Search results for: the-virus-and-the-vaccine

The Virus and the Vaccine

Author : Debbie Bookchin
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Recounts how nearly one hundred million Americans were exposed to a dangerous virus through tainted polio vaccines distributed between 1954 and 1963, revealing the government's efforts to downplay the incident and the numerous cases of cancer linked to the vaccines. Reprint. 12,500 first printing.

Human Viruses Diseases Treatments and Vaccines

Author : Shamim I. Ahmad
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This book discusses current evidence on human viruses and provides an extensive coverage of newly emerged viruses and current strategies for treatment. Offering a new perspective in view of the re-emergence of Ebola in African countries and Dengue in India and Pakistan, the contents include chapters on emergence, pathogenicity, epidemiology and vaccine uptake. Human Viruses: Diseases, Treatments and Vaccines: The New Insights discusses a range of viruses from the most common such as Influenza and Hepatitis to Zika, Poliomyelitis and Chikungunya among many others. It is authored by a team of experts on viral disease and will be of immense use to virologists, public health experts and clinicians.

Challenges and Opportunities for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

Author : Larry J. Anderson
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Although respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been a high priority for vaccine development for over 50 years now, still no vaccine is available and none has yet demonstrated sufficient promise to move to licensure. The success of RSV immune prophylaxis and the availability of ever more powerful tools to study the immune response and pathogenesis of disease, combined with the ability to construct a wide variety of vaccines using different vaccine platforms, give us grounds to believe that an RSV vaccine is within reach. This book brings together in one source what is currently known about the virus: its clinical and epidemiologic features; the host response and pathogenesis of the disease; vaccines, vaccine platforms, and treatment; and animal and tissue culture models of RSV infection. It is designed to organize the critical information relevant to RSV vaccine development, facilitate the assimilation of data, and speed progress toward producing a safe and effective vaccine.

Influenza Vaccines for the Future

Author : Rino Rappuoli
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The emergence of H5N1 avian influenza in 1997 and of the influenza A H1N1 of swine origin in 2009 calls for new, rapid and sustainable solutions for both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses. During the last ten years, science and technology have made enormous progress, and we are now able to monitor in real time the genetics of viruses while they spread globally, to make more powerful vaccines using novel adjuvants, and to generate viruses in the laboratory using reverse genetics. This volume not only provides state-of-the-art information on the biology of influenza viruses and on influenza vaccines, but is also designed to be a resource to face the present H1N1 pandemic and to plan for long-term global and sustainable solutions.

Porcine Circovirus Type 2

Author : Joaquim Segalés
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Author : Sarah Gilbert
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'An enthralling tale of toil, tenacity and triumph' RACHEL CLARKEThis is the story of a race - not against other vaccines or other scientists, but against a deadly and devastating virus.On 1 January 2020, Sarah Gilbert, Professor of Vaccinology at Oxford University, read an article about four people in China with a strange pneumonia. Within two weeks, she and her team had designed a vaccine against a pathogen that no one had ever seen before. Less than 12 months later, vaccination was rolled out across the world to save millions of lives from Covid-19.In Vaxxers, we hear directly from Professor Gilbert and her colleague Dr Catherine Green as they reveal the inside story of making the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine and the cutting-edge science and sheer hard work behind it. This is their story of fighting a pandemic as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances. Sarah and Cath share the heart-stopping moments in the eye of the storm; they separate fact from fiction; they explain how they made a highly effective vaccine in record time with the eyes of the world watching; and they give us hope for the future.Vaxxers invites us into the lab to find out how science will save us from this pandemic, and how we can prepare for the inevitable next one.

History of Vaccine Development

Author : Stanley A. Plotkin
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Vaccinology, the concept of a science ranging from the study of immunology to the development and distribution of vaccines, was a word invented by Jonas Salk. This book covers the history of the methodological progress in vaccine development and to the social and ethical issues raised by vaccination. Chapters include "Jenner and the Vaccination against Smallpox," "Viral Vaccines," and "Ethical and Social Aspects of vaccines." Contributing authors include pioneers in the field, such as Samuel L. Katz and Hilary Koprowski. This history of vaccines is relatively short and many of its protagonists are still alive. This book was written by some of the chief actors in the drama whose subject matter is the conquest of epidemic disease.

New Trends and Developments in Vaccines

Author : A. Voller
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Studies on the Use of Modified Live and Killed Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Vaccines to Control Virus Shedding

Author : Dachrit Nilubol
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Two study designs were conducted. The first study was to compare the virus shedding patterns of wild-type and vaccine viruses. Pigs were infected with wild-type (PRRSV VR-2332) or vaccine virus (PRIME PAC[Trade Mark Symbol], Schering-Plough). There was a difference in the virus shedding patterns of wild-type and vaccine viruses after days 70 post infection (p.i.). Virus RNA was not detected in oropharyngeal scraping of any pig infected with vaccine virus after 70 day p.i., but it was detected in 2 pigs infected with wild-type virus between days 70 and 105 pi. Virus RNA was detected in tonsils in 3 pigs infected with vaccine virus at necropsy on day 109 p.i. and 2 pigs infected with wild-type virus. Sentinel pigs placed in contact with both groups of pigs on days 77 and 91 p.i. did not seroconvert as indicated by ELISA. The presence of virus RNA in tonsils of both groups at necropsy suggested that virus remained in pigs, but could not be transmitted to sentinel pigs. The second study was to determine if virus shedding in pigs previously infected with PRRSV could be reduced by KV. Two separate experiments (exp) were conducted. In exp 1, infected pigs were vaccinated with KV on 14 and 28 days p.i. Viremia and serum virus neutralizing (SN) antibody response of both groups were compared. In exp 2, two vaccine groups were used. One was vaccinated with KV on days 7 and 21 p.i., whereas the second was vaccinated on days 14 and 28 p.i. There was no difference in the magnitude and duration of viremia between both groups. The geometric mean SN antibody titer of KV-treated infected group was significantly greater (p=0.05) than that of the infected group on day 42 in exp 1, and on days 42 and 56 in exp 2. In exp 2, the mean number of IFN-[Gamma] producing cells was slightly higher in KV-treated infected groups than that of non-treated infected group on days 42 and 63. These observations suggest that that the KV treatment did not reduce virus shedding, even though infected pigs responded immunologically to the KV treatment.

The Use of Silver Nanoparticles to Develop a Tacaribe Virus Vaccine Mice

Author : Nathan David Elrod
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Hemorrhagic fever viruses are those that cause fever and bleeding diathesis leading to death in many cases. Many of these viruses have been weaponized by the USA and former Soviet Union without any known vaccine available. Tacaribe is an arenavirus which is one of four families of virus that cause hemorrhagic fever. However, Tacaribe has not been known to cause illness in humans and is classified as BSL-2 even though it is highly similar to the hemorrhagic fever viruses Junin and Lassa. Silver nanoparticles manufactured as 10 nm spheres have been shown to inactivate many bacteria and viruses in vitro, including Tacaribe. The objective of this research was to explore using silver nanoparticles to attenuate live Tacaribe virus and test the effects of this treatment in mice in vivo. The attenuated virus would then be tested for use as a vaccine against the virus using a multi-dose vaccination. The attenuation with silver nanoparticles did reduce the amount of innate immune response by the host. There was also a reduction in TCRV S segment expression compared to controls. However this inactivation was not enough to keep the virus from causing death in the majority of the mice tested indicating a humoral response was needed to successfully survive viral infection. In the vaccination trials, all the mice survived that were given just the virus, without any attenuation, via intraperitoneal injections before challenge via intracranial injection. However, only half the mice survived that received the virus attenuated with the silver nanoparticles before challenge. This indicated that giving the mice an attenuated virus was actually worse than exposure to the pure strain in terms of humoral response generation. Silver nanoparticles are assumed by many to be an overall effective antimicrobial drug counteracting many pathogens. However, here it was determined that there are some limitations to nanomedicine especially in regards to vaccine development.

The Vaccine s Agenda

Author : Jeffrey Skinner
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It was just too good to last. Pulling into bed early for once, Special Agent Jim Barrett of the FBI isn't surprised when the phone rings. That it's Grace on the other end does and the shocking story she has to tell is only making it worse. Wanted for murder and barely escaping an attempt on her own life, his ex-wife needs help and he's the only one she trusts. Always on the cusp of discovery, Dr. Grace Thompson is shocked to hear a terrible admission. The vaccine at the center of her world may not have any effect on the deadly virus it is supposed to protect us against. And someone is willing to kill to keep that secret. Running from the scene of a murder, she gets away with a document that may just change everything.When the virus appears in Germany and Paris, just as the paper predicted, Grace must face some startling truths. Someone is using Ebola as a weapon and the best protection may no longer be safe. They need more information, and they need another way to beat a lethal killer. Tokyo and Toronto are the next on the list and, if it's not all some crazy coincidence, the US will be hit by the end of the week,Following the path of the virus both Jim and Grace make startling discoveries of their own. The virus may not be the real weapon and we may not have any way to stop it. It may all just be part of The Vaccine's Agenda.With the news breaking of the pending arrival of the virus, and a vaccine that could protect them, the American people are put into a panic. They demand the injection and the government may have no other alternative but to provide it. The President of the United States is the first in line in an attempt to create the calm.Now it's up to Jim and Grace to find out the true danger and stop it before the real weapon can be used. The Vaccine Agenda is a face paced-thriller following the trail of a microscopic killer, from Washington to Paris to Tokyo. As Jim and Grace learn more, they start to see that the real threat may not be the virus at all. That may just be the tool needed to drive the victims to the real danger. And this may all be about Control.

Hepatitis B The Virus the Disease and the Vaccine

Author : Irving Millman
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Toby K. Eisenstein Symposium Committee Chairperson Temple University School of Medicine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19140 This symposium is the thirteenth biennial clinical microbiology program sponsored by the Eastern Pennsylvania Branch of the American Society for Microbiology in cooperation with the Philadelphia area medical schools and the Bureau of Laboratories of the Pennsylvania Department of Health. This year a generous contribution from Merck, Sharp and Dohme has helped to make the program a reality. The subject matter for this symposium represents an attractive spectrum of medical, biological and molecular approaches to the practical solution of a public health prob1em--name1y, prevention of infection with the hepatitis B virus. The symposium may be unique in that it focuses on a product which was first marketed less than three months ago, but included in the program are presen tations on two new approaches to hepatitis B vaccine production which may replace the one which is newly unveiled. The rapidity of progress in our present era of biological research is indeed astonishing.

Covid 19 Vaccines

Author : Jon Carson
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Every individual - Keep readingAs the pandemic furies on, it's undeniably evident that a broad vaccine is fundamental to help to contain it. Physical separating, general face covers, and continuous hand washing are successful, however not idiot-proof. What's more, obviously, these measures don't work in the event that they are not followed. In this way, the quick advancement of mRNA antibodies and different immunizations to forestall Coronavirus is welcome - some say marvelous - news. Be that as it may, while numerous individuals are scrambling to get an immunization, others are faltering. This reading material titled "Covid-19 Vaccines: Evaluation Of Side Effects, Security And Coincidence" covers the following areas: -A vivid introduction to coronavirus -The vaccines that have been given the green light for distribution-Are these immunizations protected and successful?-What are the most well-known coronavirus virus side effects?-Fever after the covid immunization-What causes these side effects?-Pushing back on two antibody misinterpretations-Do the antibody results impersonate coronavirus indications?-Conclusion on a general evaluation of coronavirus vaccinesJon Carson is an American retired medical doctor, author. He is the author of several books on his medical career. Carson has received numerous honors for his medical work including more than 60 honorary doctorate degrees and numerous national merit citations.This awesome book authored by a professional hand will be of great value for all the readers.So I irrefutably recommend you to buy and get it! Please scroll up and click on the buy button.

Development of Epstein Barr Virus Vaccines

Author : Andrew J. Morgan
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This book is about the development of the Epstein-Barr virus vaccine which may ultimately eliminate or reduce the incidence of the cancers associated with this virus in humans. These include nasopharyngial carcinoma, endemic Burkitts lymphoma and certain lymphomas which occur with a relatively high frequency in immunosuppressed patients and AIDS sufferers. Such vaccines may also be deployed in the prevention of infectious mononucleosis, a disease which, although rarely fatal, has a significant social and economic impact on the young adult population in the Western World. Several candidate vaccines based on recombinant viral envelope glycoproteins and a range of viral vectors have been evaluated in a primate animal model of lymphoma induced by the virus.

Immunity in Turkeys to Four Experimental Type A Influenza Virus Vaccines

Author : Elvira Escolastica Diaz
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Reassortment of Bluetongue Virus Vaccine Serotypes in Cattle

Author : Carien Van den Bergh
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Bluetongue (BT) is a non-contagious viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that belongs to the family Reoviridae, is the causing agent of the disease. The virus consists of a ten segmented double stranded (ds) RNA genome and currently 27 serotypes have been identified worldwide. The virus is transmitted by Culicoide biting midges (Diptera: Ceratoponidae) and the occurrence of the disease depends on the presence and abundance of competent vectors. In South Africa most European ovine breeds are more susceptible to the disease than indigenous sheep, while cattle and goats in general prove to be sub-clinically infected. During recent outbreaks in Europe (2008 2011) cattle showed severe clinical symptoms and mortality. The role of cattle in the epidemiology of the disease in South Africa is however poorly understood. Bluetongue virus has the ability to reassort its genome segments in vertebrate hosts or vectors which have been infected with more than one strain at the same time. This phenomenon has been reported previously. In 1987, reassortment was investigated in cattle between BTV serotypes 11 and 17 where six reassortants with unique genetic profiles were described. In 2008, in Europe, segment 5 of BTV serotype 16 was identical to the South African vaccine strain of BTV serotype 2. In India in 2013 studies showed that in some isolates obtained from an outbreak segment 6 of BTV serotype 21 were 97.6% identical to segment 6 of BTV serotype 16. Bluetongue disease is controlled by annual vaccination. In South Africa the freeze dried polyvalent BTV vaccine is mainly used to vaccinate sheep, and the vaccine consists of three bottles, each bottle includes five serotypes and each bottle is vaccinated at a three week interval, between August to October of each year. The vaccine proves to be effective in producing immunity against the disease but there are multiple side effects. The main concern is that vaccine virus can be detected during the viraemic period in inoculated sheep. The titre levels are also sufficient to be transferred to non-vaccinated animal hosts via Culicoides midges. The possibility of reassortment between genome segments of vaccine and wild type strain viruses when simultaneously infected therefore exists. This might result in the emergence of new virus serotypes with different phenotypic characteristics i.e. reversion of the live attenuated vaccine strain to a virulent strain. The aim of the project was to investigate the potential generation of genetic reassortant viruses between field and vaccine serotypes of BTV within cattle. Six cattle between the ages of six and twelve months were used. Before the onset of the project cattle were tested for antibodies specific to BTV using a commercial available cELISA and for viral nucleic acid with RT-PCR. Only animals showing negative results by both the tests were used in the trial. The animals were housed in vector-free stables for the duration of the trial. The cattle were divided into two groups; the first group was infected with BTV serotypes from Bottle B of the Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP) vaccine (BTV serotype 3, 8, 9, 10 and 11), while the second group was infected with the same vaccine serotypes and simultaneously infected with a wild type BTV serotype 4. Blood samples were collected daily from the animals from Day 1 to Day 39 post inoculation. Viraemia was detected between day 2 to day 39 and in one of the animals viraemia could be detected until 39 days post inoculation using virus isolation. Buffy coats as well as first cell culture passages of buffy coats were used to isolate the virus using the plaque forming unit method. The vaccine parental strains were obtained from Bottle two of the vaccine using the plaque forming unit assay and the isolated viruses were serotyped using a serum neutralization assay. Plaques were isolated and amplified on Vero cells. BTV serotype 4 was isolated in the Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases from a field sample. RNA was extracted from the isolated plaques as well as the six parental strains and compared using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE).


Author : Thomas Abraham
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In 1988, the World Health Organization launched a twelve-year campaign to wipe out polio. Thirty years and several billion dollars over budget later, the campaign grinds on, vaccinating millions of children and hoping that each new year might see an end to the disease. But success remains elusive, against a surprisingly resilient virus, an unexpectedly weak vaccine and the vagaries of global politics, meeting with indifference from governments and populations alike. How did an innocuous campaign to rid the world of a crippling disease become a hostage of geopolitics? Why do parents refuse to vaccinate their children against polio? And why have poorly paid door-to-door healthworkers been assassinated? Thomas Abraham reports on the ground in search of answers.

Polio Vaccines

Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce
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Specifications for the Production and Control of Avian Live Virus Vaccines

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Vaccine Intervention Against Virus induced Tumour

Author : John M. Goldman
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