Search results for: the-evolution-of-mammalian-characters

The Evolution of Mammalian Characters

Author : D. M. Kermack
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This book is not intended to give a full and comprehensive account of the Mesozoic mammals, and nor is it intended as a handbook for research workers studying pre-Tertiary mammals. Our intention is to give an account of the origin and evolution of certain of the characters of the Mammalia. We have tried to portray the fossils we describe as the living animals they once were, not as dead bones. Our account ends with the end of the Lower Cretaceous, since by that time the major characters of the mammals had become established. There exist a number of characters which, at the present day, are confined to the Mammalia. These include: (1) a jaw articulation formed by the squamosal and the dentary; (2) a chain of three bones, malleus, incus and stapes connecting the tympanic membrane to the inner ear; (3) the presence of hair or fur; (4) the presence of milk-glands in the female; (5) the left aortic arch is the systemic arch; (6) the phalangeal formula in both manus and pes is 2.3.3.3.3; (7) some of the teeth have more than one root. Of these characters (1) or (2) are sufficient by themselves to define a mammal; characters (6) and (7) are known to have been already in existence in some of the mammal-like reptiles - the ancestors of the mammals.

The Evolution of Mammalian Characters

Author : D. M. Kermack
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This book is not intended to give a full and comprehensive account of the Mesozoic mammals, and nor is it intended as a handbook for research workers studying pre-Tertiary mammals. Our intention is to give an account of the origin and evolution of certain of the characters of the Mammalia. We have tried to portray the fossils we describe as the living animals they once were, not as dead bones. Our account ends with the end of the Lower Cretaceous, since by that time the major characters of the mammals had become established. There exist a number of characters which, at the present day, are confined to the Mammalia. These include: (1) a jaw articulation formed by the squamosal and the dentary; (2) a chain of three bones, malleus, incus and stapes connecting the tympanic membrane to the inner ear; (3) the presence of hair or fur; (4) the presence of milk-glands in the female; (5) the left aortic arch is the systemic arch; (6) the phalangeal formula in both manus and pes is 2.3.3.3.3; (7) some of the teeth have more than one root. Of these characters (1) or (2) are sufficient by themselves to define a mammal; characters (6) and (7) are known to have been already in existence in some of the mammal-like reptiles - the ancestors of the mammals.

Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology

Author : Eric J. Sargis
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This book celebrates the contributions of Dr. Frederick S. Szalay to the field of Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology. Professor Szalay is a strong advocate for biologically and evolutionarily meaningful character analysis. He has published about 200 articles, six monographs, and six books on this subject. This book features subjects such as the evolution and adaptation of mammals and provides up-to-date articles on the evolutionary morphology of a wide range of mammalian groups.

The Origin and Evolution of Mammals

Author : T. S. Kemp
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Mammals are the dominant large animals of today, occurring in virtually every environment. This book is an account of the remarkable 320 million year long fossil record that documents their origin, their long spell as no more than small, nocturnal creatures, and their explosive radiation since the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Tom Kemp also unveils the exciting molecular evidence, which, coupled with important new fossils, is presently challenging current thinking on the interrelationships and historical biogeography of mammals. The Origin and Evolution of Mammals will be of interest to advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers in vertebrate palaeontology, biogeography, mammalian systematics and molecular taxonomy. It will also be welcomed by vertebrate fossil enthusiasts and evolutionary biologists of all levels with an interest in macroevolutionary problems.

The Evolution of Mammalian Sociality in an Ecological Perspective

Author : Clara B. Jones
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This brief discusses factors associated with group formation, group maintenance, group population structure, and other events and processes (e.g., physiology, behavior) related to mammalian social evolution. Within- and between-lineages, features of prehistoric and extant social mammals, patterns and linkages are discussed as components of a possible social “tool-kit”. "Top-down” (predators to nutrients), as well as “bottom-up” (nutrients to predators) effects are assessed. The present synthesis also emphasizes outcomes of Hebbian (synaptic) decisions on Malthusian parameters (growth rates of populations) and their consequences for (shifting) mean fitnesses of populations. Ecology and evolution (EcoEvo) are connected via the organism’s “norms of reaction” (genotype x environment interactions; life-history tradeoffs of reproduction, survival, and growth) exposed to selection, with the success of genotypes influenced by intensities of selection as well as neutral (e.g. mutation rates) and stochastic effects. At every turn, life history trajectories are assumed to arise from “decisions” made by types responding to competition for limiting resources constrained by Hamilton’s rule (inclusive fitness operations).

Evolutionary History of the Marsupials and an Analysis of Osteological Characters

Author : Frederick S. Szalay
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"This book is the only single-authored, comprehensive volume on the history of marsupials which deals with both the living and extinct groups, and will interest all paleontologists and biologists concerned with mammalian evolution."--BOOK JACKET.

Mammalian Evolution Diversity and Systematics

Author : Frank Zachos
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There are nearly 6,000 mammalian species, among them our own. Research on our evolutionary cousins has a long history, but the last 20 years have seen particularly rapid progress in disentangling the interrelationships and evolutionary history of mammals. The present volume combines up-to-date reviews on mammalian phylogenetics with paleontological, taxonomic and evolutionary chapters and also summarizes the historical development of our insights in mammalian relationships, and thus our own place in the Tree of Life. Our book places the present biodiversity crisis in context, with one in four mammal species threatened by extinction, and reviews the distribution and conservation of mammalian diversity across the globe. This volume is the introductory tome to the new Mammalia series of the Handbook of Zoology and will be essential reading for mammalogists, zoologists and conservationists alike.

Evolutionary Neuroscience

Author : Jon H. Kaas
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Evolutionary Neuroscience, Second Edition, is a collection of chapters on brain evolution that combines selected topics from the recent comprehensive reference, Evolution of Nervous Systems (Elsevier, Academic Press, 2017, 9780128040423). The selected chapters cover a broad range of topics, from historical theory, to the most recent deductions from comparative studies of brains. The articles are organized in sections focused on history, concepts and theory, the evolution of brains from early vertebrates to present-day fishes, amphibians, reptiles and birds, the evolution of mammalian brains, and the evolution of primate brains, including human brains. Each chapter is written by a leader or leaders in the field. Specific topics include brain character reconstruction, principles of brain scaling, basic features of vertebrate brains, the evolution of the major sensory systems, other parts of brains, what we can learn from fossils, the origin of neocortex, and the evolution of specializations of human brains. The collection of articles will be interesting to anyone who is curious about how brains evolved from the simpler nervous systems of the first vertebrates into the many different complex forms now found in present-day vertebrates. Provides the most comprehensive, authoritative and up-to-date single volume collection on brain evolution Presents a full color treatment, with many illustrations Written by leading scholars and experts Features chapters on brain character reconstruction, principles of brain scaling, basic features of vertebrate brains, the evolution of the major sensory systems, and other parts of brains Discusses what we can learn from fossils, the origin of neocortex, and the evolution of specializations of human brains

Evolution of Nervous Systems

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Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology

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Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology is the definitive go-to reference in the field of evolutionary biology. It provides a fully comprehensive review of the field in an easy to search structure. Under the collective leadership of fifteen distinguished section editors, it is comprised of articles written by leading experts in the field, providing a full review of the current status of each topic. The articles are up-to-date and fully illustrated with in-text references that allow readers to easily access primary literature. While all entries are authoritative and valuable to those with advanced understanding of evolutionary biology, they are also intended to be accessible to both advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Broad topics include the history of evolutionary biology, population genetics, quantitative genetics; speciation, life history evolution, evolution of sex and mating systems, evolutionary biogeography, evolutionary developmental biology, molecular and genome evolution, coevolution, phylogenetic methods, microbial evolution, diversification of plants and fungi, diversification of animals, and applied evolution. Presents fully comprehensive content, allowing easy access to fundamental information and links to primary research Contains concise articles by leading experts in the field that ensures current coverage of each topic Provides ancillary learning tools like tables, illustrations, and multimedia features to assist with the comprehension process