Search results for: the-making-of-europes-critical-infrastructure

The Making of Europe s Critical Infrastructure

Author : P. Högselius
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Europe's critical infrastructure is a key concern to policymakers, NGOs, companies, and citizens today. A 2006 power line failure in northern Germany closed lights in Portugal in a matter of seconds. Several Russian-Ukrainian gas crises shocked politicians, entrepreneurs, and citizens thousands of kilometers away in Germany, France, and Italy. This book argues that present-day infrastructure vulnerabilities resulted from choices of infrastructure builders in the past. It inquires which, and whose, vulnerabilities they perceived, negotiated, prioritized, and inscribed in Europe's critical infrastructure. It does not take 'Europe' for granted, but actively investigates which countries and peoples were historically connected in joint interdependency, and why. In short, this collection unravels the simultaneous historical shaping of infrastructure, common vulnerabilities, and Europe.

European Critical Infrastructure Protection

Author : Alessandro Lazari
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The recent European Council Directive 114/08 requested the EU Member States to perform an assessment aimed at the identification and designation of the so-called European Critical Infrastructures (ECI). Every analysis of the results of the "first round" of identifications and designations has only taken into account the numbers of ECIs effectively designated, consequently leaving aside all of the other elements related to this important path towards a harmonized vision of the "European Security". This work, with its unprecedented approach, focuses on the elements that have maximized or frustrated the ambitious European objectives and on the issues that might have prevented the directive reaching its full potential. Furthermore, the study offers an in-depth perspective on the lessons learned - including those that can be learned from the US pre-post 9/11 CIP policies - as well as an assessment of the state of play of the Member States after the implementation of the directive, together with predictions for future challenges.

Managing the Complexity of Critical Infrastructures

Author : Roberto Setola
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This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book summarizes work being pursued in the context of the CIPRNet (Critical Infrastructure Preparedness and Resilience Research Network) research project, co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project is intended to provide concrete and on-going support to the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) research communities, enhancing their preparedness for CI-related emergencies, while also providing expertise and technologies for other stakeholders to promote their understanding and mitigation of the consequences of CI disruptions, leading to enhanced resilience. The book collects the tutorial material developed by the authors for several courses on the modelling, simulation and analysis of CIs, representing extensive and integrated CIP expertise. It will help CI stakeholders, CI operators and civil protection authorities understand the complex system of CIs, and help them adapt to these changes and threats in order to be as prepared as possible for mitigating emergencies and crises affecting or arising from CIs.

Challenges and Critiques of the EU Internal Security Strategy

Author : Maria O’Neill
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This collection of papers examines a variety of areas and issues related to, or raised by, the EU Internal Security Strategy. It covers such matters as critical infrastructure protection and environmental crime, from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including law, geography and politics. The EU Internal Security Strategy is becoming increasingly complex as it develops over time, as it has to operate against the background of growing diversity in law enforcement systems across EU member states. It is clear that the EU Internal Security Strategy is, and will continue to be for a long time, a work in progress, not only in its aim to address traditional transnational security threats, but also in reacting to emerging concerns, either in new crime areas or issues arising from the implementation of earlier phases of the strategy. This will be a subject matter for many academic discipline areas for some time to come.

Putting security governance to the test

Author : Hans-Georg Ehrhart
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Recent debates in security policy have highlighted trends towards fragmentation, informalisation and privatisation in the diverse field of security policy, with its increasingly transnational security risks. In this context, the concept of security governance has risen to prominence and has inspired much valuable research. Yet, there are not only very different conceptual understandings of security governance; there is also a lack of clarity regarding its empirical manifestations and normative connotations. After a decade of research, this book therefore puts security governance to the test and scrutinises its analytical and political pitfalls and potentials. It reviews the concept of security governance and identifies central conceptual, empirical and normative challenges that need to be addressed. Moreover, this book scrutinises critical examples of security governance from EU security policy as well as in a comparative regional perspective. Case studies include EU efforts to counter piracy off the coast of Somalia, combat terrorism inside European societies and protect critical infrastructures. This book was originally published as a special issue of European Security.


Author : Federico Bergamasco
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Cybersecurity Key Legal Considerations for the Aviation and Space Sectors Federico Bergamasco, Roberto Cassar, Rada Popova & Benjamyn I. Scott As the aviation and space sectors become ever more connected to cyberspace and reliant on related technology, they become more vulnerable to potential cyberattacks. As a result, cybersecurity is a growing concern that all stakeholders in both sectors must consider. In this forward-looking book, which is the first comprehensive analysis of the relevant facets of cybersecurity in the aviation and space sectors, the authors explore the vast spectrum of relevant international and European Union (EU) law, with specific attention to associated risks, existing legal provisions and the potential development of new rules. Beginning with an overview of the different types of malicious cyber operations, the book proceeds to set the terminological landscape relevant to its core theme. It takes a top-down approach by first analysing general international and EU law related to cybersecurity, then moving to the more specific aspects of the aviation and space sectors, including telecommunications. Finally, the salient features of these analyses are combined with the practical realities in the relevant industries, giving due regard to legal and regulatory initiatives, industry standards and best practices. The broad range of issues and topics covered includes the following and more: whether the various facets of the international law on conflict apply in cyberspace and to cyberattacks; substantial policy and regulatory developments taking place at the EU level, including the activities of its relevant institutions, bodies and entities; jurisdiction and attributability issues relevant to cybersecurity in the aviation and space sectors; vulnerability of space systems, including large constellations, to malicious cyber activities and electromagnetic interference; various challenges for critical infrastructure resulting from, e.g., its interdependency, cross-border nature, public-private ownership and dual civil-military uses; safety and security in international air transportation, with special attention to the Chicago Convention and its Annexes; aviation liability and compensation in cases of cyberattacks, and insurance coverage against cyber risks; review of malicious relevant actors, malicious cyber operations, the typical life cycle of a cyberattack and industry responses. This book clearly responds to the need to elaborate adequate legal rules for ensuring that the multiple inlets for malicious cyber operations and the management of cybersecurity risks are addressed appropriately. It will be welcomed by all parties involved with aviation and space law and policy, including lawyers, governments, regulators, academics, manufacturers, operators, airports, and international governmental and non-governmental organisations.

Inventing Europe Technology and the Making of Europe 1850 to the Present

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Critical Infrastructures at Risk

Author : A.V. Gheorghe
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Europe witnessed in the last years a number of significant power contingencies. Some of them revealed the potentiality of vast impact on the welfare of society and triggered pressing questions on the reliability of electric power systems. Society has incorporated electricity as an inherent component, indispensable for achieving the expected level of quality of life. Therefore, any impingement on the continuity of the electricity service would be able to distress society as a whole, affecting individuals, social and economic activities, other infrastructures and essential government functions. It would be possible to hypothesize that in extreme situations this could even upset national security. This book explores the potential risks and vulnerabilities of the European electricity infrastructure, other infrastructures and our society as whole increasingly depend on. The work was initiated by the need to verify the potential effects of the ongoing market and technical transformation of the infrastructure, which is fundamentally changing its operation and performance. The final aim is to set the basis for an appropriate industrial and political European-wide response to the risk challenges.

The Identification of Critical Road Infrastructures The Case of Baden Wuerttemberg

Author : Carola Schulz
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Critical Space Infrastructures

Author : Alexandru Georgescu
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This book introduces readers to the topical area of CSI: critical space infrastructure, which is defined as an emerging domain of systems-of-systems encompassing hardware, workforce, environment, facilities, business and organizational entities. Further, it includes unmanned air systems, satellites, rockets, space probes, and orbital stations, and involves multi-directional interactions essential for maintenance of vital societal functions (i.e., health, safety, economic and social well-being), the loss or disruption of which would have significant impact on virtually any nation. The topics covered include the main elements of CSI, CSI taxonomy, effects of CSI on other infrastructure systems, establishing quantitative and qualitative parameters, global and national effects of CSI failure, cascading disruptive phenomena, chilling effects in various fields, CSI protection, deliberate threats to space systems (e.g., electromagnetic pulse attacks), space governance, and a path forward for CSI research. Modern society is highly dependent on the continuous operation of critical infrastructure systems for the supply of crucial goods and services including, among others, the power supply, drinking water supply, and transportation systems; yet space systems – which are critical enablers for several commercial, scientific and military applications – are rarely discussed. This book addresses this gap.

Foundations of Homeland Security

Author : Martin J. Alperen
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This book is the complete guide to understanding the structure of homeland security – its underlying law and policy. Created from a broad and in depth, yet edited collection of statutes, policy papers, presidential directives, and other documents, it cultivates a detailed understanding of the foundations of homeland security. It is arranged in a topic-by-topic format structured to include only the documents and statues that affect a particular subject, making for much easier understanding. Thus, the chapter on FEMA contains only the portions of the statutes and other documents that relate to FEMA. There are twenty-five topic areas. It contains hundreds of end notes, references, and suggestions for further study. This book offers important legal guidance that students, law enforcement officers, lawyers, and other homeland security professionals need to accurately interpret, understand, and apply homeland security policy. The Introduction provides an in-depth overview of the subject of homeland security and includes a discussion of what is homeland security, definitions of homeland security and terrorism, what is homeland security law, its development, and what is a homeland security curriculum. There are contributing chapters about homeland security in Europe, and homeland security in China and Japan.

Managing Critical Infrastructure Risks

Author : Igor Linkov
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This book offers a state-of-the-science approach to current environmental security threats and infrastructure vulnerabilities. It emphasizes beliefs that the convergence of seemingly disparate viewpoints and often uncertain and limited information is possible only by using one or more available risk assessment methodologies and decision-making tools such as risk assessment and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA).

Policymaking for Critical Infrastructure

Author : Gordon A. Gow
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By weaving together three distinct fields - public policy, technology studies and management of critical infrastructure - this volume shows how public policy can help to improve the management of large technical systems. This insightful work provides observations and recommendations for policy makers, regulators, industry and consumer groups alike, furthering the improved coordination of efforts across these domains of interest.

Process and Procedure in EU Administration

Author : Carol Harlow
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This book is about the administrative procedures of the European Union, which we see as the 'super glue' holding in place the sprawling structures of the EU governance system. The early chapters deal with the structures expansively defined, the diverse functions of administrative procedures in the EU and the values that underpin them, concentrating on the respective contributions of the legislature and administration. A separate chapter deals with the important procedural function of rights protection through the two Community Courts and the contribution of the European Ombudsman. We then turn to 'horizontal' or general procedures, dealing with executive law-making, transparency and the regulation of government contracting. A study of Commission enforcement procedure ends the section. 'Vertical' or sector-specific studies in significant areas of EU administration follow, including competition policy, cohesion policy (structural funds) and financial services regulation. Separate chapters deal with policing cooperation through Europol and with the interplay of international and EU institutions in the fields of environmental procedure and human rights. The final chapter contains the authors' reflections on current proposals for codification but ends with a general evaluation of the role and contribution of administrative procedure in the construction of the EU.

The European Union and Terrorism

Author : David Spence
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The September 11 attacks in the USA lent huge impetus to efforts to coordinate and expand the EU's counter-terrorism role, bringing about far-reaching cooperation and pushing the EU down the track of further European integration. This book explains how the EU has developed its policies and mechanisms to combat international terrorism.

European Transport and Communication Networks

Author : David Banister
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Europe is undergoing fundamental change as barriers and borders are broken down, as new technologies are introduced, and as the European Union expands. Integral to Europe?s position as the major economic force in the world is the quality of the infrastructure, particularly the transport and communication networks. European Transport and Communications Networks brings together contributions from European experts to present a state of the art overview. It begins by tracing the recent evolution of European networks, examining the hierarchies in relation to the different modes of transport, the integration and expansion of transport networks, and the particular problems presented at border areas. This comprehensive presentation of the principal issues is complemented by a survey of the different methods which can be used to analyse transport networks. The third part of the book presents policy responses and issues. Here the important changes taking place in European transport are discussed, including the role of the private sector in funding transport infrastructure, the liberalisation of the bus and shipping markets, the decision process on trans-European links, and the move towards sustainable transport systems. The role of the private sector, deregulation and sustainability are also discussed with respect to the fundamental changes taking place in the European telecommunications sector. Finally, the book focuses on the policy implications of network development and possible future directions in policy so that the aim of European integration can be achieved. This is an essential survey of a complex field that will be a key reference for geographers, economists, political scientists and planners.

Linking Networks The Formation of Common Standards and Visions for Infrastructure Development

Author : Dr Hans-Liudger Dienel
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Presenting recent research on the international integration of infrastructures in Europe, this book combines general and methodological chapters and examples from different a variety of sectors such as transport, electricity and communication networks. Particular focus is on the contrast between the 'Europe of nation states' of the nineteenth century (up to 1914) and the emerging 'integrated Europe' after World War II. Additional contributions provide perspectives from beyond Europe. The wide range of topics gives a good overview of the different challenges posed and the strategies employed in each sector to establish internationally compatible networks, procedures and standards. This work strengthens comparative research as a complement to the detailed analysis of singular cases that often characterises previous works in this field. Methodologically, it therefore contributes to the progress of tools and strategies for comparative historical research. Part of the emerging research area dealing with the mechanisms of international collaboration, this book brings together recent research from European integration history, policy studies, political economy and cultural studies. Considering the growing intensity of international collaboration and exchange in many parts of social and economic life, it is also of topical interest.

Research EU

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Cyber Security

Author : James Andrew Lewis
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"This volume looks at the challenges of cyberspace in an interdependent world and at the need for new, cooperative modes of governance to build cyber security. Making networks and critical infrastructure secure requires competent domestic strategies. But it also requires a willingness among governments to take the lead in supporting one another through effective legal structures and agreements such as the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. The authors explore informal and formal bilateral and multilateral approaches to transnational cooperation on cyber security and examine the elements needed for success."--BOOK JACKET.

Enterprise Interoperability

Author : Matthieu Lauras
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Enterprises and organizations of any kind embedded in today's economic environment are deeply dependent on their ability to take part in collaborations. Consequently, it is strongly required for them to get actively involved for their own benefit in emerging, potentially opportunistic collaborative enterprise networks. The concept of “interoperability” has been defined by INTEROP-VLab as “The ability of an enterprise system or application to interact with others at a low cost in a flexible approach”. Consequently, interoperability of organizations appears as a major issue to succeed in building on the fly emerging enterprise networks. The International Conference on Interoperability for Enterprise Systems and Applications (I-ESA 2014) was held under the motto “interoperability for agility, resilience and plasticity of collaborations” on March 26-28, 2014 and organized by the Ecole des Mines d’Albi-Carmaux, France on behalf of the European Laboratory for Enterprise Interoperability (INTEROP-VLab). On March 24-25, co-located with the conference eight workshops and one doctoral symposium were held in four tracks complementing the program of the I-ESA’14 conference. The workshops and the doctoral symposium address areas of greatest current activity focusing on active discussions among the leading researchers in the area of Enterprise Interoperability. This part of the conference helps the community to operate effectively, building co-operative and supportive international links as well as providing new knowledge of on-going research to practitioners. The workshops and doctoral symposium aimed at exploiting new issues, challenges and solutions for Enterprise Interoperability (EI) and associated domains of innovation such as Smart Industry, Internet-Of-Things, Factories of the Future, EI Applications and Standardisation. These proceedings include the short papers from the I-ESA’14 workshops and the doctoral symposium. The book is split up into 9 sections, one for each workshop and one for the doctoral symposium. All sections were organized following four tracks: (1) EI and Future Internet / Factory of the Future; (2) EI Application Domains and IT; (3) EI Standards; (4) EI Doctoral Symposium. For each section, a workshop report is provided summarizing the content and the issues discussed during the sessions. The goal of the first track was to offer a discussion opportunity on interoperability issues regarding the use of Internet of Things on manufacturing environment (Workshops 1 and 3) on one hand, and regarding the potential of innovation derived from the use of digital methods, architectures and services such as Smart Networks (Workshops 2 and 4) on the other hand. The second track focused on particular application domains that are looking for innovative solutions to support their strong collaborative needs. Thus, the track developed one workshop on the use of EI solution for Future City-Logistics (Workshop 5) and one on the use of EI solutions for Crisis / Disaster Management (Workshop 6). The third track studied the recent developments in EI standardization. Two workshops were dedicated to this issue. The first one has proposed to focus on the management of standardization (Workshop 8) and the second one has chosen to work on the new knowledge on standardization developments in the manufacturing service domain (Workshop 9). The last track, the doctoral symposium presented research results from selected dissertations. The session discussed EI knowledge issues, notably in terms of gathering through social networks or Internet of Things and of exploitation through innovative decision support systems.