Search results for: the-metabolic-effects-of-alcohol-consumption-in-humans

The Metabolic Effects of Alcohol Consumption in Humans

Author : Scottington Quincey Siler
File Size : 59.5 MB
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Metabolic Effects of Alcohol

Author : Pietro Avogaro
File Size : 42.33 MB
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Aldehyde Dehydrogenases

Author : Jun Ren
File Size : 20.86 MB
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This volume covers the science of ALDH enzymes in relation to chronic disease processes and the future therapeutic potentials of targeting ALDH in these processes. It thoroughly reviews the roles of ALDH family in alcohol metabolism, as well as recent findings of their emerging roles in a variety of human pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, stroke, cancer, liver diseases and kidney diseases. Delicate contribution of ALDH enzymes in the therapeutics against chronic diseases is also discussed. It demonstrates the unique value of targeting genetic polymorphism in ALDH enzymes in personalized medicine. The book will appeal to scientists, physicians, graduate and professional students in the fields of ALDH enzymes, alcohol metabolism, cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Pharmaceutical and other companies developing new tools for cardiometabolic and chronic diseases treatment will also find this a valuable resource.

Human Nutrition and Dietetics

Author : J. S. Garrow
File Size : 34.56 MB
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Alcohol Metabolism Alcohol Intolerance and Alcoholism

Author : Dharam P. Agarwal
File Size : 32.83 MB
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Alcohol abuse, alcohol intolerance, alcohol dependence and other alcohol-related disabilities are some of the most challenging public health problems facing our modern-day society. The purpose of this comprehensive monograph is to review the available knowledge concerning the pharmacogenetic basis of alcohol sensitivity and its physiolgical implications and to synthesize the bulk of existing knowledge regarding metabolic features and biomedical disturbances related to alcoholism. The chapters cover a broad array of disciplines including an overview of historical and epidemiological aspects, biochemistry and molecular genetics of enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism, biochemical and neuropsychopharmacological effects of alcohol. Major emphasis is placed on the role of genetic factors in alcoholism. The experimental details are summarized and a comprehensive bibliography is included.

Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition

Author : Clifford Gastineau
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Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition presents the proceedings of International Symposium on Fermented Food Beverages in Nutrition convened at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. It focuses on the contributions of alcoholic beverages in nutrition. It discusses the effects of specific alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, and certain distilled spirits, in human health. Organized into seven parts, encompassing 31 chapters, the book starts by discussing the history of alcoholic beverages and their nutrient contributions. Part II focuses on fermentation process, its history, biochemistry, nutrient synthesis by yeast, wine fermentation and aging, and beer brewing. Part III discusses the production and consumption trends of beer and wine, with emphasis on the changing attitudes of Americans toward wine consumption. Metabolism and therapeutic application of alcoholic beverages are examined in part IV. Discussions include role of alcoholic beverages in gerontology and ketogenesis, and the effect of alcoholic beverage incorporation into therapeutic diets. Part V highlights the effects of misuse and abuse of alcoholic beverages in various human body systems, including gastrointestine, pancreas, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems, as well as in cancer development and offspring effects during prenatal alcohol exposure. Parts VI and VII discuss the use of miniature swine as model for the study of human alcoholism and socioeconomic aspects of alcohol abuse. With the aim of bringing together existing factual knowledge concerning nutrition and health contributions of alcoholic beverages, this book is ideal for food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, and researchers.

Research Awards Index

Author :
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Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism

Author : Sareen S. Gropper
File Size : 48.74 MB
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Current, comprehensive, and designed to maximize clarity of essential concepts, longtime best-seller ADVANCED NUTRITION AND HUMAN METABOLISM delivers its signature quality content in a student-friendly way. The 7th Edition continues to set the standard through the authors' ability to clearly and accurately explain even the most complex metabolic processes and concepts, while staying at an undergraduate level. It gives students a solid understanding of digestion, absorption, and metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrates; examines the structures and functions of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins -- including their regulatory roles in metabolism; and provides information on vitamin and mineral food sources, recommended intakes, deficiency, and toxicity. With ADVANCED NUTRITION AND HUMAN METABOLISM, 7th Edition, students will be well prepared to continue their studies in the field of nutrition. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Alcohol Decreases Baseline Brain Glucose Metabolism More in Heavy Drinkers Than Controls But Has No Effect on Stimulation induced Metabolic Increases

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During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-18FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

Metabolic Effects Of Dietary Fructose

Author : Sheldon Reiser
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It is hoped that the material presented in this book will provide the reader with a detailed description of the published research pertaining to the metabolic effects of dietary fructose, will define future research needs, and will stimulate interest in further research aimed at evaluating the advisability of the intake of fructose by humans.

Alcohol Consumption and Cancer Risk Understanding Possible Causal Mechanisms for Breast and Colorectal Cancers

Author : U. S. Department of Health and Human Services
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The purpose of our assessment of alcohol and cancer induction is to explore the possible underlying causal mechanism(s) of the association between alcohol consumption and breast and colorectal cancers. Therefore, we developed four Key Questions that address the potential mechanism(s) by which alcohol might be involved in the development of breast and colorectal cancers. The primary evidence base to address these questions consisted of experimental studies of humans, animals, and cell lines where alcohol exposure could be controlled. In addition to this evidence base we also considered epidemiology studies where alcohol exposure was not controlled (including those in patients with or without cancer) and hypothesis-generating studies that examined potential metabolic pathways connecting alcohol to cancer risk. The following Key Questions will be addressed in this report: 1. What are the likely causal mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the development of breast cancer? Which of the possible mechanisms (e.g., induction of P450 cytochromes and carcinogen metabolism, effects on blood hormone concentrations, effect of acetaldehyde or other alcohol metabolite on apoptosis and DNA repair, interactive effects on other nutritional factors, or others) are likely to be most important in breast cancer development? 2. For the most likely mechanisms of action involving alcohol and the development of breast cancer, how might other factors modify the effect of alcohol on breast cancer (for example, age, latency of effect, intensity, duration, and recency of exposure, presence of co-carcinogens, presence of threshold effect)? Do the causal mechanisms vary by cell type or other tumor characteristics? 3. What are the likely causal mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the development of colorectal cancer? Which of the possible mechanisms (e.g., induction of P450 cytochromes and carcinogen metabolism, effects on blood hormone concentrations, effect of acetaldehyde or other alcohol metabolite on apoptosis and DNA repair, interactive effects on other nutritional factors, or others) are likely to be most important in colorectal cancer development? 4. For the most likely mechanisms of action involving alcohol and the development of colorectal cancer, how might other factors modify the effect of alcohol on colorectal cancer (for example, age, latency of effect, intensity, duration, and recency of exposure, presence of co-carcinogens, presence of threshold effect)? Do the causal mechanisms vary by cell type or other tumor characteristics? To address these Key Questions we searched electronic databases for information on ethanol consumption and the possible risks for breast and colorectal cancers. Thirty-five breast cancer studies (five in humans, 15 in animals, and 15 in cell lines) and 31 colorectal cancer studies (one in humans, 19 in animals, 10 in cell lines, and one combination [animal and cell lines]) were included in the report. Information on study design and conduct was used to judge individual study internal validity. Data on experimental model, mechanism(s) examined, amount and duration of ethanol exposure, cancer formation, and intermediate outcomes were abstracted and tabled for review and discussion.

Alcohol Related Diseases in Gastroenterology

Author : Helmut K. Seitz
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Alcohol abuse ranks among the most common and also the most severe environmental hazards to human health. Its significance is heightened by the possibility of prevention by elimination of the habit, however, rarely exerted. The incidence of deleterious effects on human health has relentlessly risen in the past years for a variety of factors. They include migration of populations and, particularly, increased urbanization. Thus, in some parts of the world, population groups previously spared have become involved, which is also re flected in the increasing number of breweries and distilleries in the developing countries. Social, religious, and gender-related barriers to alcohol consumption are loosening, and the financial improvement of some segments of populations now enable them to buy alcoholic beverages. Thus the greatest percentage rise in the United States has recently been in black women. Adolescents and young people drink more alcoholic beverages than ever, and growing alcohol abuse by pregnant women has let to an increase of the incidence of the fetal alcohol syndrome. While the social and behavioral, including psychiatric, consequences of alcoholism are staggering, the gastrointestinal and, particularly, hepatic manifestations are the most widespread somatic effects, and chronic hepatic disease in alcoholics appears to cause the greatest cost to society. Indeed, mortality from liver cirrhosis is considered a reliable index of alcohol consumption in a country.

Alcohol Nutrition and Health Consequences

Author : Ronald Ross Watson
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Chronic alcohol use is associated with heart, liver, brain, and other organ pathology. Alcohol is a drug of abuse and a caloric food and it causes poor intake and absorption of nutrients, thus playing a major role in many aspects of clinical consequences. Alcohol use lowers consumption of fruit and vegetables, lowers tissue nutrients, and, in some cases, requires nutritional therapy by clinicians. Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences will help the clinician define the causes and types of nutritional changes due to alcohol use and also explain how nutrition can be used to ameliorate its consequences. Chapters present the application of current nutritional knowledge by physicians and dietitians. Specific areas involving alcohol-related damage due to nutritional changes are reviewed, including heart disease, obesity, digestive tract cancers, lactation, brain function, and liver disease. In addition, alcohol’s effects on absorption of minerals and nutrients, a key role in causing damage are treated. The importance of diet in modifying alcohol and its metabolite damage is also explained. Alcohol, Nutrition, and Health Consequences is essential reading for alcohol therapists and researchers as well as primary care physicians and dietitians and is an easy reference to help the clinician, student, and dietitian comprehend the complex changes caused by direct and indirect effects of ethanol at the cellular level via its nutritional modification.

N nitroso Compounds

Author : International Agency for Research on Cancer
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Research Grants Index

Author : National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Division of Research Grants
File Size : 63.86 MB
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Metabolic Changes Induced by Alcohol

Author : Gustav A. Martini
File Size : 53.50 MB
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In nearly all parts of the world, the consumption of alcohol is increasing, and the morbidity and mortality of diseases induced by alcohol are rising correspondingly. It has been stated that alcohol is consumed because it pro duces intoxication. This effect is due to its toxicological influence on the central nervous system with the resulting functional disturbances. For many years, the concept that alcoholic liver disease was of nutritional origin and only indirectly related to alcohol consumption and metabolism was accepted. Opinion has changed gradually in recent years and tends now to regard alcohol itself through its combustion, as responsible for many metabolic disorders. Interest in this problem has increased during the past decade, and numerous papers bearing on this subject have appeared. It seems that the oxidation of alcohol in the liver interferes in many ways with the intermediary metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates and proteins, including enzymes and hormones, and exerts damaging influence on the liver, the musculature, the heart, the brain and the kidneys. The "Workshop Symposium" brought together a limited number of the scientists involved in the new development, biochemists, physiologists, pharmacologists, pathologists and clinicians from eight European countries and from the United States and allowed a very lively and informal exchange. The symposium was honored by the presence of Sir Hans Krebs, whose vast experience stimulated the discussion. It is a great pleasure to dedicate this volume to Sir Hans on the occasion of his 70th birthday on August 25th.

Alcohol and Disease

Author : Niels Tygstrup
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Toxicology Research Projects Directory

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An indexed directory of current research project abstracts in toxicology and related fields.

Human Nutrition in Australia

Author : Basil S. Hetzel
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International Handbook of Alcohol Dependence and Problems

Author : Nick Heather
File Size : 28.14 MB
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Focusing on alcohol dependence and alcohol-related problems in general, as well as their causes, treatment and prevention, this handbook also addresses the basic mechanisms of alcohol and its effects on human physiology and behaviour.