered by the war on terror in America, the Bush Administration was bound to deploy more resources in Afghanistan sooner or later (despite its focus on Iraq). The need to satisfy unfulfilled counter-terrorism objectives made the US dependent on Afghanistan’s warlords, which compromised the country’s stability and tarnished its new political system. The extension of the US military presence made Washington lose its leverage on the Pakistan army leaders, who, aware of America’s logistical dependency on Islamabad, supported the Afghan insurgents – their historical proxies - more and more openly. The extension of the war also contributed to radicalize segments of the Afghan and Pakistani populations, destabilizing the area further. In the meantime, the need to justify the extension of its military presence influenced the US-led coalition into proclaiming its determination to democratize and reconstruct Afghanistan. While highly opportunistic, the emergence of these policies proved both self-defeating and unsustainable due to an inescapable collision between the US-led coalition’s inherent self-interest, hubris, limited knowledge, limited attention span and limited resources, and, on the other hand, Afghanistan’s inherent complexity. As the critical contradictions at the very heart of the campaign increased with the extension of the latter’s duration, scale, and cost, America’s leaders, entrapped in path-dependence, lost their strategic flexibility. Despite debates on troops/resource allocation and more sophisticated doctrines, they repeated the same structural mistakes over and over again. The strategic overreach became self-sustaining, until its costs became intolerable, leading to a drawdown which has more to do with a pervasive sense of failure than with the accomplishment of any noble purpose or strategic breakthrough.

US Nation Building in Afghanistan

Author : Conor Keane
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Why has the US so dramatically failed in Afghanistan since 2001? Dominant explanations have ignored the bureaucratic divisions and personality conflicts inside the US state. This book rectifies this weakness in commentary on Afghanistan by exploring the significant role of these divisions in the US’s difficulties in the country that meant the battle was virtually lost before it even began. The main objective of the book is to deepen readers understanding of the impact of bureaucratic politics on nation-building in Afghanistan, focusing primarily on the Bush Administration. It rejects the ’rational actor’ model, according to which the US functions as a coherent, monolithic agent. Instead, internal divisions within the foreign policy bureaucracy are explored, to build up a picture of the internal tensions and contradictions that bedevilled US nation-building efforts. The book also contributes to the vexed issue of whether or not the US should engage in nation-building at all, and if so under what conditions.

Leaving Without Losing

Author : Mark N. Katz
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Assesses what went wrong in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and outlines how the U.S. can restructure its foreign policy by following lessons learned in the Cold War.

Grand Strategy in the Afghan Pakistan and Iraq Wars

Author : Anthony H. Cordesman
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Grand strategy is not an American strength, and it is far too easy to become obsessed with day-to-day issues. In the case of Iraq, this means a focus on US withdrawal and the formation of a new Iraqi government. In the case of Afghanistan and Pakistan, it means a focus on the status of reconciliation talks, whether the current strategy in Afghanistan will work in achieving short term goals like "Afghan good enough," and whether Pakistan will become a true partner in the ongoing fighting in its border areas. The cost of wars in blood and dollars, however, can only be justified by their grand strategic outcome over time, and not by whether enough progress can made to claim a temporary victory or pull out most of our troops. The author argues that we need to look further into the future in all three of our current wars, or we risk making all of them an exercise in futility. The author states that we cannot predict the future, but a successful grand strategy requires, at the least, that we look at the four most likely outcomes in each conflict, and prepare for them as best we can.

Afghanistan Challenges and Prospects

Author : Srinjoy Bose
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After decades of turmoil a new phase is opening up for Afghanistan, in which a new generation comes to the fore as many of the key players from earlier phases, including foreign interventionist powers, leave the scene. Although this new phase offers new possibilities and increased hope for Afghanistan’s future, the huge problems created in earlier phases remain. This book presents a comprehensive overall assessment of the current state of politics and society in Afghanistan, outlining the difficulties and discussing the future possibilities. Many of the contributors are Afghans or Afghan insiders, who are able to put forward a much richer view of the situation than outside foreign observers.

Air Force Journal of Logistics

Author :
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Transition in Afghanistan

Author : William Maley
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This book, by one of the most experienced authorities on the subject, presents a deep analysis of the very difficult current situation in Afghanistan. Covering a wide range of important subjects including state-building, democracy, war, the rule of law, and international relations, the book draws out two overarching key factors: the way in which the prevailing neopatrimonial political order has become entrenched, making it very difficult for any other political order to take root; and the hostile region in which Afghanistan is located, especially the way in which an ongoing ‘creeping invasion’ from Pakistani territory has compromised the aspirations of both the Afghan government and its international backers to move the country to a more stable position.

The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan

Author : Tom Rogers
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This reference analyzes and chronicles the Soviet occupation of and withdrawal from Afghanistan in the period from 1973 to 1990 by an observer in the area who relied on a variety of sources and cross-checked them carefully. The analysis of events leading to the Soviet withdrawal covers the important negotiations and relates them to historic changes taking place in the Soviet Union and in its relationship to the rest of the world. The detailed chronology occupies the main portion of the book. An index makes this indispensable reference tool easily accessible to researchers and students in various fields.

The Afghanistan Wars

Author : William Maley
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A whole generation has grown up in Afghanistan knowing little but the ravages of war. The dramatic overthrow of the Taliban regime in 2001 was simply one event in a series of interrelated struggles which have blighted ordinary people’s lives over the last three decades, and which continue to interfere with reconciliation and reconstruction. This new edition of The Afghanistan Wars provides a meticulously-documented history of these successive waves of conflict. From the roots of Afghanistan’s slide into disorder in the late 1970s to the challenges faced by Afghan leaders following the substantial withdrawal of international forces in 2014, it explores military and diplomatic history while also offering valuable insight on humanitarian action, gender, medical and cultural themes. Thoroughly revised in the light of the latest research, the third edition also features a new final chapter which examines recent developments in Afghanistan, bringing the story up to the present day and mounting a strong case for continuing support for this troubled country.

Afghanistan

Author : Philip Steele
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Readers examine the history of Afghanistan, including its wars with the British Empire through its present-day occupation by American and NATO forces. Issues explored include the rise of the Taliban, the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent U.S. military ouster of the Taliban, the war of insurgency, and the plan for military withdrawal. Case studies show real-life experiences from a variety of sources, and opinion panels present diverse points of view. Timelines, fact boxes, and maps are other helpful resources provided for a deeper understanding of the content provided.

Preventing Catastrophe in Afghanistan

Author : Richard Olson
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This brief presents a summary of key historical events in Afghanistan since 1989 and outlines a possible worst-case scenario following a U.S. and allied withdrawal from the country. The United States, Afghanistan, and its allies must work together in search for greater Afghan self-reliance, security, and stability in order to avoid a catastrophic scenario. Only then will Afghanistan be able to free itself of foreign presences and embark on its own journey to prosperity and self-reliance.