Search results for: the-development-of-the-red-pulp-in-the-spleen

The Development of the Red Pulp in the Spleen

Author : V. Grouls
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In many aspects hematopoiesis in newborn rodents, especially in rats, resembles hema topoiesis in the human fetus in the 6th-7th month of gestation. In man the transition from the stage of liver to bone marrow erythropoiesis takes place at this time (Bessis, 1973). In rodents, however, the liver is almost the only place where hematopoiesis occurs until birth. Thereafter it is replaced to a growing extent by the bone marrow, which so far consists mainly of immature mesenchymal cells (Maximow, 1910; Cuda, 1970). Thus hematopoietic precursor cells appear in the sternum only around 30 h after birth. Just as in premature human infants, a macrocytic anemia can be demonstrat ed in normal neonatal rats (Lucarelli et aI., 1964, 1968). Beside liver (fetal) and bone marrow, the spleen is involved in hematopoiesis. In rodents like rats and mice, splenic hematopoiesis persists more or less markedly until adulthood; in man, however, it ceases after birth and reappears only under certain pathological conditions (Fischer et aI., 1970; Hennekeuser et aI., 1967; Fresen, 1960).

The Development of the Red Pulp in the Spleen

Author : Volker Grouls
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The Development of the Red Pulp in the Spleen

Author : Volker Grouls
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SMN Deficiency Negatively Impacts Red Pulp Macrophages and Spleen Development in Mouse Models of Spinal Muscular Atrophy

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Microanatomy and Function of the Spleen

Author : Birte Steiniger
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5 Function of Splenic Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5. 1 Splenic White Pulp Compartments during Primary T Cell-Dependent Antibody Responses against Protein Antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. 1. 1 Priming of CD4+ Helper T Cells by Dendritic Cells in the PALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5. 1. 1. 1 5. 1. 2 Interaction of Primed CD4+ T Cells with Antigen-Specific B Cells in the PALS and Formation of Extrafollicular Foci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5. 1. 2. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 1. 3 Formation of Germinal Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 1. 3. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5. 1. 4 Localisation of Memory B Cells in the Marginal Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5. 1. 4. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5. 2 Function of the Marginal Zone during Primary Antibody Responses against T Cell-Independent Type 2 Antigens . . . . . . . . 57 5. 2. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Function of the Red Pulp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5. 3 5. 3. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5. 4 Role of the Spleen in CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5. 4. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Spleen, Natural Killer Cells 5. 5 and Gamma/Delta T Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. 5. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6 Recirculation of Lymphocytes Through the Spleen . . 65 6. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7 The Role of Cytokines and Chemokines in the Development of Splenic Compartments . . . . . . 69 7. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8 Unsolved Problems of Human Splenic Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 VI 8. 1 Arterial Blood Supply to the Splenic Follicles and to the Perifollicular Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . 8. 1. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.

Die Milz The Spleen

Author : K. Lennert
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Gerne nennt man auch heute noch die Milz ein ""organon plenum mysterii"" (GALEN). Man gibt damit zu, daB die naturwissenschaftliche Durchdringung des Phanomens Milz noch sehr unvollkommen ist. M ysterien lassen allzu leicht M ythen aufsprieBen, die sich bei Gutglaubigen bisweilen als Spiegel der Wirklichkeit aus nehmen und zu handfesten Theorien verdichten. Hier tut dann eine unerbittliche Entmythologisierung not. Das vorgelegte Werk hat solche Hintergedanken: Es will den Schleier des Ge heimnisses, welches das Organ Milz umwittert, luften. Es will auBerdem liebge wordene Theorien und genia.

Experimental Hematology

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Microanatomy and Function of the Spleen

Author : Birte Steiniger
File Size : 69.57 MB
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5 Function of Splenic Compartments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 5. 1 Splenic White Pulp Compartments during Primary T Cell-Dependent Antibody Responses against Protein Antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 5. 1. 1 Priming of CD4+ Helper T Cells by Dendritic Cells in the PALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5. 1. 1. 1 5. 1. 2 Interaction of Primed CD4+ T Cells with Antigen-Specific B Cells in the PALS and Formation of Extrafollicular Foci . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5. 1. 2. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 1. 3 Formation of Germinal Centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 5. 1. 3. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5. 1. 4 Localisation of Memory B Cells in the Marginal Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5. 1. 4. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5. 2 Function of the Marginal Zone during Primary Antibody Responses against T Cell-Independent Type 2 Antigens . . . . . . . . 57 5. 2. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Function of the Red Pulp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5. 3 5. 3. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5. 4 Role of the Spleen in CD8+ Cytotoxic T Cell Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5. 4. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Spleen, Natural Killer Cells 5. 5 and Gamma/Delta T Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5. 5. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 6 Recirculation of Lymphocytes Through the Spleen . . 65 6. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 7 The Role of Cytokines and Chemokines in the Development of Splenic Compartments . . . . . . 69 7. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 8 Unsolved Problems of Human Splenic Structure and Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 VI 8. 1 Arterial Blood Supply to the Splenic Follicles and to the Perifollicular Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 . . . . 8. 1. 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 8.

Fundamental Immunology

Author : William E. Paul
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Now thoroughly revised and updated, this comprehensive, up-to-date text is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, microbiologists, infectious disease physicians, and any physician who treats diseases in which immunologic mechanisms play a role.

Psychoneuroimmunology

Author : Robert Ader
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Psychoneuroimmunology, Second Edition presents reports on the relationship between the nervous and immune systems. The book is divided into four sections. The first section details the role of neural structures and neurotransmitter signals in communication with the immune system. It documents the extensive neural connections with organs of the immune system; the dynamics of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation of spleen and thymus; and the evidence for immune signaling of the CNS. Part II elaborates the role of hormones in the modulation of immune functions; the basis for bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems; and the potential physiological implications of these neuroendocrine-immune system interactions. The third part addresses behavioral influences on immune response; the effects of conditioning, stress and social interactions in modulating immune responses; and the behavioral consequences of experimentally altered or genetically determined immunologic states. The final section presents the effects of psychosocial factors on immune responses and the potential impact of behavioral interventions in modulating immunity in healthy human subjects and in patients with AIDS. Neuroscientists, endocrinologists, and immunologists will find the book interesting.

The Lymphoid Neoplasms 3ed

Author : Ian Magrath
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This comprehensive and authoritative reference covers all aspects of the group of disorders collectively known as the lymphoid neoplasms. The reader is taken through a description of its normal cellular origins and the molecular genetic abnormalities that can lead to this group of conditions, a section of the book that has been considerably strengthened for this third edition, to the environmental factors that may be relevant to disease development, and, finally, to the pragmatic aspects of disease management. The authors synthesise for the reader apsects of current knowledge and likely future developments, and direct them to the appropriate resources should they wish to pursue particular avenues of scientific or literature research.

Emerging immune functions of non hematopoietic stromal cells

Author : Burkhard Ludewig
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The development and function of the immune system is dependent on interactions between haematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic stromal cells. The non-hematopoietic stromal cells create the microenvironment in which the immune system operates, providing an architectural landscape for hematopoietic cell-cell interactions and molecular cues governing haematopoietic cell positioning, growth and survival. Not surprisingly, therefore, aberrant stromal cell function has recently been shown to play a key role in the development of disease pathologies associated with immune dysfunction. For example, remodelling of lymphoid tissue stroma and the development of ectopic tertiary lymphoid tissues are characteristic of many infectious and inflammatory diseases and stromal cells have a recognised role in lymphoma and tumour development and resistance to therapy. An increased understanding of the molecular basis of stromal cell differentiation and function in these varied contexts will provide new tools to promote research on stromal cell biology and immune dysfunction, and potential new targets for therapeutic intervention in diseases with a major impact on public health. The importance of stromal cells and the molecular mechanisms of stromal cell function in the regulation of immune responses have only recently been appreciated and thus represent an exciting new area in immunology.

Structure Isotypes Targets and Post Translational Modifications of Immunoglobulins and Their Role in Infection Inflammation and Autoimmunity

Author : Sylvie Hermouet
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The Acupuncturist s Guide to Conventional Medicine Second Edition

Author : Clare Stephenson
File Size : 81.53 MB
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Offering a systematic comparative approach to Western and Eastern medicine, this unique textbook enables students and practitioners of Chinese medicine to develop a core understanding of conventional medical language and treatments. Acupuncture practitioners increasingly find themselves working alongside Western healthcare professionals. Now in its second edition, this book is a guide to conventional medical diagnoses, symptoms and treatments, and using examples drawn from the author's experience and knowledge of TCM it encourages reflection on how these diagnoses may be interpreted from a more holistic medical perspective. It includes introductory sections on physiology, pathology and pharmacology, chapters devoted to the physiological systems of the body and the conventional approach to the treatment of diseases that can affect them, and information on dealing with patients in practice. Accompanying online material, including self-testing questions and answers and checklists for revision, is available for those wishing to use the text for systematic study.

Microenvironments in the Lymphoid System

Author : G. Klaus
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The Complementary Therapist s Guide to Conventional Medicine E Book

Author : Clare Stephenson
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The Complementary Therapist's Guide to Conventional Medicine is a unique textbook for students and practitioners of complementary medicine, offering a systematic comparative approach to Western and Eastern medicine. Practitioners of complementary medicine increasingly find themselves working alongside conventionally trained doctors and nurses and it is vital for them to develop a core understanding of conventional medical language and philosophy. The book is designed as a guide to understanding conventional medical diagnoses, symptoms and treatments, whilst also encouraging the reader to reflect on and translate how these diagnoses may be interpreted from a more holistic medical perspective. Throughout the text the practitioner/student is encouraged to see that conventional and more holistic interpretations are not necessarily contradictory, but instead are simply two different approaches to interpreting the same truth, that truth being the patient's symptoms. After introductory sections on physiology, pathology and pharmacology, there follow sections devoted to each of the physiological systems of the body. In these, the physiology of each system is explored together with the medical investigation, symptoms and treatments of the important diseases which might affect that system. As each disease is described, the reader is encouraged to consider the corresponding Chinese medical perspective. The textbook concludes with chapters relating specifically to dealing with patients in practice. In particular these focus on warning signs of serious disease, supporting patients on medication and ethical issues which may arise from management of patients which is shared with conventional practitioners. The book also offers a detailed summary of 'Red Flag symptoms' which are those which should be referred for 'Western' medical investigation or emergency medical treatment, and also a guide to how patients can be safely supported in withdrawing from conventional medication, when this is clinically appropriate. Those wishing to use the text for systematic study can make use of the question and problem-solving approach offered on the accompanying CD to which references to self study exercises appear at regular stages throughout the book. This means that the text can be easily adapted to form the basis of a study course in clinical medicine for students of complementary medicine. In addition to the self-testing questions and answers, the supporting CD also contains checklists for revision and full-colour illustrations. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Clare Stephenson is a qualified medical practitioner who worked in hospital medicine, general practice and public health medicine for a number of years before training in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and acupuncture. Over the course of a decade she developed and taught an undergraduate course for students of Chinese medicine on Western medicine and how it relates to TCM. She is particularly committed to encouraging communication and understanding between practitioners of different health disciplines. She currently works as a GP in Oxfordshire.

Sonography E Book

Author : Reva Arnez Curry
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Without a deep understanding of what normal anatomy looks like in ultrasound images, you may have a tough time recognizing abnormalities. Thankfully Sonography Introduction to Normal Structure and Function, 5th Edition provides the firm grounding in normal anatomy and physiology that you need from an ultrasound perspective. This highly visual text uses a wealth of ultrasound images accompanied by labeled drawings with detailed legends to increase your comfort with normal anatomy as it appears during scanning. Its consistent chapter format also makes the content easy to navigate and reinforces standard protocols for scanning each area of the body. Highly visual content leads with images and uses narrative to support those visuals. Consistent organization features a standardized heading scheme to aid students when searching for information. Quality control protocol information helps students recreate the most optimal scanning settings and techniques. NEW! Chapter on musculoskeletal sonography covers the latest use of ultrasound technology to visualize muscle, tendon, and ligament anatomy. NEW! Chapter devoted to pediatric sonography introduces students to the knowledge needed to work in this nascent specialty. NEW! Coverage of 5D technology familiarizes students with automated volume scanning. NEW! Updated content reflects the latest ARDMS standards and AIUM guidelines. NEW! More than 100 new and updated sonograms and line drawings give students a better picture of what they should see in scans.

The Illustrated Dictionary of Toxicologic Pathology and Safety Science

Author : Pritam S. Sahota
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There has been a growing interest in toxicologic pathology, especially as related to its impact on the safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and chemicals, and in drug development. Thus, there is a growing need for an Illustrated Dictionary of Toxicology Pathology and Safety Science (IDTP) that this dictionary aims to fill. The language of toxicologic pathology may be less familiar to a broad range of safety scientists, especially those involved in the safety evaluation of pharmaceuticals and chemicals. The IDTP format provides the brevity and clarity that the user is not likely to receive in a textbook, even if adequately indexed. With the inclusion of descriptions for terms used in toxicology, drug metabolism/pharmacokinetics, and regulatory science, the scope of the IDTP is considerably broadened and decidedly unique in its appeal to all safety scientists. With over 800 photos and illustrations to provide visual context,* an important aim of the IDTP is to present pathological changes as reference examples for terminology, nomenclature, and term descriptions for the entry entry-level as well as seasoned toxicologic pathologist. It will also aid students and non-pathology specialists such as study directors, senior toxicology report reviewers, scientific management of contract research organizations, regulatory agencies, and drug development companies to better understand the biological significance of tissue changes. The IDTP provides a single reference volume for these users to further their understanding and appreciation of biologically significant pathology findings. The IDTP consists of four major areas: 1. A-Z Dictionary of Pathology encompassing all organ systems, together with relevant non-pathology terms supported by references in "For Further Reading" sections. 2. Appendix 1: An Overviews of Drug Development, Nonclinical Safety & Toxicologic Pathology, and Important/Special Topics. 3. Appendix 2: Diagnostic Criteria of for Proliferative Proliferative Lesions in Rodents (Rat and Mouse) and Selected Non-Rodent Laboratory Species containing illustrations with detailed references and links to source material. 4) Appendix 3: Mini-Atlas of Organ System Anatomy and Histology to help re-acquaint the non-pathologist safety scientist with many normal anatomical structures. The editors and contributing scientists (board-certified veterinary pathologists, board-certified toxicologists, allied health safety scientists, health regulatory representatives) have experience from bench-level pathology and toxicology to managing global preclinical safety units in leading pharmaceutical companies. They have considerable experience mentoring pharmaceutical industry project team members, interacting with industry clinicians and representatives of decision-making bodies within the industry, as well as with global health authorities, such as the FDA and EMA. These activities convinced them of the necessity for and usefulness of the IDTP. As experts in their field, they have undertaken the hard work of writing and compiling the information, making the IDTP an exceptional, go-to reference. *Illustrations Editor: Gregory Argentieri

The Complete Spleen

Author : Anthony J. Bowdler
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In this thoroughly revised and updated second edition, a panel of distinguished clinical researchers from around the world takes stock of the wealth of new knowledge about the human spleen and applies it to the pathology and treatment of splenic diseases. This much enriched understanding encompasses the spleen's complex role in immunological defense, the recently defined function of particulate filtration by the spleen, and the structural basis for the functions of the spleen, most particularly the microvasculature around which it is organized. Among the diseases and disorders of the spleen considered in detail are splenomegaly, the consequences and management of hyper- and hyposplenism, and "dilutional anemia." Recent advances in splenic surgery are also reviewed, especially those techniques intended to preserve at least partial function while removing the greater part of the organ.

Cell Migration in Development and Disease

Author : Doris Wedlich
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Cell Migration matches nearly all research areas in cell and developmental biology, genetics, and biomedicine. The field shows radical progress powered by the combination of new genomic tools, cell labeling techniques and the incorporation of new model systems. This is the first book to comprehensively cover cell migration from the identification of molecular mechanisms to the understanding of certain pathological disorders and cancer development.