Search results for: the-molecular-theory-of-gases-and-liquids

A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

Author : Richard Daniel Kleeman
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Molecular Theory of Gases and Liquids by Joseph O Hirschfelder Charles F Curtiss and R Byron Bird with the Assistance of the Staff of the Former University of Wisconsin Naval Research Laboratory

Author : Joseph O. Hirschfelder
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A Kinetic Theory of Gases and Liquids

Author : Richard D. Kleeman
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A KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND LIQUIDS by RICHARD D. KLEEMAN. Originally published in 1920. PREFACE: THE object of writing this book is to formulate a Kinetic Theory of certain properties of matter, which shall apply equally well to matter in any state. The desirability of such a development need not be emphasized. The difficulty hitherto experienced in applying the results obtained in the case of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the well-known form to liquids and intermediary states of matter has been pri marily due to the difficulty of properly interpretating molec ular interaction. In the case of gases this difficulty is in most part overcome by the introduction of the assumption that a molecule consists of a perfectly elastic sphere not surrounded by any field of force. But since such a state of affairs does not exist, the results obtained in the case of gases hold only in a general way, and the numerical constants involved are therefore of an indefinite nature, while in the case of dense gases and liquids this procedure does not lead to anything that is of use in explaining the facts. Instead of an atom, or molecule, consisting of a per fectly elastic sphere, it is more likely that each may be regarded simply as a center of forces of attraction and repulsion. If the exact nature of the field of force sur rounding atoms and molecules were known, it would be a definite mathematical problem to determine the resulting properties of matter. But our knowledge in this connection is at present not sufficiently extensive to permit a develop ment of the subject along these lines. But in whatever way the subject is developed fundamental progress will have been made only if molecular interaction is not, as is usually the case, represented by the collision of elastic spheres. It will be shown in this book that the subject may be developed to a considerable extent along sound mathe matical lines yielding important results without knowing the exact nature and immediate result of molecular interaction. Thus it will be found, for example, that the definition of the free path of a molecule in connection with viscosity, con duction of heat, diffusion, etc., may be given a form in each case not involving the exact nature of molecular interaction, which is mathematically quite definite, and which therefore applies equally well to the liquid and gaseous states. Since in the gaseous state each kind of path is proportional to the volume of the gas, its interest is then mainly associated with the characteristic factor of the volume which makes the product numerically equal to the path. A direct physical meaning may be given to this factor. In constructing a general Kinetic Theory the problem that presents itself first for investigation is the dependence of the velocity of translation of a molecule in a substance on its density and temperature. It is often assumed that this velocity is the same in the liquid as in the gaseous state at the same temperature. It can be shown, however, that this holds only for each molecule at the instant it passes through a point in the substance at which the forces of the surrounding molecules neutralize each other. The total average velocity corresponding to the whole path of a mole cule is usually much greater than the foregoing velocity in a liquid and dense gas on account of the effect of the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion...

Applications of the Kinetic Theory to Gases Vapors Pure Liquids and the Theory of Solutions

Author : William Pingry Boynton
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Gases Liquids and Solids

Author : D. Tabor
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This is now the third edition of a well established and highly successful undergraduate text. The content of the second edition has been reworked and added to where necessary, and completely new material has also been included. There are new sections on amorphous solids and liquid crystals, and completely new chapters on colloids and polymers. Using unsophisticated mathematics and simple models, Professor Tabor leads the reader skilfully and systematically from the basic physics of interatomic and intermolecular forces, temperature, heat and thermodynamics, to a coherent understanding of the bulk properties of gases, liquids and solids. The introductory material on intermolecular forces and on heat and thermodynamics is followed by several chapters dealing with the properties of ideal and real gases, both at an elementary and at a more sophisticated level. The mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of solids are considered next, before an examination of the liquid state. The author continues with chapters on colloids and polymers, and ends with a discussion of the dielectric and magnetic properties of matter in terms of simple atomic models. The abiding theme is that all these macroscopic material properties can be understood as resulting from the competition between thermal energy and intermolecular or interatomic forces. This is a lucid textbook which will continue to provide students of physics and chemistry with a comprehensive and integrated view of the properties of matter in all its many fascinating forms.

Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences

Author : Raymond Chang
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Physical Chemistry for the Biosciences has been optimized for a one-semester introductory course in physical chemistry for students of biosciences.

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Author : Walter Kauzmann
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Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Author : Stephen G Brush
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This book introduces physics students and teachers to the historical development of the kinetic theory of gases, by providing a collection of the most important contributions by Clausius, Maxwell and Boltzmann, with introductory surveys explaining their significance. In addition, extracts from the works of Boyle, Newton, Mayer, Joule, Helmholtz, Kelvin and others show the historical context of ideas about gases, energy and irreversibility. In addition to five thematic essays connecting the classical kinetic theory with 20th century topics such as indeterminism and interatomic forces, there is an extensive international bibliography of historical commentaries on kinetic theory, thermodynamics, etc. published in the past four decades. The book will be useful to historians of science who need primary and secondary sources to be conveniently available for their own research and interpretation, along with the bibliography which makes it easier to learn what other historians have already done on this subject. Contents:The Nature of Gases and of Heat (Boyle, Newton, Bernoulli, Gregory, Mayer, Joule, von Helmholtz, Clausius, Maxwell)Irreversible Processes (Maxwell, Boltzmann, Thomson, Poincaré, Zermelo)Historical Discussions by Stephen G BrushA Guide to Historical Commentaries: Kinetic Theory of Gases, Thermodynamics, and Related Topics Readership: Graduate and research students, teachers, lecturers and historians of physics. Keywords:Kinetic Theory;Gases;Boyle's Law;Gas Laws;Viscosity;Diffusion;Forces between Atoms and Molecules;Interatomic Forces;Ergodic Theorem;Ergodicity;Heat Conduction;Irreversibility;Indeterminism;Thermodynamics;First Law of Thermodynamics;Second Law of Thermodynamics;Third Law of Thermodynamics;Law of Conservation of Energy;Maxwell Velocity Distribution;Boltzmann's H Theorem;Boltzmann's (Transport) Equation;Reversibility Paradox;Recurrence Paradox;Statistical MechanicsReviews:“One of the most important contributions of this volume is the bibliography in Part IV … This is a useful book and should be on the shelves of all kinetic theorists and statistical mechanics.” Journal of Statistical Physics “This book will be useful both for historical research and for students studying the history of physics.”Notes and Records of the Royal Society “It is valuable to have the work in print again, since some of the originals are not always easily accessible and all who have struggled, for example, with Boltzmann's German will welcome accurate translations … The whole book is to be welcomed as an aid to those undertaking research or otherwise interested in exploring these fields.”AMBIX

Molecular Theory of Nematic and Other Liquid Crystals

Author : Paul van der Schoot
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This book provides a didactic derivation of the main theories of thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals, revealing the common molecular-theoretic framework that underpins both theories. This unified context will help young researchers in coming to grips with the basics of the simplest of liquid crystals, being uniaxial nematic liquid crystals, easing them into the intricacies of more complex forms of such materials irrespective of whether they are thermotropic or lyotropic. The coverage provides a theoretical understanding of the phase behaviour, that is, what drives molecules and particles to spontaneously align themselves, as well as an appreciation of the role of entropy, energy and so on. The focus here is on the main theories for the isotropic-nematic transition, being the Maier-Saupe and the Onsager theories, and how they are derived from a common description, known as (classical) density functional theory (DFT). This book will be a valuable resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, and experimentalists and engineers who feel intimidated by more formal or rigorous theoretical accounts and textbooks. Exercises at the end of each chapter help the reader to apply the basic concepts also to other types of liquid crystal, in particular the smectic liquid crystal.

Introduction to Combustion Phenomena

Author : Kanury A Murty
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