Search results for: twenty-first-century-peace-operations

Twenty first century Peace Operations

Author : William J. Durch
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This superbly edited volume addresses the question of what has been accomplished and what lessons have been learned from ten years of peace operations in post-conflict societies.

The Militarisation of Peacekeeping in the Twenty First Century

Author : James Sloan
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Since the end of the last century, UN peacekeeping has undergone a fundamental and largely unexamined change. Peacekeeping operations, long expected to use force only in self-defence and to act impartially, are now increasingly relied upon by the Security Council as a means to maintain and restore security within a country. The operations are established under Chapter VII of the UN Charter and some are empowered to use 'all necessary measures', language traditionally reserved for enforcement operations. Through a close examination of these twenty-first century peacekeeping operations - including operations in Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Haiti and the Darfur region of the Sudan - the book shows that they are, for the most part, fundamentally ill-suited to the enforcement-type tasks being asked of them. The operations, which are under-funded, under-equipped and whose troops are under-trained, frequently lurch from crisis to crisis. There is scant evidence, some 10 years on, that matters are likely to improve. The book argues that bestowing enforcement-type functions on a peacekeeping operation is misconceived. Such operations are likely to be unsuccessful in their enforcement-type tasks, thereby causing serious damage to the excellent reputation of UN peacekeeping, and the UN more broadly. In addition, because such operations are more likely to be perceived as partial, their ability to carry out traditional (non-forceful) peacekeeping tasks may be impeded. Finally, the Security Council's practice of charging peacekeeping operations with enforcement functions lessens the pressure on the Council to work to establish genuine enforcement operations - ie, operations that are considerably better suited to restoring peace and security. '...Dr Sloan is able to show, in knowledgeable detail, not only what has changed over the years, but also what has brought these changes about. His analysis leads him to offer not only well-informed insights, but critical observations, too...This book is a pleasing combination of detailed scrutiny of topics already familiar (provisional measures, consent, so-called 'Chapter VI1⁄2' action, implied powers) and a rigorous questioning as to their place in – or indeed, relevance at all to – militarised peacekeeping. The reader will find much new terrain traversed, and plenty of out-of-the-box thinking.' From the foreword by Dame Rosalyn Higgins

Military Forces in 21st Century Peace Operations

Author : James V. Arbuckle
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A major new study of the realities of contemporary warfare, which presents a range of fresh insights and is essential reading for all students and professionals engaged in the field. This book clearly shows us that: neither military nor civilian agencies can act effectively alone in resolving modern conflicts joint civil-military efforts are needed, and those efforts must be deliberately planned from the outset of an operation; they cannot be added on as afterthoughts when all else has failed the record of our efforts over nearly a decade and a half since the end of the Cold War demonstrates that we are doing badly at creating civil-military partnerships, and that we are not getting better. James V. Arbuckle shows how these issues are neither structural nor organizational - they are cultural. They involve attitudes, beliefs, perceptions – positive and negative, true and false. The solutions will involve changing attitudes, moving beyond prejudices, replacing competition with cooperation. The principal mechanisms for this will be common civil-military training and education.

Reforming 21st Century Peacekeeping Operations

Author : Marc. G Doucet
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This book considers contemporary international interventions with a specific focus on analyzing the frameworks that have guided recent peacekeeping operations led by the United Nations. Drawing from the work of Michel Foucault and Foucauldian-inspired approaches in the field of International Relations, it highlights how interventions can be viewed through the lens of governmentality and its key attendant concepts. The book draws from these approaches in order to explore how international interventions are increasingly informed by governmental rationalities of security and policing. Two specific cases are examined: the UN's Security Sector Reform (SSR) approach and the UN's Protection of Civilians agenda. Focusing on the governmental rationalities that are at work in these two central frameworks that have come to guide contemporary UN-led peacekeeping efforts in recent years, the book considers: The use in IR of governmentality and its attendant notions of biopower and sovereign power The recent discussion regarding the concept and practice of international policing and police reform The rise of security as a rationality of government and the manner in which security and police rationalities interconnect and have increasingly come to inform peacekeeping efforts The Security Sector Reform (SSR) framework for peacebuilding and the rise of the UN's Protection of Civilians agenda. This book will be of interest to graduates and scholars of international relations, security studies, critical theory, and conflict and intervention.

Conflict Resolution in the Twenty first Century

Author : Jacob Bercovitch
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In the past, arbitration, direct bargaining, the use of intermediaries, and deference to international institutions were relatively successful tools for managing interstate conflict. In the face of terrorism, intrastate wars, and the multitude of other threats in the post–Cold War era, however, the conflict resolution tool kit must include preventive diplomacy, humanitarian intervention, regional task-sharing, and truth commissions. Here, Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, two internationally recognized experts, systematically examine each one of these conflict resolution tools and describe how it works and in what conflict situations it is most likely to be effective. Conflict Resolution in the Twenty-first Century is not only an essential introduction for students and scholars, it is a must-have guide for the men and women entrusted with creating stability and security in our changing world. Cover illustration © iStockphoto.com

A United Nations for the Twenty First Century

Author : Dimitris Bourantonis
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This collective work brings together scholars, international civil servants and field practitioners who examine a wide range of theoretical and practical problems as well as challenges confronting the world and the United Nations at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The papers in this volume have been organized under themes which focus on problem areas and challenges that mankind must unavoidably deal with collectively in the years ahead, much as it has attempted to do during the past half-century. The contributors address the triangular relationship between peace, security and development and raise questions about the relevance of the UN system in the decades to come. The authors do so through reflection on past experiences and relevant philosophical inquiries. They examine specific cases and experiences that are representative of the relevance or irrelevance of past collective actions in the security and non-security fields and suggest new ideas and concepts that attempt to marry theory and practice. In this connection, aspects of peacemaking and peacekeeping, arms control, economic development, human rights and the critical role of education are amongst the topics analyzed and assessed. One of the underlying themes of the volume is that the challenges of the twenty-first century will be of unprecedented magnitude. Unless the UN system is reformed and revitalized it runs the risk of becoming irrelevant.

Human Rights Education for the Twenty First Century

Author : George J. Andreopoulos
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I. Theories and contexts

Global Security in the Twenty first Century

Author : Sean Kay
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Kay integrates traditional and emerging challenges in one study that gives readers the tools they need to develop a thoughtful and nuanced understanding of global security."--BOOK JACKET.

Securing Peace

Author : Richard Kozul-Wright
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This book studies the processes which lead to explosion of civil strife and tries to spell out the policy options available to address the challenges faced by post-conflict economies. It calls for a more integrated policy approach which can gradually repair trust in public institutions as it addresses the vulnerabilities and grievances that helped start the process. Usually, such societies do not have the luxury of meeting the goals of security, reconciliation and development in a measured or sequenced manner: to avoid an immediate return to violence they must begin the recovery process on all fronts simultaneously.

Understanding Peacekeeping

Author : Alex J. Bellamy
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Peace operations are now a principal tool for managing armed conflict and building world peace. The fully revised, expanded and updated second edition of Understanding Peacekeeping provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to the theory, practice and politics of contemporary peace operations. Drawing on more than twenty-five historical and contemporary case studies, this book evaluates the changing characteristics of the contemporary environment in which peacekeepers operate, what role peace operations play in wider processes of global politics, the growing impact of non-state actors, and the major challenges facing today's peacekeepers. All the chapters have been revised and expanded and seven new chapters have been added. Part 1 summarizes the central concepts and issues related to peace operations. It includes a new discussion of the theories of peace operations and analysis of the emerging norm of responsibility to protect. Part 2 charts the historical development of peacekeeping from 1945 and offers a new chapter on peace operations in the twenty-first century. In part 3, separate chapters analyse seven different types of peace operations: preventive deployments; traditional peacekeeping; assisting transition; transitional administrations; wider peacekeeping; peace enforcement; and peace support operations. Part 4 looks forward and examines the central challenges facing today's peacekeepers, namely, the regionalization of peace operations, the privatization of security, civilian protection, policing and gender issues. This second edition of Understanding Peacekeeping will be essential reading for students and scholars of peace and conflict studies, security studies and international relations. Visit http: //www.polity.co.uk/up2/ for more information and additional resources.

The Former Yugoslavia at the Turn of the Twenty First Century

Author : Ian Jeffries
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This book focuses on the recent political and economic events in the former Yugoslavia. The author presents a clear, detailed and accessible breakdown of the developments in: Bosnia-Hercegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The role of the West in the more unstable countries of the Former Yugoslavia has been reassessed in the light of the terrorist attacks on the United States and the fall of Afghanistan. The involvement of the US, in particular, in countries affected by ethnic strife has been brought under scrutiny, as has the role of international military and civilian involvement in maintaining peace and rebuilding economies and political structures. This book contributes to these debates by providing a unique level of coverage of economic and political developments in former Yugoslav countries. It will provide an invaluable source of reference for all those interested in transitional and developing countries.

History Memory and State Sponsored Violence

Author : Berber Bevernage
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Modern historiography embraces the notion that time is irreversible, implying that the past should be imagined as something ‘absent’ or ‘distant.’ Victims of historical injustice, however, in contrast, often claim that the past got ‘stuck’ in the present and that it retains a haunting presence. History, Memory, and State-Sponsored Violence is centered around the provocative thesis that the way one deals with historical injustice and the ethics of history is strongly dependent on the way one conceives of historical time; that the concept of time traditionally used by historians is structurally more compatible with the perpetrators’ than the victims’ point of view. Demonstrating that the claim of victims about the continuing presence of the past should be taken seriously, instead of being treated as merely metaphorical, Berber Bevernage argues that a genuine understanding of the ‘irrevocable’ past demands a radical break with modern historical discourse and the concept of time. By embedding a profound philosophical reflection on the themes of historical time and historical discourse in a concrete series of case studies, this project transcends the traditional divide between ‘empirical’ historiography on the one hand and the so called ‘theoretical’ approaches to history on the other. It also breaks with the conventional ‘analytical’ philosophy of history that has been dominant during the last decades, raising a series of long-neglected ‘big questions’ about the historical condition – questions about historical time, the unity of history, and the ontological status of present and past –programmatically pleading for a new historical ethics.

Exit Strategies and State Building

Author : Richard Caplan
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In the past two decades, states and multilateral organizations have devoted considerable resources toward efforts to stabilize peace and rebuild war-torn societies in places such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo, and Sierra Leone. Despite these prodigious efforts, there has been relatively little consideration of the critical questions arising from the "end game" of state-building operations. In Exit Strategies and State Building, sixteen leading scholars and practitioners focus on relevant historical and contemporary cases of exit to provide a comprehensive overview of this crucial issue. By examining the major challenges associated with the conclusion of international state-building operations and the requirements for the maintenance of peace in the period following exit, this book provides unique perspective on a critical aspect of military and political intervention. Deftly researched, Exit Strategies and State Building sheds new light on what is not merely an academic issue, but also a pressing global policy concern.

Multilateral Security and ESDP Operations

Author : Dr Daniela Irrera
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This volume presents complementary analyses of the current features, issues and trends of multilateral security and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) peace operations. The work presents an astute interpretation of the attributes of ESDP operations in the context of the diffusion of peace operations practice at the present time. Founded on the detailed examination of different peace operations and the analysis of relevant data, the book allows for the assessment of the near future of peace operations.

Non international Armed Conflict in the Twenty first Century

Author : Naval War College (U.S.)
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NOTE: NO FURTHER DISCOUNT FOR THIS PRINT PRODUCT-- OVERSTOCK SALE -- Significantly reduced lsit price International Law Studies, Volume 88. Edited by Kenneth Watkin and Andrew J. Norris. Contains papers from the conference: "Non-International Armed Conflict in the 21st Century" hosted by the Naval War College on June 21-23, 2011. Examines the legal issues surrounding non-international armed conflict (NIAC) in the modern era. The historic International Law Studies ("Blue Book") series was initiated bythe Naval War College in 1901 to publish essays, treatises and articles thatcontribute to the broader understanding of international law. This, the eighty-eighth (88th)volume of the "Blue Book" series, is a compilation of scholarly papers andremarks derived from the proceedings of a conference hosted at the Naval WarCollege on June 21-23, 2011 entitled "Non-International Armed Conflict in the21st Century." The purpose of the June 2011 International Law Conference was to examinethe legal issues surrounding non-international armed conflict (NIAC) in themodern era. To this end, renowned international academics and legal advisers, both military and civilian, representing military, diplomatic, non-governmentaland academic institutions from the global community, were invited to the WarCollege to analyze a variety of legal topics related to NIAC. Non-international armed conflict is of a fundamentally different nature. Inmost cases, States are facing organized groups of lawbreakers from whom reciprocitycannot be expected. Therefore, there is often little incentive for States to limittheir scope of action by agreeing to legal norms with which only they will abide. Moreover, as the conflict is "internal," the risk of spread is limited, while the involvementof other States is a matter of their discretion. However, the context in which non-international armed conflict occurs is undergoingtransformation. Transnational terrorism has become a globally pervasivephenomenon, one that the international community seems increasingly willing toclassify as non-international, at least to the extent it rises to the level of "armedconflict" as a matter of law. Further, as illustrated by the conflicts in the Balkans, Afghanistan and the Great Lakes region of Africa, the likelihood of spillover intoneighboring countries is very real, especially when a conflict is ethnically or religiouslybased or when adjacent territory is poorly governed. And the rise of criminalgroups with capabilities equaling those of government forces, as in Colombiaand Mexico, raises the question of whether the hostilities they engage in qualify asarmed conflict. The International Law Department of the Naval War College, long noted forexploring new legal challenges in its annual conferences, accordingly decided thata closer examination of the law governing non-international armed conflict wasopportune. Held in June 201 1, the resulting conference brought together many ofthe key legal practitioners and scholars in the field to consider both the state of thelaw and where it might be headed. Certain of the participants were invited toexpand on their presentations in this volume, the eighty-eighth in the Naval WarCollege's International Law Studies ("Blue Books") series. It delves into such complicatedtopics as the scope of non-international armed conflict, the legal status of actors, specific limitations on methods and means of warfare, detention and enforcement. The volume also offers several firsthand descriptions of particularnon-international armed conflicts. Hopefully, the various contributions will assistthose tasked with providing legal advice during future non-international armedconflicts, as well as make a measurable contribution to the scholarship on thesubject. Appreciation is owed to many who made the conference and this volume of the"Blue Books" possible. Other relaated products: Global Legal Challenges: Command of the Commons, Strategic Communications and Natural Disasters --Print Hardcover format is available here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-046-00244-4 Perspectivas Sobre Estrategia Maritima: Ensayos de las Amricas, la Nueva Estrategia Martima de EE UU y Comentario Sobre Una Estrategia Cooperativa Para el Poder Naval en el Siglo XXI is available here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-046-00251-7 Naval War College Illustrated History and Guide is available here: https: //bookstore.gpo.gov/products/sku/008-046-00265-7"

Bending History

Author : Martin S. Indyk
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By the time of Barack Obama's inauguration as the 44th president of the United States, he had already developed an ambitious foreign policy vision. By his own account, he sought to bend the arc of history toward greater justice, freedom, and peace; within a year he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, largely for that promise. In Bending History, Martin Indyk, Kenneth Lieberthal, and Michael O'Hanlon measure Obama not only against the record of his predecessors and the immediate challenges of the day, but also against his own soaring rhetoric and inspiring goals. Bending History assesses the considerable accomplishments as well as the failures and seeks to explain what has happened. Obama's best work has been on major and pressing foreign policy challenges—counterterrorism policy, including the daring raid that eliminated Osama bin Laden; the "reset" with Russia; managing the increasingly significant relationship with China; and handling the rogue states of Iran and North Korea. Policy on resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, however, has reflected serious flaws in both strategy and execution. Afghanistan policy has been plagued by inconsistent messaging and teamwork. On important "softer" security issues—from energy and climate policy to problems in Africa and Mexico—the record is mixed. As for his early aspiration to reshape the international order, according greater roles and responsibilities to rising powers, Obama's efforts have been well-conceived but of limited effectiveness. On issues of secondary importance, Obama has been disciplined in avoiding fruitless disputes (as with Chavez in Venezuela and Castro in Cuba) and insisting that others take the lead (as with Qaddafi in Libya). Notwithstanding several missteps, he has generally managed well the complex challenges of the Arab awakenings, striving to strike the right balance between U.S. values and interests. The authors see Obama's foreign policy to date as a triumph of discipline and realism over ideology. He has been neither the transformative beacon his devotees have wanted, nor the weak apologist for America that his critics allege. They conclude that his grand strategy for promoting American interests in a tumultuous world may only now be emerging, and may yet be curtailed by conflict with Iran. Most of all, they argue that he or his successor will have to embrace U.S. economic renewal as the core foreign policy and national security challenge of the future.

Contemporary Conflict Resolution

Author : Oliver Ramsbotham
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Since the end of the Cold War, conflict prevention and resolution, peacekeeping and peacebuilding have risen to the top of the international agenda. The second edition of this hugely popular text charts the development of the field from its pioneers to its contemporary exponents and offers an assessment of its achievements and the challenges it faces in today′s changed security environment. Existing material has been thoroughly updated and new chapters added on peacebuilding from below, reconciliation, responses to terror, gender issues, the ethics of intervention, dialogue, discourse and disagreement, culture and conflict resolution, and future directions for the field. the authors argue that a new form of cosmopolitan conflict resolution is emerging, which offers a hopeful means for human societies to transcend and celebrate their differences. Part I offers a comprehensive survey of the theory and practice of conflict resolution. Part II enters into the controversies that have surrounded conflict resolution as it has become part of the mainstream. Contemporary Conflict Resolution is essential reading for students of peace and security studies, conflict management and international politics, as well as those working in non–government organizations or think–tanks.

Sexual Exploitation and Abuse in UN Peacekeeping

Author : Kelly Neudorfer
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While serving in United Nations peacekeeping missions, some peacekeepers sexually exploit and abuse the local population, a fact which erupted into a scandal published by many media outlets in 2005 and 2006. This book analyzes factors which may increase the risk of such behavior as well as measures the UN has taken which may have decreased the number of incidents. Using a mixed methods design, the book argues that previous analyses have been largely undertheorized—with the exception of gender theories—and turns to criminology to look at the phenomenon of so-called “Sexual Exploitation and Abuse” (SEA) in a new light. The three risk factors found to increase the likelihood of SEAs are an environment of sexual violence in the mission’s host country, the presence of internally displaced persons close to the mission, and a lack of supervised or regulated contact with the local population. In turn, the presence of an office whose purpose is to collect reports and investigate allegations, training on preventing SEAs for the incoming peacekeepers, and campaigns to empower the local population on these issues all seem to reduce the risk of sexual exploitation and abuse occurring. By using a statistical analysis followed by case studies of the UN peacekeeping missions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, and the Golan Heights, the author demonstrates the importance these factors have in the peacekeepers’ behavior on the mission, providing a solid basis upon which future policy recommendations can be made.

Evaluating Peace Operations

Author : Paul Francis Diehl
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There has been a great deal written on why peace operations succeed or fail...But how are those judgments reached? By what criteria is success defined? Success for whom? Paul Diehl and Daniel Druckman explore the complexities of evaluating peace operation outcomes, providing an original, detailed framework for assessment.

Routledge Handbook of African Security

Author : James J. Hentz
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This new Handbook examines the issues, challenges, and debates surrounding the problem of security in Africa. Africa is home to most of the world's current conflicts, and security is a key issue. However, African security can only be understood by employing different levels of analysis: the individual (human security), the state (national/state security), and the region (regional/international security). Each of these levels provides analytical tools for understanding what could be called the "African security predicament" and these debates are animated by the "new security" issues: immigration, small arms transfers, gangs and domestic crime, HIV/AIDS, transnational crime, poverty, and environmental degradation. African security therefore not only presents concrete challenges for international security but provides a real-world context for challenging conventional conceptions of security. Drawing together contributions from a wide range of key thinkers in the field, the Routledge Handbook of African Security engages with these debates, and is organized into four parts: Part I: The African security predicament in the twenty-first century; Part II: Understanding conflict in Africa; Part III: Regionalism and Africa; Part IV: External influences. This Handbook will be of great interest to students of African politics, human security, global security, war and conflict studies, peacebuilding, and IR in general.