Search results for: understanding-gravitational-waves

Gravitational Waves

Author : Ajit Kembhavi
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Gravitational waves were first predicted by Albert Einstein in 1916, a year after the development of his new theory of gravitation known as the general theory of relativity. This theory established gravitation as the curvature of space-time produced by matter and energy. To be discernible even to the most sensitive instruments on Earth, the waves have to be produced by immensely massive objects like black holes and neutron stars which are rotating around each other, or in the extreme situations which prevail in the very early ages of the Universe. This book presents the story of the prediction of gravitational waves by Albert Einstein, the early attempts to detect the waves, the development of the LIGO detector, the first detection in 2016, the subsequent detections and their implications. All concepts are described in some detail, without the use of any mathematics and advanced physics which are needed for a full understanding of the subject. The book also contains description of electromagnetism, Einstein’s special theory and general theory of relativity, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes and other concepts which are needed for understanding gravitational waves and their effects. Also described are the LIGO detectors and the cutting edge technology that goes into building them, and the extremely accurate measurements that are needed to detect gravitational waves. The book covers these ideas in a simple and lucid fashion which should be accessible to all interested readers. The first detection of gravitational waves was given a lot of space in the print and electronic media. So, the curiosity of the non-technical audience has been aroused about what gravitational waves really are and why they are so important. This book seeks to answer such questions.

Gravitational Waves Explained

Author : Richard Gaughan
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In September of 2015, the scientific world was buzzing: gravitational waves had been detected. It was a dramatic and conclusive demonstration of Einstein's theory of general relativity, the most complex and far-reaching theory in the history of physics. Through detailed diagrams, relatable analogies, and informative sidebars, this text cuts through the complexity and sophistication, providing an accessible introduction to the physics of waves, the implications of general relativity, and the ways in which gravitational waves can bring new understanding of the universe around us.

Gravitational Wave Astronomy

Author : Nils Andersson
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This book is an introduction to gravitational waves and related astrophysics. It provides a bridge across the range of astronomy, physics and cosmology that comes into play when trying to understand the gravitational-wave sky. Starting with Einstein's theory of gravity, chapters develop the key ideas step by step, leading up to the technology that finally caught these faint whispers from the distant universe. The second part of the book makes a direct connection with current research, introducing the relevant language and making the involved concepts less "mysterious". The book is intended to work as a platform, low enough that anyone with an elementary understanding of gravitational waves can scramble onto it, but at the same time high enough to connect readers with active research - and the many exciting discoveries that are happening right now. The first part of the book introduces the key ideas, following a general overview chapter and including a brief reminder of Einstein's theory. This part can be taught as a self-contained one semester course. The second part of the book is written to work as a collection of "set pieces" with core material that can be adapted to specific lectures and additional material that provide context and depth. A range of readers may find this book useful, including graduate students, astronomers looking for basic understanding of the gravitational-wave window to the universe, researchers analysing data from gravitational-wave detectors, and nuclear and particle physicists.

Overview Of Gravitational Waves An Theory Sources And Detection

Author : Auger Gerard
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This book describes detection techniques used to search for and analyze gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW science, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of general relativity and of GW, followed by the theory of GW detection. The various sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract their physical parameters. It includes an analysis of the consequences of GW observations in terms of astrophysics as well as a description of the different detectors that exist and that are planned for the future. With the recent announcement of GW detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave science.

Gravitational Waves Explained

Author : Praveen P A
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@page { margin: 2cm } p { margin-bottom: 0.25cm; line-height: 120% } a:link { so-language: zxx } Nobel prize in physics for the year 2017 has been awarded to the three American scientists for detecting gravitational waves. But, wait! First of all, what is this gravity and that wave refer to? If you are so solicitous to know about them, then this short compendium is for you. We have tried to explain everything about the gravitational waves in a concise way, as simple as possible, starting from its discovery to the recent detection and its scope in the future.

Advanced Interferometric Gravitational wave Detectors In 2 Volumes

Author : Grote Hartmut
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The detection of gravitational waves in 2015 has been hailed a scientific breakthrough and one of the most significant scientific discoveries of the 21st century. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy are emerging as a new frontier in understanding the universe.Advanced Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Detectors brings together many of the world's top experts to deliver an authoritative and in-depth treatment on current and future detectors. Volume I is devoted to the essentials of gravitational-wave detectors, presenting the physical principles behind large-scale precision interferometry, the physics of the underlying noise sources that limit interferometer sensitivity, and an explanation of the key enabling technologies that are used in the detectors. Volume II provides an in-depth look at the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo interferometers, as well as examining future interferometric detector concepts. This two-volume set will provide students and researchers the comprehensive background needed to understand gravitational-wave detectors.

Gravity

Author : Pierre Binétruy
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This delightfully written book takes the reader on a journey though the history of gravity, from the 16th century experiments of Galileo, through the remarkable insights of Einstein, to the recent observations of gravitational radiation from cataclysmic cosmic events: the merger of two black holes. THe history of the Universe itself, from the Big Bang to the present, is traced in a way that delineates the essential role played by gravity in its evolution. THe reader is afforded the option of following these stories with varying degrees of attention to technical detail. AT whatever level suits ones taste, a fascinating trip is in store. MAry Gaillard, Professor Emeritus, Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley

Gravitational Waves

Author : I. Ciufolini
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Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected. With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

Understanding Gravitational Waves

Author : C. R. Kitchin
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The birth of a completely new branch of observational astronomy is a rare and exciting occurrence. For a long time, our theories about gravitational waves—proposed by Albert Einstein and others more than a hundred years ago—could never be fully proven, since we lacked the proper technology to do it. That all changed when, on September 14, 2015, instruments at the LIGO Observatory detected gravitational waves for the first time. This book explores the nature of gravitational waves—what they are, where they come from, why they are so significant and why nobody could prove they existed before now. Written in plain language and interspersed with additional explanatory tutorials, it will appeal to lay readers, science enthusiasts, physical science students, amateur astronomers and to professional scientists and astronomers.

Fundamentals Of Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors Second Edition

Author : Saulson Peter R
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LIGO's recent discovery of gravitational waves was headline news around the world. Many people will want to understand more about what a gravitational wave is, how LIGO works, and how LIGO functions as a detector of gravitational waves.This book aims to communicate the basic logic of interferometric gravitational wave detectors to students who are new to the field. It assumes that the reader has a basic knowledge of physics, but no special familiarity with gravitational waves, with general relativity, or with the special techniques of experimental physics. All of the necessary ideas are developed in the book.The first edition was published in 1994. Since the book is aimed at explaining the physical ideas behind the design of LIGO, it stands the test of time. For the second edition, an Epilogue has been added; it brings the treatment of technical details up to date, and provides references that would allow a student to become proficient with today's designs.

Gravitational Waves

Author : Brian Clegg
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On 14 September 2015, after 50 years of searching, gravitational waves were detected for the first time and astronomy changed for ever. Until then, investigation of the universe had depended on electromagnetic radiation: visible light, radio, X-rays and the rest. But gravitational waves - ripples in the fabric of space and time - are unrelenting, passing through barriers that stop light dead. At the two 4-kilometre long LIGO observatories in the US, scientists developed incredibly sensitive detectors, capable of spotting a movement 100 times smaller than the nucleus of an atom. In 2015 they spotted the ripples produced by two black holes spiralling into each other, setting spacetime quivering. This was the first time black holes had ever been directly detected - and it promises far more for the future of astronomy. Brian Clegg presents a compelling story of human technical endeavour and a new, powerful path to understand the workings of the universe.

Gravitational Waves

Author : Brian Clegg
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On 14 September 2015, after 50 years of searching, gravitational waves were detected for the first time and astronomy changed for ever. Until then, investigation of the universe had depended on electromagnetic radiation: visible light, radio, X-rays and the rest. But gravitational waves – ripples in the fabric of space and time – are unrelenting, passing through barriers that stop light dead. At the two 4-kilometre long LIGO observatories in the US, scientists developed incredibly sensitive detectors, capable of spotting a movement 100 times smaller than the nucleus of an atom. In 2015 they spotted the ripples produced by two black holes spiralling into each other, setting spacetime quivering. This was the first time black holes had ever been directly detected – and it promises far more for the future of astronomy. Brian Clegg presents a compelling story of human technical endeavour and a new, powerful path to understand the workings of the universe.

Gravitational Waves

Author : Christopher James Moore
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Understanding the Physical Mechanisms and Capabilities of Gravitational Wave Detectors

Author : Michael Koop
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The direct detection of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources has been a goal of physics and astronomy for over 40 years. Two modern techniques for detecting gravitational waves that are actively being pursued are gravitational wave detection via laser interferometry and pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). In this dissertation we address a number of questions regarding how these detectors physically interact with a gravitational wave and how PTAs can be optimized for various scientific goals.We develop a fully physical and gauge-invariant description of the response of a wide class of light travel time gravitational wave detectors (which includes PTAs and laser interferometers) in terms of the spacetime Riemann curvature, the physical quantity that describes all gravitational phenomena in general relativity. In the presence of a gravitational wave with a radiation length-scale that is much shorter than the background curvature length-scale, we find the leading contribution to the detector response is an integral of the gravitational wave curvature along unperturbed photon paths between the detector components. This provides a simple, intuitive understanding of how these detectors operate. This framework also allows the straightforward calculation of corrections to the detector response corresponding to the relative motion of detector components and non-Minkowski background spacetimes.We then focus on gravitational wave detection via pulsar timing and introduce performance metrics that quantify the ability of a PTA to detect isolated gravitational wave signals, measure their radiation polarization, and localize their sources on the sky. The PTA sensitivity depends, in part, on the measured timing noise of each pulsar in the array. The timing noise can be reduced by longer pulsar observation times. Using the NANOGrav PTA as an example case, we identify a set of strategies for the allocation of available telescope time between pulsars that are optimized for various scientific goals. We find that, purely through the reallocation of currently available telescope time, significant improvements in a PTA's performance across a range of criteria can be made over the current practice of allocating equal amounts of time to each pulsar in the array.

Einstein Was Right

Author : Jed Z. Buchwald
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An authoritative interdisciplinary account of the historic discovery of gravitational waves In 1915, Albert Einstein predicted the existence of gravitational waves—ripples in the fabric of spacetime caused by the movement of large masses—as part of the theory of general relativity. A century later, researchers with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) confirmed Einstein's prediction, detecting gravitational waves generated by the collision of two black holes. Shedding new light on the hundred-year history of this momentous achievement, Einstein Was Right brings together essays by two of the physicists who won the Nobel Prize for their instrumental roles in the discovery, along with contributions by leading scholars who offer unparalleled insights into one of the most significant scientific breakthroughs of our time. This illuminating book features an introduction by Tilman Sauer and invaluable firsthand perspectives on the history and significance of the LIGO consortium by physicists Barry Barish and Kip Thorne. Theoretical physicist Alessandra Buonanno discusses the new possibilities opened by gravitational wave astronomy, and sociologist of science Harry Collins and historians of science Diana Kormos Buchwald, Daniel Kennefick, and Jürgen Renn provide further insights into the history of relativity and LIGO. The book closes with a reflection by philosopher Don Howard on the significance of Einstein's theory for the philosophy of science. Edited by Jed Buchwald, Einstein Was Right is a compelling and thought-provoking account of one of the most thrilling scientific discoveries of the modern age.

An Overview of Gravitational Waves

Author : Gerard Auger
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"This book describes detection techniques used to search and analyse gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW detection, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of GW in the general relativity followed by the theory of GW detection. The different sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract the physical parameters of the sources. With the recent announcement of gravitational wave detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave detection"--

Interacting Gravitational Electromagnetic Neutrino And Other Waves In The Context Of Einstein s General Theory Of Relativity

Author : Anzhong Wang
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This book is devoted to researchers who would like to investigate interactions among gravitational waves and matter fields beyond linear order, including the phenomena of memory effects, gravitational Faraday rotation, soft theorems, and formations of spacetime singularities due to the mutual focus of gravitational waves. Readers only require a basic understanding of general relativity to understand the materials.The book starts with an overview on the fundamentals of the Newman-Penrose formalism and a brief introduction to distribution theory, with which the author systematically develops a mathematical description of spacetimes of colliding plane waves. Then, the author presents a frame-independent definition of polarization of a plane gravitational wave in a curved spacetime, studies in detail the gravitational Faraday rotation of two plane gravitational waves, and shows that each of them can serve as a medium to the other precisely due to their nonlinear interactions. Exact solutions are also presented, which represent a variety of models including the collisions of two plane gravitational waves and the collisions of a plane gravitational wave with a dust shell, a massless scalar wave, an electromagnetic wave, or a neutrino wave. The formation of spacetime singularities due to nonlinear interactions and the effects of gravitational wave polarization on the nature of singularities are also explored.

Gravity s Shadow

Author : Harry Collins
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According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scientific community. Gravity's Shadow chronicles the forty-year effort to detect gravitational waves, while exploring the meaning of scientific knowledge and the nature of expertise. Gravitational wave detection involves recording the collisions, explosions, and trembling of stars and black holes by evaluating the smallest changes ever measured. Because gravitational waves are so faint, their detection will come not in an exuberant moment of discovery but through a chain of inference; for forty years, scientists have debated whether there is anything to detect and whether it has yet been detected. Sociologist Harry Collins has been tracking the progress of this research since 1972, interviewing key scientists and delineating the social process of the science of gravitational waves. Engagingly written and authoritatively comprehensive, Gravity's Shadow explores the people, institutions, and government organizations involved in the detection of gravitational waves. This sociological history will prove essential not only to sociologists and historians of science but to scientists themselves.

Is Einstein Still Right

Author : Clifford M. Will
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Albert Einstein is often viewed as the icon of genius, and his theories are admired for their beauty and correctness. Yet the final judge of any theory is the rigorous test of experiment, not the fame of its inventor or the allure of its mathematics. For decades, general relativity has passed test after test with flying colors, including some remarkable new tests using the recently detected gravitational waves. Still, there are reasons for doubt. Einstein's theory of gravity, as beautiful as it is, seems to be in direct contradiction with another theory he helped create: quantum mechanics. Until recently, this was considered to be a purely academic affair. But as more and more data pour in from the most distant corners of the universe, hinting at bizarre stuff called "dark energy" and "dark matter," some scientists have begun to explore the possibility that Einstein's theory may not provide a complete picture of the cosmos. This book chronicles the latest adventures of scientists as they put Einstein's theory to the test in ever more precise and astonishing ways, and in ever more extreme situations, when gravity is unfathomably intense and rapidly churning. From the explosions of neutron stars and the collisions of black holes to the modern scientific process as a means to seek truth and understanding in the cosmos, this book takes the reader on a journey of learning and discovery that has been 100 years in the making.

Black Hole Formation and Growth

Author : Tiziana Di Matteo
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The ultimate proofs that black holes exist have been obtained very recently thanks to the detection of gravitational waves from their coalescence and due to material orbiting at a distance of some gravitational radii imaged by optical interferometry or X-ray reverberation mapping. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews covering the gravitational wave breakthrough, our understanding of accretion and feedback in supermassive black holes and the relevance of black holes for the Universe since the Big Bang. Neil J. Cornish presents gravitational wave emission from black hole mergers and the physics of detection. Andrew King reviews the physics of accretion on to supermassive black holes and their feedback on host galaxies. Tiziana Di Matteo addresses our understanding of black hole formation at cosmic dawn, the emergence of the first quasars, black hole merging and structure formation. The topics covered by the 48th Saas-Fee Course provide a broad overview of the importance of black holes in modern astrophysics.