Search results for: the-design-and-construction-of-large-optical-telescopes

The Design and Construction of Large Optical Telescopes

Author : Pierre Bely
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There is no dearth of books on telescope optics and, indeed, optics is clearly a keyelementinthedesignandconstructionoftelescopes.Butitisbynomeans the only important element. As telescopes become larger and more costly, other aspects such as structures, pointing, wavefront control, enclosures, and project management become just as critical. Although most of the technical knowledge required for all these ?elds is available in various specialized books, journal articles, and technical reports, they are not necessarily written with application to telescopes in mind. This bookisa?rstattemptatassemblinginasingletextthebasicastronomicaland engineering principles used in the design and construction of large telescopes. Itsaimistobroadlycoverallmajoraspectsofthe?eld,fromthefundamentals ofastronomicalobservationto optics, controlsystems,structural,mechanical, andthermalengineering,aswellasspecializedtopicssuchassiteselectionand program management. This subject is so vast that an in-depth treatment is obviously imprac- cal. Our intent is therefore only to provide a comprehensive introduction to the essential aspects of telescope design and construction. This book will not replace specialized scienti?c and technical texts. But we hope that it will be useful for astronomers, managers, and systems engineers who seek a basic understanding of the underlying principles of telescope making, and for s- cialists who wish to acquaint themselves with the fundamental requirements and approaches of their colleagues in other disciplines.

Mechanical Automation and Materials Engineering

Author : Daniel Chen
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Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2nd International Conference on Mechanical Automation and Materials Engineering (ICMAME 2013), August 9-11, 2013, Wuhan, China. The 167 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter 1: Research and Design in Mechanical Engineering; Chapter 2: Applied Computational Methods and Algorithms; Chapter 3: Sensors, MEMS and Microengineering; Chapter 4: Industrial Automation and Process Control; Chapter 5: Robotics; Chapter 6: Applied Information Technologies, Electronics and Communication Technologies; Chapter 7: Advanced Manufacturing Technologies; Chapter 8: Alloys, Steel Materials and Metallurgical Technologies; Chapter 9: Chemical Materials and Chemical Engineering; Chapter 10: Composite Materials and Technologies; Chapter 11: Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies; Chapter 12: Ceramics and Functional Materials; Chapter 13: Other Related Topics.

Integrated Modeling of Telescopes

Author : Torben Andersen
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Ground- or space-based telescopes are becoming increasingly more complex and construction budgets are typically in the billion dollar range. Facing costs of this magnitude, availability of engineering tools for prediction of performance and design optimization is imperative. Establishment of simulation models combining different technical disciplines such as Structural Dynamics, Control Engineering, Optics and Thermal Engineering is indispensable. Such models are normally called Integrated Models because they involve many different disciplines. The models will play an increasingly larger role for design of future interdisciplinary optical systems in space or on ground. The book concentrates on integrated modeling of optical and radio telescopes but the techniques presented will be applicable to a large variety of systems. Hence, the book will be of interest to optical and radio telescope designers, designers of spacecrafts that include optical systems, and to designers of various complex defense systems. The book may also find use as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses within the field. "Adaptive Optics" is an exciting and relatively new field, originally dedicated to correction for blurring when imaging through the atmosphere. Although this objective is still of high importance, the concept of Adaptive Optics has recently evolved further. Today, the objective is not only to correct for atmospheric turbulence effects but also for a range of static and dynamical telescope aberrations. The notion of adaptive optics has expanded to the field of "Wavefront Control", correcting for a variety of system aberrations. Wavefront control systems maintain form and position of optical elements with high precision under static and dynamical load. In many ways, such systems replace the steel structures of traditional optical systems, thereby providing much lighter systems with a performance not possible before. Integrated Modeling is the foremost tool for studies of Wavefront Control for telescopes and complex optics and is therefore now of high importance. Springer has recently published two books on telescopes, "Reflecting Telescope Optics" by R. Wilson, and "The Design and Construction of Large Optical Telescopes" by P. Bely. Noting that a new (and expensive) generation of Extremely Large Telescopes with apertures in the 30-100 m range is on the way, the present book on integrated modeling is a good match to the existing books and an appropriate specialization and continuation of some subjects dealt with in those books.

Ground based and Airborne Telescopes

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A Question and Answer Guide to Astronomy

Author : Pierre-Yves Bely
File Size : 49.14 MB
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A practical answer guide to humankind's age-old questions on planets, our universe and everything beyond and between.

Instrumentation for Astronomy with Large Optical Telescopes

Author : C.M. Humphries
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Interest world-wide in the provision of new observational astro nomical facilities in the form of ground-based optical telescopes of large aperture has never been higher than exists at present. The benefits to be gained from increased aperture size, however, are only utilised effectively if efficient instrumentation is also available. There have been significant improvements recently in this area, part icularly in detector technology and data handling as well as in optical design, so that systems which are currently being developed have the capability of being vastly more powerful in terms of the efficient use of photons than those which existed only 5 years ago. The rationale for the decision by Commission 9 of the International Astronomical Union to hold IAU Colloquium 67, therefore, was to obtain reports on these developments with the emphasis placed upon overall efficiency of the complete observational system - from telescope aperture right through to detector output. A fitting venue for the meeting was the site of the 6 metre BTA (Bolshoi Azimuth Telescope) at Zelenchukskaya in the Caucasus mount ains, USSR. The BTA is operated by the Special Astrophysical Observatory located at Nizhnij Arkhyz, a few kilometres from the telescope itself.

Opto Mechanical Systems Design Volume 2

Author : Paul Yoder
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Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, Fourth Edition is different in many ways from its three earlier editions: coauthor Daniel Vukobratovich has brought his broad expertise in materials, opto-mechanical design, analysis of optical instruments, large mirrors, and structures to bear throughout the book; Jan Nijenhuis has contributed a comprehensive new chapter on kinematics and applications of flexures; and several other experts in special aspects of opto-mechanics have contributed portions of other chapters. An expanded feature—a total of 110 worked-out design examples—has been added to several chapters to show how the theory, equations, and analytical methods can be applied by the reader. Finally, the extended text, new illustrations, new tables of data, and new references have warranted publication of this work in the form of two separate but closely entwined volumes. This second volume, Design and Analysis of Large Mirrors and Structures, concentrates on the design and mounting of significantly larger optics and their structures, including a new and important topic: detailed consideration of factors affecting large mirror performance. The book details how to design and fabricate very large single-substrate, segmented, and lightweight mirrors; describes mountings for large mirrors with their optical axes in vertical, horizontal, and variable orientations; indicates how metal and composite mirrors differ from ones made of glass; explains key design aspects of optical instrument structural design; and takes a look at an emerging technology—the evolution and applications of silicon and silicon carbide in mirrors and other types of components for optical applications.

Opto Mechanical Systems Design Two Volume Set

Author : Paul Yoder
File Size : 63.40 MB
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Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, Fourth Edition is different in many ways from its three earlier editions: coauthor Daniel Vukobratovich has brought his broad expertise in materials, opto-mechanical design, analysis of optical instruments, large mirrors, and structures to bear throughout the book; Jan Nijenhuis has contributed a comprehensive new chapter on kinematics and applications of flexures; and several other experts in special aspects of opto-mechanics have contributed portions of other chapters. An expanded feature—a total of 110 worked-out design examples—has been added to several chapters to show how the theory, equations, and analytical methods can be applied by the reader. Finally, the extended text, new illustrations, new tables of data, and new references have warranted publication of this work in the form of two separate but closely entwined volumes. The first volume, Design and Analysis of Opto-Mechanical Assemblies, addresses topics pertaining primarily to optics smaller than 50 cm aperture. It summarizes the opto-mechanical design process, considers pertinent environmental influences, lists and updates key parameters for materials, illustrates numerous ways for mounting individual and multiple lenses, shows typical ways to design and mount windows and similar components, details designs for many types of prisms and techniques for mounting them, suggests designs and mounting techniques for small mirrors, explains the benefits of kinematic design and uses of flexures, describes how to analyze various types of opto-mechanical interfaces, demonstrates how the strength of glass can be determined and how to estimate stress generated in optics, and explains how changing temperature affects opto-mechanical assemblies. The second volume, Design and Analysis of Large Mirrors and Structures, concentrates on the design and mounting of significantly larger optics and their structures, including a new and important topic: detailed consideration of factors affecting large mirror performance. The book details how to design and fabricate very large single-substrate, segmented, and lightweight mirrors; describes mountings for large mirrors with their optical axes in vertical, horizontal, and variable orientations; indicates how metal and composite mirrors differ from ones made of glass; explains key design aspects of optical instrument structural design; and takes a look at an emerging technology—the evolution and applications of silicon and silicon carbide in mirrors and other types of components for optical applications.

Radio Telescope Reflectors

Author : Jacob W.M. Baars
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This book demonstrates how progress in radio astronomy is intimately linked to the development of reflector antennas of increasing size and precision. The authors describe the design and construction of major radio telescopes as those in Dwingeloo, Jodrell Bank, Parkes, Effelsberg and Green Bank since 1950 up to the present as well as millimeter wavelength telescopes as the 30m MRT of IRAM in Spain, the 50m LMT in Mexico and the ALMA submillimeter instrument. The advances in methods of structural design and coping with environmental influences (wind, temperature, gravity) as well as application of new materials are explained in a non-mathematical, descriptive and graphical way along with the story of the telescopes. Emphasis is placed on the interplay between astronomical and electromagnetic requirements and structural, mechanical and control solutions. A chapter on management aspects of large telescope projects closes the book. The authors address a readership with interest in the progress of engineering solutions applied to the development of radio telescope reflectors and ground station antennas for satellite communication and space research. The book will also be of interest to historians of science and engineering with an inclination to astronomy.

Opto Mechanical Systems Design

Author : Paul R. Yoder Jr.
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After nearly two decades, Paul Yoder's Opto-Mechanical Systems Design continues to be the reference of choice for professionals fusing optical and mechanical components into advanced, high-performance instruments. Yoder's authoritative systems-oriented coverage and down-to-earth approach fosters the deep-seated knowledge needed to continually push