Search results for: ultrafast-lasers-and-optics-for-experimentalists

Ultrafast Lasers and Optics for Experimentalists

Author : James David Pickering
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The use of ultrafast lasers has expanded beyond use by specialist laser physicists and is increasingly commonplace in both physical and life sciences, where the high intensities, broad bandwidths, and short pulse durations make them ideal for investigating a wide range of chemical and physical phenomena. Working with these ultrashort femtosecond laser pulses requires some special care when compared to other laser systems, and this book provides an ideal starting point for the non-specialist to gain the necessary knowledge to start effectively working with ultrafast lasers and optics. The book walks the reader through the relevant parts of ultrashort pulse physics, pulse generation, and pulse characterisation, before discussing how to practically build an optical setup and manipulate these pulses. Many aspects of the practicalities of working with optics and lasers that are often considered assumed knowledge by experienced campaigners are discussed in detail. Aimed specifically at non-specialists, the emphasis is placed on intuitive, qualitative understanding of the concepts. The fundamental aim is that students starting a project or PhD in a laser group, can pick this book up and quickly get up to speed with the fundamentals of ultrafast laser physics that enable effective laboratory working.

Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
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The laser has revolutionized many areas of science and society, providing bright and versatile light sources that transform the ways we investigate science and enables trillions of dollars of commerce. Now a second laser revolution is underway with pulsed petawatt-class lasers (1 petawatt: 1 million billion watts) that deliver nearly 100 times the total world's power concentrated into a pulse that lasts less than one-trillionth of a second. Such light sources create unique, extreme laboratory conditions that can accelerate and collide intense beams of elementary particles, drive nuclear reactions, heat matter to conditions found in stars, or even create matter out of the empty vacuum. These powerful lasers came largely from U.S. engineering, and the science and technology opportunities they enable were discussed in several previous National Academies' reports. Based on these advances, the principal research funding agencies in Europe and Asia began in the last decade to invest heavily in new facilities that will employ these high-intensity lasers for fundamental and applied science. No similar programs exist in the United States. Opportunities in Intense Ultrafast Lasers assesses the opportunities and recommends a path forward for possible U.S. investments in this area of science.

Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy

Author : R. R. Alfano
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Semiconductors Probed by Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Volume II discusses the use of ultrafast laser spectroscopy in studying fast physics in semiconductors. It reviews progress on the experimental and theoretical understanding of ultrafast events that occur on a picosecond and nanosecond time scale. This volume discusses electronic relaxation in amorphous semiconductors and the physical mechanisms during and after the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a semiconductor. It also covers the relaxation of carriers in semiconductors; transient optical pulse propagation; and methods of time-resolved spectroscopy. Scientists, engineers, and graduate students will find this book invaluable.

Laser Filamentation

Author : Andre D. Bandrauk
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This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear nonperturbative regime, Laser Pulse Filamentation, was observed by Mourou and Braun in 1995, as the propagation of pulses over large distances with narrow and intense cones. This observation has led to intensive investigation in physics and applied mathematics of new effects such as self-transformation of these pulses into white light, intensity clamping, and multiple filamentation, as well as to potential applications to wave guide writing, atmospheric remote sensing, lightning guiding, and military long-range weapons. The increasing power of high performance computers and the mathematical modelling and simulation of photonic systems has enabled many new areas of research. With contributions by theorists and mathematicians, supplemented by active experimentalists who are experts in the field of nonlinear laser molecule interaction and propagation, Laser Filamentation sheds new light on scientific and industrial applications of modern lasers.

Laser Applications in Physical Chemistry

Author : D.K. Evans
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This book provides an introduction on applications of lasers in Chemistry. It describes laser as a tool for chemistry, the consideration involved in describing a laser beam and what happens to beam as it is propagated through a gas. The book is useful for graduates and advanced undergraduates.

Ultrafast Dynamical Processes in Semiconductors

Author : Kong-Thon Tsen
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An international team of experts describes the optical and electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures at picosecond and femtosecond time scales. The contributions cover the latest research on a wide range of topics. In particular they include novel experimental techniques for studying and characterizing nanostructure materials. The contributions are written in a tutorial way so that not only researchers in the field but also researchers and graduate students outside the field can benefit.

Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Author : Claude Rulliere
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This smooth introduction for advanced undergraduates starts with the fundamentals of lasers and pulsed optics. Thus prepared, the student is introduced to short and ultrashort laser pulses, and learns how to generate, manipulate, and measure them. Spectroscopic implications are also discussed. The second edition has been completely revised and includes two new chapters on some of the most promising and fast-developing applications in ultrafast phenomena: coherent control and attosecond pulses.

Femtosecond Laser Pulses

Author : Claude Rullière
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An introduction to the fundamentals of lasers and pulsed optics, teaching readers the physics behind short and ultrashort laser pulses, and how to manipulate and measure them. Additionally, the text presents experiments and discusses the spectroscopic implications. This well-rounded book provides an up-to-date insight into one of the most exciting fields of laser physics.

Proceedings of the XVIII International Conference on Atomic Physics

Author : Hossein R. Sadeghpour
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This important proceedings volume highlights the major scientific achievement of the last decade in atomic physics, namely the creation of the gaseous Bose-Einstein condensate, which was featured prominently at the XVIII International Conference on Atomic Physics (ICAP2002). Two recipients of the 2001 Nobel Prize delivered lectures at the meeting. Among the topics discussed were novel processes leading to degenerate Fermi gases in atom traps, creation of cold molecules, condensates in optical lattices, atoms in intense fields, tests of fundamental symmetries, quantum control and information, time and frequency standards.

Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science XVI

Author : Kaoru Yamanouchi
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This book covers a broad range of topics from the interdisciplinary research field of ultrafast intense laser science, focusing on atoms and molecules interacting with intense laser fields, laser-induced filamentation, high-order harmonics generation, and high power lasers and their applications. This sixteenth volume features contributions from world-renowned researchers, introducing the latest reports on probing molecular chirality with intense laser fields, and the most recent developments in the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility project. The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in this emerging interdisciplinary research field, spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each of their own subfields of ultrafast intense laser science. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, especially graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries.

Introduction to Ultrafast Phenomena

Author : Guo-ping Zhang
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This book, the first of this kind, provides a comprehensive introduction to ultrafast phenomena, covering the fundamentals of ultrafast spin and charge dynamics, femtosecond magnetism, all-optical spin switching, and high-harmonic generation. It covers the experimental tools, including ultrafast pump-probe experiments, and theoretical methods including quantum chemistry and density functional theory, both time-independent and time-dependent. The authors explain in clear language how an ultrafast laser pulse is generated experimentally, how it can induce rapid responses in electrons and spins in molecules, nanostructures and solids (magnetic materials and superconductors), and how it can create high-harmonic generation from atoms and solids on the attosecond timescale. They also show how this field is driving the next generation of magnetic storage devices through femtomagnetism, all-optical spin switching in ferrimagnets and beyond, magnetic logic in magnetic molecules, and ultrafast intense light sources, incorporating numerous computer programs, examples, and problems throughout, to show how the beautiful research can be done behind the scene. Key features: · Provides a clear introduction to modern ultrafast phenomena and their applications in physics, chemistry, materials sciences, and engineering. · Presents in detail how high-harmonic generation occurs in atoms and solids. · Explains ultrafast demagnetization and spin switching, a new frontier for development of faster magnetic storage devices. · Includes numerous worked-out examples and problems in each chapter, with real research codes in density functional theory and quantum chemical calculations provided in the chapters and in the Appendices. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers in physics, chemistry, biology, materials sciences, and engineering.

Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors

Author : Zeev Valy Vardeny
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Spurred on by extensive research in recent years, organic semiconductors are now used in an array of areas, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaics, and other optoelectronics. In all of these novel applications, the photoexcitations in organic semiconductors play a vital role. Exploring the early stages of photoexcitations that follow photon absorption, Ultrafast Dynamics and Laser Action of Organic Semiconductors presents the latest research investigations on photoexcitation ultrafast dynamics and laser action in pi-conjugated polymer films, solutions, and microcavities. In the first few chapters, the book examines the interplay of charge (polarons) and neutral (excitons) photoexcitations in pi-conjugated polymers, oligomers, and molecular crystals in the time domain of 100 fs–2 ns. Summarizing the state of the art in lasing, the final chapters introduce the phenomenon of laser action in organics and cover the latest optoelectronic applications that use lasing based on a variety of cavities, such as distributed feedback-type cavity. With contributions from a host of renowned international experts, this book explores the underlying processes in both existing and potential organic optoelectronic applications. It provides a broad overview of the scientific debate in the field of photophysics in organic semiconductors.

Femtochemistry Ultrafast Dynamics of the Chemical Bond

Author : Ahmed H Zewail
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0Keywords: “This two-volume set provides an excellent source of information on the state of the art in femtosecond spectroscopy. It is an invaluable reference for experts in the field as well as those interested in mastering the experimental and theoretical aspects of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy.” J Am Chem Soc.

Characteristics of Ultrafast Laser Produced Plasma and Its Application in Thin Film Deposition

Author : Zhiyu Zhang
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Tailored Femtosecond Laser Structuring for Intraocular Surgery

Author : Robert Kammel
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Focused ultrashort femtosecond (fs) laser pulses enable precise surgery in the bulk of transparent ocular tissue without the need of surgically opening the eyeball. Thus, various innovative treatment approaches aim at applying minimally invasive intraocular cuts into the crystalline lens or the vitreous body, e.g., to provide long-lasting therapies for age-related impairments such as presbyopia or retinal detachments. However, side effects such as unwanted tissue responses, reduced quality of vision or detrimental nonlinear pulse-tissue interactions might impair those intraocular fs-laser treatments and could hamper a clinical application. In this thesis, the side effects of intraocular fs-laser treatments are thoroughly examined and reduced for the first time. In order to rule out adverse tissue responses, the temporal evolution of fs-laser modifications applied to the crystalline lens is investigated initially in an adapted animal trial. Since intraocular fs-laser surgery commonly requires the application of extended modification distributions potentially inducing scattering and diffraction, their influence onto the objective and subjective quality of vision is studied by means of an artificial model eye and a clinical trial based on fs-laser treated contact lenses. Finally, simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing is investigated as a tool to decrease detrimental nonlinear pulse-tissue interactions and to enhance the surgical precision for safe and reliable future intraocular fs-laser treatments.

Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science

Author : Kaoru Yamanouchi
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The PUILS series delivers up-to-date reviews of progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science, a newly emerging interdisciplinary research field spanning atomic and molecular physics, molecular science, and optical science, which has been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each volume compiles peer-reviewed articles authored by researchers at the forefront of each their own subfields of UILS. Every chapter opens with an overview of the topics to be discussed, so that researchers unfamiliar to the subfield, as well as graduate students, can grasp the importance and attractions of the research topic at hand; these are followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries. This ninth volume covers a broad range of topics from this interdisciplinary research field, focusing on ultrafast molecular responses to an intense laser field, advanced techniques for attosecond pulse generation, atomic and molecular responses to attosecond pulses, photoelectron spectroscopy of atoms and molecules interacting with intense light fields, and attosecond pulse interaction with solid materials.

Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science

Author : Antonio Giulietti
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This volume covers a range of topics from this interdisciplinary field, focusing on coherent responses of gaseous and condensed matter to ultrashort intense laser pulses, propagation of intense laser pulses, and laser-plasma interaction and its applications.

Progress in Ultrafast Intense Laser Science XV

Author : Kaoru Yamanouchi
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This book covers a diverse cross section of this interdisciplinary research field, with contributions grouped into four categories: laser-induced filamentation; atoms and molecules in a laser field; interaction of solid materials with a coherent light field; and ion acceleration and ionization of atoms in super intense laser fields. This book series presents up-to-date reviews of advances in this interdisciplinary research field, spanning atomic and molecular physics, as well as molecular and optical science, which have been stimulated by the recent developments in ultrafast laser technologies. Each book compiles peer-reviewed articles by researchers at the forefront of their particular subfields. All the chapters include an overview to allow graduate students and researchers unfamiliar with the subfield to grasp the importance and attractions of the topic covered, followed by reports of cutting-edge discoveries.

Ultrashort Light Pulses

Author : S.L. Shapiro
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Soon after the invention of the laser, a brand-new area of endeavour emerged after the discovery that powerful ultrashort (picosecond) light pulses could be extracted from some lasers. Chemists, physicists, and engineers quickly recognized that such pulses would allow direct temporal studies of extremely rapid phenomena requiring, however, development of revolutionary ultrafast optical and electronic devices. For basic research the development of picosecond pulses was highly important because experimentalists were now able to measure directly the motions of atoms and molecules in liquids and solids: by disrupting a material from equilibrium with an intense picosecond pulse and then recording the time of return to the equilibrium state by picosecond techniques. Studies of picosecond laser pulses-their generation and diagnostic tech niques-are still undergoing a fairly rapid expansion, but a critical review of the state of the art by experienced workers in the field may be a timely help to new experimentalists. We shall review the sophisticated tools developed in the last ten years, including the modelocked picosecond-pulse-emitting lasers, the picosecond detection techniques, and picosecond devices. Moreover, we shall outline the basic foundations for the study of rapid events in chemistry and physics, which have emerged after many interesting experiments and which are now being applied in biology. An in-depth coverage of various aspects of the picosecond field should be helpful to scientists and engineers alike.

Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures

Author : Jagdeep Shah
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Ultrafast spectroscopy of semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures is currently one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed-matter physics. Remarkable recent progress in the generation of tunable femtosecond pulses has allowed direct investigation of the most fundamental dynamical processes in semiconductors. This second edition presents the most striking recent advances in the techniques of ultrashort pulse generation and ultrafast spectroscopy; it discusses the physics of relaxation, tunneling and transport dynamics in semiconductors and semiconductor nanostructures following excitation by femtosecond laser pulses.