Search results for: the-seleukid-empire-of-antiochus-iii-223-187-bc

The Seleukid Empire of Antiochus III 223 187 BC

Author : John D. Grainger
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The second volume in John Grainger's history of the Seleukid Empire is devoted to the reign of Antiochus III. Too often remembered only as the man who lost to the Romans at Magnesia, Antiochus is here revealed as one of the most powerful and capable rulers of the age. Having emerged from civil war in 223 BC as the sole survivor of the Seleukid dynasty, he shouldered the burdens of a weakened and divided realm. Though defeated by Egypt in the Fourth Syrian War, he gradually restored full control over the empire. His great Eastern campaign took Macedonian arms back to India for the first time since Alexander's day and, returning west, he went on to conquer Thrace and finally wrest Syria from Ptolemaic control. Then came intervention in Greece and the clash with Rome leading to the defeat at Magnesia and the restrictive Peace of Apamea. Despite this, Antiochus remained ambitious, campaigning in the East again; when he died in 187 BC the empire was still one of the most powerful states in the world.

Cataphracts

Author : Erich B Anderson
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A deeply researched and page-turning history of armored cavalry in the ancient world from the Eurasian steppe tribes to the late Byzantine Empire. Cataphracts were the most heavily armored form of cavalry in the ancient civilizations of the East, with riders and horses both clad in heavy armor. Originating among the wealthiest nobles of various central Asian steppe tribes such as the Massagetae and Scythians, the traditions and strategies of these proud warriors were adopted and adapted by several major empires—the Achaemenid Persians, Seleucids, Sassanians, and eventually the Romans and their Byzantine successors—from c. 4000 BCE to 1200 CE. Usually armed with long lances, the cataphracts harnessed the mobility and sheer mass of their horses to the durability and solid fighting power of the spear-armed phalanx. Although very expensive to equip and maintain, they were a powerful force in battle and remained in use for many centuries. In this compelling historical survey, Erich B. Anderson assesses the development, equipment, tactics, and combat record of cataphracts and the similar clibinarii, showing also how enemies sought to counter them. This is a valuable study of one of the most interesting weapon systems of the ancient world. “A valuable study of one of the most interesting troop types of the ancient world.” —The Armourer “The first comprehensive survey of heavy armored cavalry . . . that played a particularly important role in the military history of Late Antiquity . . . This is a good survey of the history of heavy cavalry in the ancient world, covering arms, equipment, organization, tactics, and battles.” —The NYMAS Review

The Seleukid Royal Economy

Author : G. G. Aperghis
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The Seleukid empire, the principal successor-state of the empire of Alexander the Great, endured for over 200 years and stretched, at its peak, from the Mediterranean to the borders of India. This book provides a wide-ranging study of the empire's economy and the methods used by the Seleukid kings to monetise and manage it so as to extract tribute, rent and taxes as efficiently as possible. It uses a variety of Greek literary sources and inscriptions, cuneiform texts, archaeological, numismatic and comparative evidence to explore in detail the manner of exploitation of their lands and subjects by the Seleukid kings, their city-building activity, the financing of their armies and administration, the use they made of coinage and their methods of financial management. The book adopts a highly original, numerical approach throughout, which leads to a quantified model of the economy of an ancient state.

Rome and Parthia Empires at War

Author : Gareth C Sampson
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Rome and Parthia explains the motives behind Marc Antony’s invasion of Parthia and all the reasons it ultimately failed. In the mid-first century BC, despite its military victories elsewhere, the Roman Empire faced a rival power in the east; the Parthian Empire. The first war between two superpowers of the ancient world had resulted in the total defeat of Rome and the death of Marcus Crassus. When Rome collapsed into Civil War in the 40s BC, the Parthians took the opportunity to invade and conquer the Middle East and drive Rome back into Europe. What followed was two decades of war which saw victories and defeats on both sides. The Romans were finally able to gain a victory over the Parthians thanks to the great, but now neglected, general Publius Ventidius. These victories acted as a springboard for Marc Antony’s plans to conquer the Parthian Empire, which ended in ignominious defeat. Gareth Sampson analyses the military campaigns and the various battles between the two superpowers of the ancient world and the war which defined the shape and division of the Middle East for the next 650 years.

Rome s Great Eastern War

Author : Gareth C Sampson
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Despite Rome’s conquest of the Mediterranean, by the turn of the first century BC, Rome’s influence barely stretched into the East. In the century since Rome’s defeat of the Seleucid Empire in the 180s BC, the East was dominated by the rise of new empires: Parthia, Armenia and Pontus, each vying to recreate the glories of the Persian Empire. By the 80s BC, the Pontic Empire of Mithridates had grown so bold that it invaded and annexed the whole of Rome’s eastern empire and occupied Greece itself. As Rome emerged from the devastating effects of the First Civil War, a new breed of general emerged, eager to re-assert Roman military dominance and carve out a fresh empire in the east, treading in the footsteps of Alexander. This work analyses the military campaigns and battles between a revitalized Rome and the various powers of the eastern Mediterranean hinterland, which ultimately heralded a new phase in Roman imperial expansion and reshaped the ancient East.

Reign of Arrows

Author : Nikolaus Leo Overtoom
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From its origins as a minor nomadic tribe to its status as a major world empire, the rise of the Parthian state in the ancient world is nothing short of remarkable. In their early history, the Parthians benefitted from strong leadership, a flexible and accommodating cultural identity, and innovative military characteristics that allowed them to compete against and even overcome Greek, Persian, Central Asian, and eventually Roman rivals. Reign of Arrows provides the first comprehensive study, in almost a century, dedicated entirely to early Parthian history. Assimilating a wide array of especially recent scholarship across numerous fields of study, Nikolaus Overtoom presents the most cogent, well rounded, and up-to-date account of the Parthian empire in its wider context of Hellenistic history. It explains the political and military encounters that shaped the international environment of the Hellenistic Middle East from the middle third to the early first centuries BCE. This study combines traditional historical approaches, such as source criticism and the integration of material evidence, with the incorporation of modern international relations theory to better examine the emergence and expansion of Parthian power. Relevant to historians, classicists, political scientists, and general readers interested in the ancient world and military history, Reign of Arrows reimagines and reconstructs the rise of the Parthians within the hotly contested and dangerously competitive international environment of the Hellenistic world.

A Companion to Greeks Across the Ancient World

Author : Franco De Angelis
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An innovative, up-to-date treatment of ancient Greek mobility and migration from 1000 BCE to 30 BCE A Companion to Greeks Across the Ancient World explores the mobility and migration of Greeks who left their homelands in the ten centuries between the Early Iron Age and the Hellenistic period. While most academic literature centers on the Greeks of the Aegean basin area, this unique volume provides a systematic examination of the history of the other half of the ancient Greek world. Contributions from leading scholars and historians discuss where migrants settled, their new communities, and their connections and interactions with both Aegean Greeks and non-Greeks. Divided into three parts, the book first covers ancient and modern approaches and the study of the ancient Greeks outside their homelands, including various intellectual, national, and linguistic traditions. Regional case studies form the core of the text, taking a microhistory approach to examine Greeks in the Near Eastern Empires, Greek-Celtic interactions in Central Europe, Greek-established states in Central Asia, and many others throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia. The closing section of the text discusses wider themes such as the relations between the Greek homeland and the edges of Greek civilization. Reflecting contemporary research and fresh perspectives on ancient Greek culture contact, this volume: Discusses the development and intersection of mobility, migration, and diaspora studies Examines the various forms of ancient Greek mobility and their outcomes Highlights contributions to cultural development in the Greek and non-Greek world Examines wider themes and the various forms of ancient Greek mobility and their outcomes Includes an overview of ancient terminology and concepts, modern translations, numerous maps, and full references A Companion to Greeks Across the Ancient World is a valuable resource for students, instructors, and researchers of Classical antiquity, as well as non-specialists with interest in ancient Greek mobilities, migrations, and diasporas.

Creators Conquerors and Citizens

Author : Robin Waterfield
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"We Greeks are one in blood and one in language; we have temples to the gods and religious rites in common, and a common way of life." Herodotus Throughout the course of ancient Greek civilization, there always existed a sense of shared culture among the many Greek communities scattered throughout the Mediterranean. During the Classical (479-338) and Hellenistic (338-30) periods, the countless individual poleis of the Archaic period gradually came together in leagues and alliances, and finally were more or less united when they fell under the Roman empire. But what is fascinating about this process is how much resistance there was to it. The Greeks found it impossible to unify when faced with common enemies. Even under Roman rule the Greek cities still bickered. Acts of union — going back to the legendary Trojan War — were widely celebrated, but made little practical difference. If the Greeks knew that they were kin, why is Greek history so often the history of their internecine wars and other forms of competition with one another? This is the question acclaimed historian Robin Waterfield sets out to explore in Creators, Conquerors, and Citizens. This extraordinary contradiction — the recognition that they were all Greeks, but the deep-seated reluctance to unify — is at the heart of this ambitious new history. The culmination of a lifetime of research, Waterfield gives a comprehensive account of seven hundred years, from the emergence of the Greeks around 750 BCE to the downfall of the last of the Greco-Macedonian kingdoms in 30 BCE, looking at political, military, social, and cultural history.

Ancient Coins Through the Bible

Author : Joseph A. Dow
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Coins have not changed much throughout antiquity. Yes, they are made from different, more durable materials now, but they are still etched with depictions of their civilization, whether that means the profile of George Washington or the profile of Emperor Nero or the profile of a lion, the symbol of ancient Babylon. Following the course of time from Abraham to the Crusaders, Ancient Coins through the Bible chronicles the history of various locations mentioned throughout the Bible and presents photographs of ancient coins minted in these cities. Though we cannot see those ancient civilizations or the way they lived, these tangible bits of the past speak abundantly about them. As you view these fragments of history, imagine you are traveling with Abraham to Canaan and Paul to Spain. Experience the biblical stories visually through the coins depicted instead of simply reading them, and better understand the lessons taught by God's Word.

The Seleukid Empire 281 222 BC

Author : Kyle Erickson
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The Seleukids, the easternmost of the Greek-speaking dynasties which succeeded Alexander the Great, were long portrayed by historians as inherently weak and doomed to decline after the death of their remarkable first king, Seleukos (281 BC). And yet they succeeded in ruling much of the Near and Middle East for over two centuries, overcoming problems of a multi-ethnic empire. In this book an international team of young, established scholars argues that in the decades after Seleukos the empire developed flexible structures that successfully bound it together in the face of a series of catastrophes. The strength of the Seleukid realm lay not simply in its vast swathes of territory, but rather in knowing how to tie the new, frequently non-Greek, nobility to the king through mutual recognition of sovereignty.

The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable

Author : Elizabeth M. Knowles
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Entries identify more than twenty thousand people, places, expressions, and specialized terms from throughout the world, along with lists of related items that are considered as part of a group, and celebrated dying words.

Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition

Author : Graham Speake
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Hellenism is the living culture of the Greek-speaking peoples and has a continuing history of more than 3,500 years. The Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition contains approximately 900 entries devoted to people, places, periods, events, and themes, examining every aspect of that culture from the Bronze Age to the present day. The focus throughout is on the Greeks themselves, and the continuities within their own cultural tradition. Language and religion are perhaps the most obvious vehicles of continuity; but there have been many others--law, taxation, gardens, music, magic, education, shipping, and countless other elements have all played their part in maintaining this unique culture. Today, Greek arts have blossomed again; Greece has taken its place in the European Union; Greeks control a substantial proportion of the world's merchant marine; and Greek communities in the United States, Australia, and South Africa have carried the Hellenic tradition throughout the world. This is the first reference work to embrace all aspects of that tradition in every period of its existence.

Reconstructing Western Civilization

Author : Barbara Sher Tinsley
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This is a collection of eleven essays, laced with humor and irony, on the Dawn of Man, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Hebrews, Minoans and Mycenaens, classical Greece, Alexander the Great, the Hellenistic world, Rome's Republic and Empire, and several church fathers (Irenaeus, Tertullian, Jerome, and Augustine) who influenced the Primitive Church. Tinsley highlights current research while showcasing themes of contemporary as well as ancient significance - misogyny, the manipulation of rhetoric to justify privilege, the contributions of the anonymous to the well-being of the famous, the paradox of progress, the distortion of prophecy, the use and misuse of myth and other media, the exploitation of spiritual, intellectual, physical, and sexual resources, the comforts and perils of provincialism versus the dangers and benefits of organization - spiritual, imperial, or both.

Age of Conquests

Author : Angelos Chaniotis
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The ancient world that Alexander the Great transformed in his lifetime was transformed once more by his death. The imperial dynasties of his successors incorporated and reorganized the fallen Persian empire, creating a new land empire stretching from the shores of the Mediterranean to as far east as Bactria. In old Greece a fragile balance of power was continually disturbed by wars. Then, from the late third century, the military and diplomatic power of Rome successively defeated and dismantled every one of the post-Alexandrian political structures. The Hellenistic period (c. 323-30 BC) was then one of fragmentation, violent antagonism between large states, and struggles by small polities to retain an illusion of independence. Yet it was also a period of growth, prosperity, and intellectual achievement. A vast network spread of trade, influence and cultural contact, from Italy to Afghanistan and from Russia to Ethiopia, enriching and enlivening centres of wealth, power and intellectual ferment. From Alexander the Great's early days building an empire, via wars with Rome, rampaging pirates, Cleopatra's death and the Jewish diaspora, right up to the death of Hadrian, Chaniotis examines the social structures, economic trends, political upheaval and technological progress of an era that spans five centuries and where, perhaps, modernity began.

The First Urban Churches 5

Author : James R. Harrison
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A fresh examination of early Christianity by an international team of New Testament and classical scholars Volume 5 of The First Urban Churches investigates the urban context of Christian churches in first-century Roman Colossae, Hierapolis, and Laodicea. Building on the methodologies introduced in the first volume and supplementing the in-depth studies of Corinth, Ephesus, and Philippi (vols. 2-4), essays in this volume challenge readers to reexamine preconceived understandings of the early church and to grapple with the meaning and context of Christianity in its first-century Roman colonial context. Features: Analysis of urban evidence found in inscriptions, papyri, archaeological remains, coins, and iconography Proposed reconstructions of the past and its social, religious, and political significance A nuanced, informed portrait of ancient urban life in the cities of the Lycus Valley

Understand the Old Testament

Author : David Holsted
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A full 75 percent of the Bible is the Old Testament. If one of your kids, or your coworkers, or your friends were to ask you about the Old Testament, could you talk knowledgably about it? When you pastor says that your church believes in the Old Testament because the whole Bible is about Jesus, can you even imagine what he's talking about? In my experience, Christians often know stories from the Old Testament, or maybe have memorized verses from it, but very few would say that they understand it. That's where I stood not long ago, so I set out to do something about it. Frankly, without help, the Old Testament can be difficult to read, let alone understand. But with a little guidance, you can not only understand it, you can appreciate how it harmonizes with the New Testament and you can see how it is so foundational to your faith. I put together this book as I earnestly studied my way through the Old Testament. My hope is that I have taken hundreds of hours of reading and work, and summarized it into a book that can be used by Christians who just don't have hundreds of hours to invest. This book combines the best of what I've read and studied about the Old Testament. • It is part book-read it through, or select areas of interest from the summaries. • It is part Bible study guide-use the summaries to study or lead a Bible study group. • It is part commentary-use it to complement your Old Testament reading. The Old Testament is the story that Jesus completes, and the promise that Jesus fulfills. Are you willing to invest about an hour per week for a year in order to see how this is true? • Learn the name, nature, attributes, and character of God. • Learn biblical principles, patterns, and promises. • Learn about Hebrew culture, language, and history in the context of world history. • Learn of the prophecies of hope through the Messiah. • Learn how the Old Testament testifies to Jesus throughout! Share this adventure with me! Take the first step! Start down the path! You will find it one of the most fulfilling things you've ever done!

Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece

Author : Nigel Wilson
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Examining every aspect of the culture from antiquity to the founding of Constantinople in the early Byzantine era, this thoroughly cross-referenced and fully indexed work is written by an international group of scholars. This Encyclopedia is derived from the more broadly focused Encyclopedia of Greece and the Hellenic Tradition, the highly praised two-volume work. Newly edited by Nigel Wilson, this single-volume reference provides a comprehensive and authoritative guide to the political, cultural, and social life of the people and to the places, ideas, periods, and events that defined ancient Greece.

Encyclopaedia Britannica

Author : Walter Yust
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A Covenant People

Author : James P. Eckman
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The twentieth century witnessed harsh anti-Semitism, vicious pogroms, and the unimaginable Holocaust. Over a third of the world’s Jews were killed. Yet, today the largest concentration of Jews resides in Israel—a modern miracle. Theologian and historian Dr. Jim Eckman presents a riveting history of God’s covenant people from the initial promises God made to Abraham to the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Through enslavement in ancient Egypt, the conquest under Joshua, the establishment of the monarchy under David, the brutal exiles under Assyria and Babylon to the tragedies of Diaspora Judaism, the Jewish people have survived. For almost 1,900 years, the Jews were dispersed and despised as “Christ-killers.” But, by the late ninteenth century, there was evidence of a change in the world’s perception of the Jews. How and why did they begin their historic trek back to their ancient homeland? Eckman identifies ten major historical events that reawakened the West to the necessity of a homeland for the Jewish people. As he weaves history together with the theological portrait of our covenant-making, covenant-keeping God, Eckman provides an indispensable handbook for understanding today’s Middle East and the importance of the Jewish people to God’s eternal plan for this planet.

Hellenistic Land Battles 300 167 BCE

Author : Fred Eugene Ray, Jr.
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The Hellenistic Period (323-31 BCE) saw the Grecian phalanx--long dominant in Mediterranean warfare--challenged by legionary formations from the rising city-state of Rome. The Roman way of war would come to eclipse phalanx-based combat by the 160s yet this was not evident at the time. Rome suffered numerous defeats against the phalanxes of Pyrrhus and Hannibal, its overseas campaign against the brilliant Spartan mercenary Xanthippus met disaster, and several Roman victories over Hellenistic foes were not decisive. The story of combat in this pivotal era is not well documented. This book for the first time provides detailed tactical analyses for all 130 significant land engagements of Hellenistic armies 300-167 BCE.