Search Results for "the-great-divergence"

The Great Divergence

The Great Divergence

China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy

  • Author: Kenneth Pomeranz
  • Publisher: Princeton University Press
  • ISBN: 9781400823499
  • Category: History
  • Page: 392
  • View: 8871
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The Great Divergence brings new insight to one of the classic questions of history: Why did sustained industrial growth begin in Northwest Europe, despite surprising similarities between advanced areas of Europe and East Asia? As Ken Pomeranz shows, as recently as 1750, parallels between these two parts of the world were very high in life expectancy, consumption, product and factor markets, and the strategies of households. Perhaps most surprisingly, Pomeranz demonstrates that the Chinese and Japanese cores were no worse off ecologically than Western Europe. Core areas throughout the eighteenth-century Old World faced comparable local shortages of land-intensive products, shortages that were only partly resolved by trade. Pomeranz argues that Europe's nineteenth-century divergence from the Old World owes much to the fortunate location of coal, which substituted for timber. This made Europe's failure to use its land intensively much less of a problem, while allowing growth in energy-intensive industries. Another crucial difference that he notes has to do with trade. Fortuitous global conjunctures made the Americas a greater source of needed primary products for Europe than any Asian periphery. This allowed Northwest Europe to grow dramatically in population, specialize further in manufactures, and remove labor from the land, using increased imports rather than maximizing yields. Together, coal and the New World allowed Europe to grow along resource-intensive, labor-saving paths. Meanwhile, Asia hit a cul-de-sac. Although the East Asian hinterlands boomed after 1750, both in population and in manufacturing, this growth prevented these peripheral regions from exporting vital resources to the cloth-producing Yangzi Delta. As a result, growth in the core of East Asia's economy essentially stopped, and what growth did exist was forced along labor-intensive, resource-saving paths--paths Europe could have been forced down, too, had it not been for favorable resource stocks from underground and overseas.

How Europe Made the Modern World

How Europe Made the Modern World

Creating the Great Divergence

  • Author: Jonathan Daly
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1350029475
  • Category: History
  • Page: 248
  • View: 7278
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One thousand years ago, a traveler to Baghdad or the Chinese capital Kaifeng would have discovered a vast and flourishing city of broad streets, spacious gardens, and sophisticated urban amenities; meanwhile, Paris, Rome, and London were cramped and unhygienic collections of villages, and Europe was a backwater. How, then, did it rise to world preeminence over the next several centuries? This is the central historical conundrum of modern times. How Europe Made the Modern World draws upon the latest scholarship dealing with the various aspects of the West's divergence, including geography, demography, technology, culture, institutions, science and economics. It avoids the twin dangers of Eurocentrism and anti-Westernism, strongly emphasizing the contributions of other cultures of the world to the West's rise while rejecting the claim that there was nothing distinctive about Europe in the premodern period. Daly provides a concise summary of the debate from both sides, whilst also presenting his own provocative arguments. Drawing on a wide range of primary and secondary sources, and including maps and images to illuminate key evidence, this book will inspire students to think critically and engage in debates rather than accepting a single narrative of the rise of the West. It is an ideal primer for students studying Western Civilization and World History courses.

The Great Divergence

The Great Divergence

America's Growing Inequality Crisis and What We Can Do about It

  • Author: Timothy Noah
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA
  • ISBN: 1608196348
  • Category: Political Science
  • Page: 272
  • View: 3980
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For the past three decades, America has steadily become a nation of haves and have-nots. Our incomes are increasingly unequal. This steady growing apart is often mentioned as a troubling indicator by scholars and policy analysts, though seldom addressed by politicians. What economics Nobelist Paul Krugman terms "the Great Divergence" has till now been treated as little more than a talking point, a rhetorical club to be wielded in ideological battles. But this Great Divergence may be the most important change in this country during our lifetimes-a drastic, elemental change in the character of American society, and not at all for the better. The inequality gap is much more than a left-right hot potato-its causes and consequences call for a patient, non-partisan exploration. Timothy Noah's The Great Divergence, based on his award-winning series of articles for Slate, surveys the roots of the wealth gap, drawing on the best thinking of contemporary economists and political scientists. Noah also explores potential solutions to the problem, and explores why the growing rich-poor divide has sparked remarkably little public anger, in contrast to social unrest that prevailed before the New Deal. The Great Divergence is poised to be one of the most talked-about books of 2012, a jump-start to the national conversation about the shape of American society in the 21st century, and a work that will help frame the debate in a Presidential election year.

The Great Divergence Reconsidered

The Great Divergence Reconsidered

Europe, India, and the Rise to Global Economic Power

  • Author: Roman Studer
  • Publisher: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 1316239764
  • Category: History
  • Page: N.A
  • View: 3989
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In stark contrast to popular narratives, The Great Divergence Reconsidered shows that Europe's rise to an undisputed world economic leader was not the effect of the Industrial Revolution, and cannot be explained by coal or colonial exploitation. Using a wealth of new historical evidence stretching from the seventeenth to the twentieth century, Roman Studer shows that this 'Great Divergence' must be shifted back to the seventeenth century, if not earlier. Europe was characterized by a more powerful transportation system, bigger trade flows, larger and better integrated markets, higher productivity levels, and superior living standards even before the Industrial Revolution brought about far-reaching structural changes and made Europe's supremacy even more pronounced. While the comparison with Europe draws significantly on India, the central conclusions seem to hold for Asia - and indeed the rest of the world - more generally. An interplay of various factors best explains Europe's early and gradual rise, including better institutions, favorable geographical features, increasing political stability, and increasingly rapid advances in science and technology.

Japan and the Great Divergence

Japan and the Great Divergence

A Short Guide

  • Author: Penelope Francks
  • Publisher: Springer
  • ISBN: 1137576731
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 123
  • View: 2342
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This text offers an accessible guide to the ways in which our growing knowledge of development in early-modern and modernising Japan can throw light on the paths that industrialisation was eventually to take across the globe. It has long been taken as read that the industrial revolution was the product of some form of ‘European superiority’ dating back to at least early-modern times. In The Great Divergence, Kenneth Pomeranz challenged this assumption on the basis of his evidence that parts of eighteenth-century China were as well placed as northern Europe to achieve sustained economic growth, thus igniting what has been called ‘the single most important debate in recent global history’. Japan, as the only non-Western country to experience significant industrialisation before the Second World War, ought to provide crucial – and intriguing – evidence in the debate, but analysis of the Japanese case in such a context has remained limited. This work suggests ways of re-interpreting Japanese economic history in the light of the debate, so arguing that global historians and scholars of Japan have in fact much to say to each other within the comparative framework that the Great Divergence provides.

State, Economy and the Great Divergence

State, Economy and the Great Divergence

Great Britain and China, 1680s-1850s

  • Author: Peer Vries
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 1472526406
  • Category: History
  • Page: 528
  • View: 7784
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State, Economy and the Great Divergence provides a new analysis of what has become the central debate in global economic history: the 'great divergence' between European and Asian growth. Focusing on early modern China and Western Europe, in particular Great Britain, this book offers a new level of detail on comparative state formation that has wide-reaching implications for European, Eurasian and global history. Beginning with an overview of the historiography, Peer Vries goes on to extend and develop the debate, critically engaging with the huge volume of literature published on the topic to date. Incorporating recent insights, he offers a compelling alternative to the claims to East-West equivalence, or Asian superiority, which have come to dominate discourse surrounding this issue. This is a vital update to a key issue in global economic history and, as such, is essential reading for students and scholars interested in keeping up to speed with the on-going debates.

The causes of "The Great Divergence"

The causes of

and how growth of other countries could be accelerated

  • Author: Ali-Abbas Punjani
  • Publisher: GRIN Verlag
  • ISBN: 3656429529
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 3
  • View: 9870
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Essay from the year 2010 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: A, University of Warwick, course: Economics, language: English, abstract: In this essay I aim to investigate two theories of economic growth of the western world; the development of institutions and the exploitation of the periphery. This may give us some indication of the causes of “The Great Divergence” and suggest methods by which growth of other, less developed, countries can be accelerated.

Averting a Great Divergence

Averting a Great Divergence

State and Economy in Japan, 1868-1937

  • Author: Peer Vries
  • Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
  • ISBN: 135012169X
  • Category: History
  • Page: 320
  • View: 9061
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The most significant debate in global economic history over the past twenty years has dealt with the Great Divergence, the economic gap between different parts of the world. Thus far, this debate has focused on China, India and north-western Europe, particularly Great Britain. This book shifts the focus to ask how Japan became the only non-western county that managed, at least partially, to modernize its economy and start to industrialize in the 19th century. Using a range of empirical data, Peer Vries analyses the role of the state in Japan's economic growth from the Meiji Restoration to World War II, and asks whether Japan's economic success can be attributed to the rise of state power. Asserting that the state's involvement was fundamental in Japan's economic 'catching up', he demonstrates how this was built on legacies from the previous Tokugawa period. In this book, Vries deepens our understanding of the Great Divergence in global history by re-examining how Japan developed and modernized against the odds.

Globalization and the Colonial Origins of the Great Divergence

Globalization and the Colonial Origins of the Great Divergence

Intercontinental Trade and Living Standards in the Dutch East India Company’s Commercial Empire, c. 1600-1800

  • Author: Pim de Zwart
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004299661
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 300
  • View: 730
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In Globalization and the Colonial Origins of the Great Divergence the intercontinental trade of the Dutch East India Company and its effects on living standards in a number of its colonies are analysed to shed light on several major debates in economic history.

India, Modernity and the Great Divergence

India, Modernity and the Great Divergence

Mysore and Gujarat (17th to 19th C.)

  • Author: Kaveh Yazdani
  • Publisher: BRILL
  • ISBN: 9004330798
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Page: 702
  • View: 2802
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This book examines the reasons behind the Great Divergence. Kaveh Yazdani analyzes India’s socio-economic, techno-scientific, military, political and institutional developments. The focus is on Gujarat between the 17th and early 19th centuries and Mysore during the second half of the 18th century.