Search results for: toward-a-unified-theory-of-immediate-reasoning-in-soar

Toward a Unified Theory of Immediate Reasoning in Soar

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Soar is an architecture for general intelligence that has been proposed as a unified theory of human cognition (UTC) (Newell, 1989) and has been shown to be capable of supporting a wide range of intelligent behavior. Polk & Newell (1988) showed that a Soar theory could account for human data in syllogistic reasoning. In this paper, we begin to generalize this theory into a unified theory of immediate reasoning based on Soar and some assumptions about subjects' representation and knowledge. The theory, embodied in a Soar system (IR-Soar), posits three basic problem spaces (comprehend, test-proposition, and build-proposition that construct annotated models and extract knowledge from them, learn (via chunking) from experience and use an attention mechanism to guide search. Acquiring task specific knowledge is modeled with the comprehend space thus reducing the degrees of freedom available to fit data. The theory explains the qualitative phenomena in four immediate reasoning tasks and accounts for an individual's responses in syllogistic reasoning. It represents a first step toward theory of immediate reasoning and moves Soar another step closer to being a unified theory of cognition. Keywords: Syllogisms; Wason task; Unified theories of cognition; Reasoning.

11th Annual Conference Cognitive Science Society Pod

Author : Cognitive Science Society
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First published in 1989. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Architectures for Intelligence

Author : Kurt Van Lehn
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This unique volume focuses on computing systems that exhibit intelligent behavior. As such, it discusses research aimed at building a computer that has the same cognitive architecture as the mind -- permitting evaluations of it as a model of the mind -- and allowing for comparisons between computer performance and experimental data on human performance. It also examines architectures that permit large, complex computations to be performed -- and questions whether the computer so structured can handle these difficult tasks intelligently.

Conceptions of the Human Mind

Author : Gilbert Harman
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This volume is a direct result of a conference held at Princeton University to honor George A. Miller, an extraordinary psychologist. A distinguished panel of speakers from various disciplines -- psychology, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial intelligence -- were challenged to respond to Dr. Miller's query: "What has happened to cognition? In other words, what has the past 30 years contributed to our understanding of the mind? Do we really know anything that wasn't already clear to William James?" Each participant tried to stand back a little from his or her most recent work, but to address the general question from his or her particular standpoint. The chapters in the present volume derive from that occasion.

Toward a Soar Theory of Taking Instructions for Immediate Reasoning Tasks

Author : Richard L. Lewis
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Soar is a theory of the human cognitive architecture. We present here the Soar theory of taking instructions for immediate reasoning tasks, which involve extracting implicit information from simple situations in a few tens of seconds. This theory is realized in a computer system that comprehends simple English instructions and organizes itself to perform a required task. Comprehending instructions produces a model of future behavior that is interpretively executed to yield task behavior. Soar thereby acquires task-specific problem spaces that, together with basic reasoning capabilities, model human performance in multiple immediate reasoning tasks. By providing an account of taking instructions, we reduce the degrees of freedom available to our theory of immediate reasoning, and also give more support for Soar as a unified theory of cognition. Keywords: Thought processes; Thinking; Artificial intelligence; Natural language; Instructions; Soar; Unified theories of cognition; Theory degrees of freedom. (kt).

Mind Matters

Author : David M. Steier
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Based on a symposium honoring the extensive work of Allen Newell -- one of the founders of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and the systematic study of computational architectures -- this volume demonstrates how unifying themes may be found in the diversity that characterizes current research on computers and cognition. The subject matter includes: * an overview of cognitive and computer science by leading researchers in the field; * a comprehensive description of Allen Newell's "Soar" -- a computational architecture he developed as a unified theory of cognition; * commentary on how the Soar theory of cognition relates to important issues in cognitive and computer science; * rigorous treatments of controversial issues in cognition -- methodology of cognitive science, hybrid approaches to machine learning, word-sense disambiguation in understanding material language, and the role of capability processing constraints in architectural theory; * comprehensive and systematic methods for studying architectural evolution in both hardware and software; * a thorough discussion of the use of analytic models in human computer interaction; * extensive reviews of important experiments in the study of scientific discovery and deduction; and * an updated analysis of the role of symbols in information processing by Herbert Simon. Incorporating the research of top scientists inspired by Newell's work, this volume will be of strong interest to a large variety of scientific communities including psychologists, computational linguists, computer scientists and engineers, and interface designers. It will also be valuable to those who study the scientific process itself, as it chronicles the impact of Newell's approach to research, simultaneously delving into each scientific discipline and producing results that transcend the boundaries of those disciplines.

The Psychology of Proof

Author : Lance J. Rips
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In this provocative book, Lance Rips describes a unified theory of natural deductive reasoning and fashions a working model of deduction, with strong experimental support, that is capable of playing a central role in mental life.Rips argues that certain inference principles are so central to our notion of intelligence and rationality that they deserve serious psychological investigation to determine their role in individuals' beliefs and conjectures. Asserting that cognitive scientists should consider deductive reasoning as a basis for thinking, Rips develops a theory of natural reasoning abilities and shows how it predicts mental successes and failures in a range of cognitive tasks.In parts I and II of the book Rips builds insights from cognitive psychology, logic, and artificial intelligence into a unified theoretical structure. He defends the idea that deduction depends on the ability to construct mental proofs - actual memory units that link given information to conclusions it warrants. From this base Rips develops a computational model of deduction based on two cognitive skills: the ability to make suppositions or assumptions and the ability to posit sub-goals for conclusions. A wide variety of original experiments support this model, including studies of human subjects evaluating logical arguments as well as following and remembering proofs. Unlike previous theories of mental proof, this one handles names and variables in a general way. This capability enables deduction to play a crucial role in other thought processes,such as classifying and problem solving.In part III Rips compares the theory to earlier approaches in psychology which confined the study of deduction to a small group of tasks, and examines whether the theory is too rational or too irrational in its mode of thought.Lance J. Rips is Professor of Psychology at Northwestern University.

Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development

Author : William M. Kurtines
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The publication of this unique three-volume set represents the culmination of years of work by a large number of scholars, researchers, and professionals in the field of moral development. The literature on moral behavior and development has grown to the point where it is no longer possible to capture the “state of the art” in a single volume. This comprehensive multi-volume Handbook marks an important transition because it provides evidence that the field has emerged as an area of scholarly activity in its own right. Spanning many professional domains, there is a striking variety of issues and topics surveyed: anthropology, biology, economics, education, philosophy, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, social work, and more. By bringing together work on diverse topics, the editors have fostered a mutually-beneficial exchange not only between alternative approaches and perspectives, but also between “applied” and “pure” research interests. The Theory volume presents current and ongoing theoretical advances focusing on new developments or substantive refinements and revisions to existing theoretical frameworks. The Research volume summarizes and interprets the findings of specific, theory-driven, research programs; reviews research in areas that have generated substantial empirical findings; describes recent developments in research methodology/techniques; and reports research on new and emerging issues. The Application volume describes a diverse array of intervention projects — educational, clinical, organizational, and the like. Each chapter includes a summary report of results and findings, conceptual developments, and emerging issues or topics. Since the contributors to this publication are active theorists, researchers, and practitioners, it may serve to define directions that will shape the emerging literature in the field.

AI Magazine

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Soar A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective

Author : J.A. Michon
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Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective represents a European perspective on Soar with the exception of the special contribution from Allen Newell arguing for Unified Theories of Cognition. The various papers derive from the work of the Soar Research Group that has been active at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, since 1987. The work reported here has been inspired in particular by two topics that precipitated the group's interest in Soar in the first place -- road user behavior and the temporal organization of behavior, more specifically planning. At the same time, the various contributions go well beyond the simple use of Soar as a convenient medium for modeling human cognitive activity. In every paper one or more fundamental issues are raised that touch upon the very nature and consistency of Soar as an intelligent architecture. As a result the reader will learn about the operator implementation problem, chunking, multitasking, the need to constrain the depth of the goal stack, and induction, etc. Soar is still at a relatively early stage of development. It does, nevertheless, constitute an important breakthrough in the area of computer architectures for general intelligence. Soar shows one important direction that future efforts to build intelligent systems should take if they aim for a comprehensive, and psychologically meaningful, theory of cognition. This is argued in a powerful way by Newell in his contribution to this volume. For this reason, the Soar system will probably play an important integrative role within cognitive science in bringing together important subdomains of psychology, computer science, linguistics, and the neurosciences. Although Soar is not the only `architecture for intelligence', it is one of the most advanced and theoretically best motivated architectures presently available. Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective is of special interest to researchers in the domains of cognitive science, computer science and artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and the philosophy of mind.