Search results for: the-soviet-union-and-its-southern-neighbours

The Soviet Union and Its Southern Neighbours

Author : Mikhail Volodarsky
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Volodarsky (Russian and East European studies, Tel Aviv U.) argues that the new Soviet Union continued Imperial Russia's policy of controlling its southern neighbors through promises and threats.

Stalin s Early Cold War Foreign Policy

Author : Jamil Hasanli
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"Immediately after the Allied WW2 victory in Europe, claims were made by the Soviet Union over the eastern regions of Turkey, to secure direct control over the Bosporus, Dardanelles and Turkish Straits. The detailed study of the international components of these events, featuring the veiled complexities of Stalin's anti-Turkish diplomacy, provides a key to understanding crucial aspects of these Soviet territorial claims. Iranian Azerbaijan became another hotspot of post-war confrontation between the western Allies and the USSR: Soviet policy towards Iran manifested in the desire to access their oil resources. A further direction emerging within Soviet post-war strategy was the Kurdish issue in the Near and Middle East. At the conjunction of Turkish and Iranian events, Soviet secret service bodies and diplomatic institutions exploited their strengths and toyed with Kurdish minorities in the region. Their decisions placed the bordering regions of China, Turkey and Iran squarely in the shadowy reaches of Moscow's policy. This research uses newly discovered archive material to illustrate the underlying intrigue behind Soviet ambition and intimately tracks how the Soviet Union was defeated in the first Cold War confrontation over its southern borders. It also links events of this period with the critical issue of Uyghur assimilation, and further contemporary developments highlighting Putin's policies, making it invaluable for both academic and general readers"--

Stalin s Early Cold War Foreign Policy

Author : Jamil Hasanli
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Hasanli uses a range of newly available archival sources to unveil key aspects of the Soviet Union’s relations with its southern neighbours in the immediate aftermath of the Second World War. Covering relations with Turkey, Iran and China, Hasanli examines how Stalin strategized Soviet influence over the Bosporus and Dardanelles, Iranian Azerbaijan and Xinjiang. At various times this involved degrees of coercion, diplomacy, espionage and mediation. While the Cold War has typically been associated with tensions in Europe, some of its earliest movements in fact occurred in Central and Western Asia. In particular, Hasanli argues, the period from 1945 to 1947 was an active phase of Soviet expansion to the south and a new Stalin-Molotov doctrine. These regions were used as a testing ground for Soviet expansionist policies, many of which were unsuccessful and thus important in the later shaping of Soviet policy towards the West. Valuable new insights from one of the foremost scholars of South Caucasia and Central Asia post-war history, for students and scholars of the Soviet Union.

The European Union Neighbourhood

Author : Professor Teresa Cierco
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The European Union in its neighbourhood is confronted with several challenges as well as opportunities. The degree to which it can promote the geopolitical stabilization of Europe and the spread of economic and political governance, based on democratic ideals in its neighbourhood, will determine the future course of Europe and will be a clear indicator of the success or failure of the European Union on the international scene as a whole. In addition, the security context of Europe has changed profoundly since the end of the Cold war, and with it the perceptions of what role the European Union can play in expanding stability and security throughout the European continent. European Union’s neighbouring states and regions are viewed by European Union member states as the primary source of many of the non-traditional security threats, such as terrorism, migration, trafficking, and transnational organized crime. Addressing the Europe Union’s twenty-first century challenges, this study looks at the policies of the EU towards its neighbours as a critical dimension of the totality of the EU’s foreign and security policy. This volume brings together a broad range of scholars and seeks to highlight some of the main issues that concern the European relations with its neighbour’s countries in the Western Balkans, the Eastern and Southern Europe, and with Russia. In short, the volume raises important, timely issues regarding the challenges and opportunities confronting the European Union in its neighbourhood which both policy makers and academicians will find both informative and though provoking in their efforts to understand the nature and complexity of the European Union actions in its neighbourhood.

Soviet Union and the Third World

Author : Edgar Feuchtwanger
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International Relations of the Middle East

Author : Louise Fawcett
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Leading scholars of Middle East politics and international relations present comprehensive coverage of the international politics of the Middle East, a region at the forefront of international attention.

The Soviet Union and the Third World

Author : E. J. Feuchtwanger
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Russia and Her Western Neighbours

Author : George W. Keeton
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Poland s Role in the Development of an Eastern Dimension of the European Union

Author : Andreas Lorek
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Polands accession into the European Union (EU) in May 2004 changed the geopolitical situation of the country fundamentally. Poland moved from an outsider to an insider and changed its location from being at the EU-external border to a country with an external border toward the Eastern European states. The countries at Polands Eastern borders became as well the Eastern neighbours of the European Union after 1 May 2004. The break-up of the Soviet Union in 1989/1991 was the starting point for a new and self-determined foreign policy. The strategic objectives of Polands foreign policy for the follow-ing years were clear. The most important aims were the NATO-accession, which was seen as the highest priority for Polands security, and the EU-accession, which should secure Polands return into the European mainstream. A subordinated objective was the establishment of an effective and coherent policy toward Polands Eastern neighbours. Polands Eastern policy in the first years concentrated on consolidating sovereignty and in-dependence of the former Soviet republics Lithuania, Ukraine and Belarus and on good rela-tions to the former Soviet centre Russia. With all of the Eastern neighbours Poland reached a status of good-neighbourly and friendly relations. But the bilateral relations in the following years developed unequally. Today Ukraine is Polands most important and closest Eastern neighbour. The bilateral relations are defined as a strategic partnership. Poland imposed, like all EU states, sanctions on Belarus and does not have contacts with the Belarusian gov-ernment on a high political level. Russia is a difficult partner. The country sees itself on a higher level and often treats Poland with disrespect. On the European scene Poland was very engaged for its Eastern neighbours. Already in 1992 former Foreign Minister Krzysztof Skubiszewski warned against a new division of Europe, not because of ideological reasons but more because of economic-political facts (Shynkarjov 2005: 47). The concept of a future Eastern Dimension was formulated for the first time at the inauguration meeting of Polands accession negotiations with the EU in 1998 by former Foreign Minister Bronislaw Geremek. The introduction of such an Eastern policy of the EU was an important part of the Polish mandate for the accession negotiations . Gere-mek highlighted the importance of the Eastern neighbours for Poland and the EU and called for the development of a common EU policy with Polands and the EUs Eastern neighbours after enlargement. Geremek launched with his call an active and vigorous debate about the possibility and shape of a future European Eastern policy among experts and politicians. In 2001 the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs published its viewpoint about The Eastern policy of the European Union in the run-up to the EUs enlargement to include the countries of Cen-tral and Eastern Europe. Poland referred to a policy which should apply uniform and identical standards to all states established in the post-Soviet space [and] should further try to de-velop a model of cooperation giving all states equal access thereto, ensuring equal participa-tion therein and and guaranteeing equal benefits to be driven therefrom (MFA 2001: 8). The new Eastern policy should comprise the entire post-Soviet space, which means Polands di-rect neighbours Ukraine, Belarus and Russia (respectively the Russian exclave Kaliningrad) as well as Moldova, the Caucasia and Central Asia (MFA 2001: 11; MFA 2003: 85/6). The archetypes for the Eastern Dimension were the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (or Barcelona Process) and especially the Northern Dimension. Both common EU policies came into existence after an enlargement of the EU. Spain and Portugal promoted the Euro-Mediterranean relations after their accession to the EU, the Northern Dimension was a result of the accession of Sweden and Finland (Cieszkowski 2004: 103). The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership was launched in 1995 at a conference in Barcelona. It should provide a wide framework of political, economic and social relations between EU member states and countries of the Southern Mediterranean. The Northern Dimension ad-dresses special regional development challenges of Northern Europe. It reflects the EU rela-tions with Russia (particularly North-west Russia) in the Baltic Sea and Arctic regions. The Eastern Dimension would not be in concurrence with other EU policies, it was rather thought as an enlargement of the Northern Dimension, as Polands former Foreign Minister Cimoszewicz clarified: The Eastern Dimension would be complementary to the Northern Dimension of the EU. I believe that it can use the experience of the Northern Dimension as well as other policies of the EU toward adjacent regions (Cimoszewicz 2003: 18). The development of a coherent and effective policy toward the new EU neighbours after enlargement was as well a major interest of the EU. The discussion on the EU level was launched in 2002 by Great Britain and Sweden. In April 2002 the General Affairs and Exter-nal Relations Council (GAERC) discussed for the first time about Wider Europe Relations between the future enlarged EU and its Eastern neighbours (Council 2002a: 10). Poland con-tributed actively to that debate in 2003 with a Non-paper with proposals concerning the new Eastern neighbours (MFA 2003) and the organisation of numerous conferences in order to win support from EU members and the states of Eastern Europe (Cieszkowski 2004: 105). The European Commission and the High Representative for the Common Foreign and Secu-rity Policy (HR for the CFSP) Javier Solana worked up ideas for the Unions policy toward the new neighbourhood. Former Commission President Romano Prodi presented the Wider Europe concept in December 2002. His aim was to see a ring of friends surrounding the union [and to share] everything but institutions [with them] (Prodi 2002).--

Why Europe Fears Its Neighbors

Author : Fabrizio Tassinari
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Working from a unique viewpoint, this volume demonstrates how the European Union's fear of its neighbors reflects Europe's identity crisis—and challenges its survival.