Search results for: the-end-of-the-bronze-age

The End of the Bronze Age

Author : Robert Drews
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The Bronze Age came to a close early in the twelfth century b.c. with one of the worst calamities in history: over a period of several decades, destruction descended upon key cities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, bringing to an end the Levantine, Hittite, Trojan, and Mycenaean kingdoms and plunging some lands into a dark age that would last more than four hundred years. In his attempt to account for this destruction, Robert Drews rejects the traditional explanations and proposes a military one instead.

Collapse of the Bronze Age

Author : Manuel Robbins
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His Majesty being powerful, his heart stout, none could stand before him.. All his territory was ablaze with fire, and he burned every foriegn country with his hot breath. Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses II. The bowmen of His Majesty spent six hours of destruction among them. They were delivered to the sword. Egyptian Pharaoh Merneptah. May my father know the enemy ships came. My cities were burned and evil things were done in my country. King of the city of Ugarit to the king of Cyprus. Since there is famine in your house we will starve to death...The living soul of your country you will see no longer. To a Hittite offical stationed in Ugarit. Israel is laid waste, his seed is not. Pharaoh Merneptah. Pharaoh's chariots and his army He cast into the Sea...Book of Exodus. Egypt was adrift and every man was thrown out of his right. There was no leader for years..Pharaoh Ramesses IV. As they (the Sea Peoples) were coming forward toward Egypt, their hearts relying upon their hands, a net was prepared for them....My strong arm has overthrown those who came to exalt themselves. Pharaoh Ramesses III. [of the Greeks] These were destroyed by their own hands and passed to the dank house of chill Hades. Greek writer Hesiod. Returning to Luxor, Egypt, by Nile ship. The author has visited many of the significant archaeological sites mentioned in this book. Front cover, top, Troy VI by Lloyd K. Townsend, bottom, Pharaoh Thotmose IV.

The End of the Bronze Age

Author : Robert Drews
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The Bronze Age came to a close early in the twelfth century B.C. with one of the worst calamities in history: over a period of several decades, destruction descended upon key cities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, bringing to an end the Levantine, Hittite, Trojan, and Mycenaean kingdoms and plunging some lands into a dark age that would last more than four hundred years. In his attempt to account for this destruction, Robert Drews rejects the traditional explanations - earthquakes, migrations, drought, systems collapse - and proposes a military one instead. Combining fascinating archaeological facts with vivid descriptions of military tactics, Drews presents the transition from chariot to infantry warfare as the primary cause of the Great Kingdoms' downfall. Late in the thirteenth century B.C. the barbarians who until then had been little cause for concern to the Great Kingdoms, and who had served the kings as mercenary "runners" in support of the chariots, awoke to the fact that en masse they could destroy a chariot army. There followed an orgy of slaughter, looting, and destruction. From the ashes arose the city-states of Greece and the tribal confederacy of Israel, communities that depended on massed formations of infantrymen. In making these arguments, the author uses textual and archaeological evidence to reconstruct what actually happened in the Bronze Age chariot battles, as well as the combat that characterized the Catastrophe.

Migration Myths and the End of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

Author : A. Bernard Knapp
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This Element looks critically at migration scenarios proposed for the end of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. After presenting some historical background to the development of migration studies, including types and definitions of migration as well as some of its possible material correlates, I consider how we go about studying human mobility and issues regarding 'ethnicity'. There follows a detailed and critical examination of the history of research related to migration and ethnicity in the southern Levant at the end of the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1200 BC), considering both migrationist and anti-migrationist views. I then present and critique recent studies on climatic and related issues, as well as the current state of evidence from palaeogenetics and strontium isotope analyses. The conclusion attempts to look anew at this enigmatic period of transformation and social change, of mobility and connectivity, alongside the hybridised practices of social actors.

Kypriaka in Crete

Author : Basos Karagiōrgēs
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A catalogue of Cypriot objects, found in excavations in Crete, with chronological table, and chronological index.

The First Heroes

Author : Harry Turtledove
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The Bronze Age. The era of Troy, of Gilgamesh, of the dawning of human mastery over the earth. For decades, fantasists have set tales of heroism and adventure in imagined worlds based on the real Bronze Age, from the "Hyborean Age" of the Conan stories to the Third Age of Middle-earth. Now bestselling science fiction and fantasy author Harry Turtledove, a noted expert on the ancient world, teams up with author and Egyptologist Noreen Doyle to present fourteen new tales of the real Bronze Age from some of the best writers in science fiction. In The First Heroes: here is Gene Wolfe's mock-journal of a man from the future who travels with figures out of history and mythology; Judith Tarr's tale of a town that sends its resident goddess to try to learn the secrets of the morose God of Chariots; Harry Turtledove's story about mythological beings witnessing the devastating effect of the first humans on the Earth's natural order; and a poignant new story from the late Poul Anderson, in which a modern scholar is sent to the late Bronze Age to witness the end of an era, emerging with memories from the past as vibrant and intact as those from his accustomed life. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

Argos and the Argolid Routledge Revivals

Author : Richard A. Tomlinson
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Argos and the Argolid, first published in 1972, presents a study of the history and achievements of the Argives, who have hitherto been largely neglected: partly because Classical Argos is overshadowed by the legends of an earlier millennium, and partly because many of her monuments and records have been lost. Richard Tomlinson describes the region, and considers the relationship between the Argives who claimed Dorian descent and those whose ancestors were in all probability the inhabitants of the region during the Bronze Age. In particular, he emphasises the Argives' role as a 'third force' in mainland Greek history, where they challenged the supremacy of the Spartans in Peloponnesian affairs. This thorough treatment is intended to correct the usual bias in favour of the better documented affairs of Athens and Sparta. It includes an assessment of Argive military and political organisation, and of their contribution to the arts of Ancient Greece.

Early Greek Armour and Weapons

Author : Anthony M. Snodgrass
File Size : 53.85 MB
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The End of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

Author : Travis M. Andrade
File Size : 32.59 MB
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The End is Always Near Apocalyptic Moments from the Bronze Age Collapse to Nuclear Near Misses

Author : Dan Carlin
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THE NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER FROM THE CREATOR OF THE AWARD-WINNING, 100+ MILLION DOWNLOAD PODCAST HARDCORE HISTORY

The Bronze Trade and the End of the Greek Bronze Age

Author : John Scott Jamison
File Size : 30.1 MB
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Argos and the Argolid

Author : Richard Allan Tomlinson
File Size : 57.99 MB
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The End of the Early Bronze Age in the Aegean

Author : Gerald Cadogan
File Size : 83.36 MB
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The Bronze Age to the End of High Middle Ages

Author :
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The Archaeology of Cyprus

Author : A. Bernard Knapp
File Size : 37.55 MB
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"This book treats the archaeology of Cyprus from the first-known human presence during the Late Epipalaeolithic (ca. 11,000 BC) through the end of the Bronze Age (ca. 1000 BC)"--

The Catastrophe at the End of the Bronze Age

Author : Sharon Nichols
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The Isthmus of Corinth at the End of the Bronze Age

Author : Oscar Broneer
File Size : 84.99 MB
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The Aegean Bronze Age

Author : Oliver Dickinson
File Size : 61.59 MB
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Desribes the prehistoric civilizations of the Aegean Sea Region.

Migration Myths and the End of the Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

Author : Arthur Bernard Knapp
File Size : 84.38 MB
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This Element looks critically at migration scenarios proposed for the end of the Bronze Age in the eastern Mediterranean. After presenting some historical background to the development of migration studies, including types and definitions of migration as well as some of its possible material correlates, I consider how we go about studying human mobility and issues regarding 'ethnicity'. There follows a detailed and critical examination of the history of research related to migration and ethnicity in the southern Levant at the end of the Late Bronze Age (ca. 1200 BC), considering both migrationist and anti-migrationist views. I then present and critique recent studies on climatic and related issues, as well as the current state of evidence from palaeogenetics and strontium isotope analyses. The conclusion attempts to look anew at this enigmatic period of transformation and social change, of mobility and connectivity, alongside the hybridised practices of social actors.

The Tragic End of the Bronze Age

Author : Tom Slattery
File Size : 58.75 MB
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A catastrophe of unimaginable proportions struck in the middle of the twelfth century BC and with a sudden swiftness brought Old World civilizations to an abrupt end. This initiated the world’s longest and deepest known dark age. When the world finally recovered centuries later, new written languages had replaced old ones, a new strategic and useful metal had replaced the old one, and the historical reality of the old civilizations had been replaced by yore and myth invented from fragments passed down through the barrier of the long deep dark age. Some of these fragments, and possibly some references to the catastrophe itself, may be found in the Old Testament and in ancient Greek literature. Out of the fragmented preserved memories, and stories built around them, we became what we are today.