Search results for: the-impulsive-personality

The Impulsive Personality

Author : H.A. Wishnie
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I began this book with two purposes. One goal was to present clinical information to support the belief that many of society's allegedly unh'eatable people could be helped to change their de structive patterns of living. A second purpose was to present a clear and simple primer for two groups of workers in the field. Most treatment institutions depend upon the services of nurses, aides, guards, and corrections officers. These people, who are the least prepared, do the hulk of the treatment. Because impulsive people learn much from their daily interactions out side of formal therapy, the understanding and the training of this "front-line" working staff are crucial. These staff members may find the second part of the book more helpful because of its use of clinical examples and techniques. The other group for whom this book is written includes those who are beginning in the mental health or corrections field. The concept of useful treatment of impulse-ridden people has only begun to be introduced into professional training pro grams. The assumption that these individuals were untreatable has kept many professionals at the fringes of this field. For this reason, I hope that the book will find its way into the hands of psychiatric residents, psychologists, social workers, nurses, pro bation officers, prison guards, youth workers, policemen, judges, etc.

Working with the Impulsive Person

Author : H. A. Wishnie
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The development of the material in this volume began with a realization by the staff at The Cambridge-Somerville Mental Health and Retardation Center (in the Massachusetts cities of Cambridge and Somerville) that an increasing num ber of people were entering the mental health system with problems related to the very nature of their personalities. A significant number of these people presented issues that had not been identified previously within the spectrum of psychiatric treatment. Such issues as marital discord in volving impulsive and violent behavior toward spouses or children, drug abuse, alcoholism, brawling, and so forth were increasingly being viewed as symptomatic of disruptions in an individual's emotional makeup. These people usually did not seek treatment; their problems were most often managed by courts and social welfare agencies. In fact, we were not clear as to what constituted the best treatment. The conference on which this book is based was conceived of as an attempt to bring together people of varying back grounds to discuss in a general, nontechnical fashion the approaches they have tried in working with such people. We attempted to bridge the gap between the many sophisticated theorists who work in this area and the front-line personnel who daily confront these problems. Because of the general scope of the conference, the papers covered a wide range of issues and experiences.

Stress and Decision Making

Author : Richard Julian Wise
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Stress, gender, and impulsive personality traits are each associated with altered decision making, but no studies have yet examined interactions between all of these factors. Impulsive personality can be parsed into five subtypes, consisting of Negative Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of extreme negative emotion; Positive Urgency, the tendency to act rashly in the face of strong positive emotion; Lack of Premeditation, the tendency to insufficiently consider actions prior to their implementation; Lack of Perseverance, the tendency to not complete tasks; and Sensation Seeking, the tendency to seek out novel or exciting stimuli. To assess interactions between acute social stress, impulsivity styles, and decision making, we exposed 78 young (aged 18-27) men and women to a social stress or a non-stress condition, and then administered three decision making tasks; The Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Game of Dice Task (GDT). We found that stress effects on decision making differed as a function of both gender and impulsivity traits on each of these tasks. Specifically, during stress, women low in Negative Urgency and men high in Negative Urgency made fewer risky decisions on the BART. Positive Urgency yielded a similar pattern. Furthermore, during stress, women high in Sensation Seeking made more advantageous decisions in the ambiguous phase of the IGT, whereas men high in Sensation Seeking made fewer advantageous decisions in this phase. Finally, riskier decisions on the GDT were associated with Lack of Perseverance, an effect that tended to be more prominent in the stress condition, particularly in men. Decisions of varying levels of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity may thus depend on a complex interplay between the experience of stress, gender, and impulsive personality traits. These findings are relevant to clinical assessment and intervention for impulsivity-related disorders, such as Borderline Personality Disorder or substance-use disorders, in which there are deficits in decision making and higher levels of trait impulsivity are both prominent.

Psychophysiological Correlates of Risk taking in Impulsive Personality Traits

Author : Rosa Philippa Hüpen
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The Genetic Basis of Impulsive Personality Traits a Prioritized Subset Approach

Author : Joshua Charles Gray
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This study explored the genetic basis of impulsive personality traits, defined as performance on the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Version 11 (BIS-11) and the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS-P), using a prioritized subset approach in a sample of 983 healthy young adults of European ancestry. The study used multivariate analysis to assess the relationship between impulsive personality traits and: 1) 21 a priori single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with impulsive personality traits; 2) 13,337 high-value addiction (HVA) markers (from the SmokeScreen℗♭ array); and 3) ~5M genome-wide loci. This study identified a significant relationship between impulsive personality traits and two previously identified candidate loci (rs6313 and rs6311), both within the 5-HT2a receptor gene (HTR2a). Follow-up analyses suggested that the effects were specific to the BIS-11 Motor and Non-planning subscales. Analyses of the HVA loci and genome-wide loci yielded no statistically significant findings, but suggestive associations were present for loci in BIK, STOX2, ITGB1, and LMNTD1. This study further implicates loci within HTR2a with self-reported impulsive personality traits for future replication and identified suggestive loci from the HVA and genome-wide analyses.

Neuropsychology and Substance Use

Author : Ari Kalechstein
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explores cutting-edge issues, such as considering the issue of medical marijuana from a neuropsychological perspective, understanding how living in various environments can affect brain structure and function, and conceptualizing the issue of drug use using emergent theories, such as behavioral economics.

Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies

Author : Charles H. Elliott
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Get to know the ins and outs of BPD—and make the choice to change! Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is an extremely serious—and often seriously neglected—condition. Despite around 4 million diagnoses in the USA, BPD has attracted lower funding and levels of clinical concern than more "popular" conditions such as bipolar disorder. But there's no need to lose hope! Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies, 2nd Edition was written to bridge this gap and help sufferers learn how to break the cycle to lead a full and happy life. BPD impacts the way you think and feel about yourself and others and can cause long-term patterns of disruptive relationships and difficulties with self-control. It often results from childhood abuse or neglect, as well as from genetic or brain abnormalities—particularly in areas of the brain that regulate emotion, impulsivity, and aggression. Knowing how it works means we know how to manage it, and Borderline Personality Disorder For Dummies—written in a friendly, easy-to-follow style by two leading clinical psychologists—is packed with useful techniques to do just that: from identifying triggers to finding the right care provider. Get a compassionate, actionable understanding of the symptoms and history of BPD Acquire techniques to identify and halt damaging behaviors Evaluate providers and the latest therapies and treatments Set goals and habits to overcome problems step-by-step BPD should never be allowed to dictate anyone's existence. This reference gives you the tools to take your life back and is a must-have for sufferers and their loved ones alike.

Buying Impulses

Author : Astrid Gisela Herabadi
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Neurocognitive and Psychophysiological Correlates of Impulsivity

Author : Robyn Leventhal Powers
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The construct of impulsivity is multidimensional as evidenced in symptoms occurring across a range of psychiatric and personality disorders. Previous studies have elucidated multiple latent factors that represent impulsive personality traits. We believe there are two divergent personality traits that give way to impulsive tendencies. The first, disinhibition, has been theorized as stemming from a weak behavioral inhibition system (BIS). Both the trait and the system have been associated with fearlessness, lack of anxiety, and a weaker inhibition. The second, sensation seeking, has been theorized to be associated with the behavioral approach system (BAS) and is correlated with goal-directed behavior, novelty seeking, and excessive reward sensitivity. Recent studies found that various behaviors and forms of psychopathology were differentiated by distinct aspects of impulsive personality, as well as impaired neurocognitive abilities. Additionally, psychophysiological measures, such as heart rate and blood pressure reactivity, have been associated with externalizing disorders associated with impulsivity. Therefore, the goal of the study was to explore the associations of sensation seeking and disinhibition with neurocognitive and psychophysiological functioning among young adults. Results indicated no significant relationships among impulsive personality traits and neurocognitive function. Significant associations were observed among disinhibition and increased resting diabolic blood pressure as well as disinhibition and decreased cardiovascular reactivity. No relationships were observed between sensation seeking and any cardiovascular measures. Impulsive aggression was related to a decrease in cardiovascular reactivity. Although these findings suggest that disinhibition and sensation seeking are not related to cognition, additional studies are necessary to confirm this lack of relationship. The literature on the psychophysiology of externalizing disorders associated with impulsivity is conflicting. Our results are not conclusive and further research is warranted to obtain a greater understanding of the association between the trait disinhibition and autonomic function.

Understanding Impulsive Behavior

Author : Christian Braddon
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In this compilation, the authors begin by describing the main impulsive behavior assessment instruments in animals and humans. The following databases were searched from 2005 to 2017: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and BVS/Bireme. The search retrieved four questionnaires and eight tasks for humans, as well as six tasks for animals. This discussion, together with the analysis of instruments applied in human and non-human animals, is the greatest contribution to the field, since there is a lack of literature about the subject. In addition, this chapter discusses the importance of validating such instruments for each population. In the following chapter, the authors propose a developmental theory of persistence in problematic alcohol consumption that emanates from impulsigenic personality traits that differentially predispose individuals to drink when highly emotional. These patterns of behavior are reinforced over time and gradually shift from impulsive to compulsive, first to escape negative emotions, then to avoid them completely. For some, more adaptive methods of coping are not adequately developed. These individuals may transition into early adulthood far less equipped to cope with the stress related to this developmental period, and thus continue to drink in ways that are problematic and potentially harmful. The following chapter focuses on adolescence, a period of life wherein individuals pass through several changes, including experiencing new situations and new relationships with peers, parents and superiors. This phase of life is also marked by physical and brain maturation. The last area to develop in the central nervous system is the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the area also linked to the ability to control impulses. This suggests that adolescents tend to have more impulsive behaviors that can result in risky behaviors such as alcohol and drugs. So, the purpose of this chapter is to discuss impulsivity in adolescence, and clarify issues that may help us to understand topics related to this, such as the difference in impulsive behaviors between genders at this stage of life and what influence socioeconomic status may have on such behaviors. Afterwards, findings relating to emotional impulsiveness (EI) from the authors work and that of others are reviewed. Early work is first described that identified a neural (brain-wave) signature of EI in personality disordered offenders detained in high security. It was shown that, by categorizing offenders on the basis of this brain-wave measure as a priori high vs. low risk and following them up following their release into the community, it was possible to predict both general and violent re-offending with a modest degree of accuracy. Continuing, a review is included which summarizes the existing literature on the influence of the dimensions of impulsivity and alcohol use problems among racial/ethnic groups. In particular, the authors focus on how chronic stress may influence the relationship between specific dimensions of impulsivity (e.g., negative and positive urgency) and alcohol use. While much of the existing literature has been conducted in white samples, individuals from minority backgrounds often deal with greater stress and stress specifically related to their identity as minority. The authors go on to investigate the association between impulsive behaviors at age 7 and the development of problem gambling by adulthood. To determine the specificity of any observed association between impulsive behaviors and problem gambling, the chapter also examines the link between respondents shy/depressed behaviors in childhood and later problem gambling. The longitudinal investigation found prospective evidence that impulsive behaviors at age 7 are a specific and significant risk factor for later problem gambling. In the concluding study, a total of 318 psychiatric patients from the outpatient services of two institutions and 184 healthy subjects were recruited. Patients were included if they were > 18 years of age, met DSM-IV criteria for a psychotic, mood- or stress-related disorder and were clinically stable enough according to the treating physician to complete the study assessments. Healthy subjects were screened using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and were excluded if any diagnostic criteria was met or if they verbally reported a history of psychiatric disorders. The goal was to determine the impact of demographic variables and substance use in the overt expression of impulsivity in men and women with and without mental disorders.