Search results for: unified-theories-of-cognition

Unified Theories of Cognition

Author : Allen Newell
File Size : 54.42 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 955
Read : 433
Download »
Newell introduces Soar, an architecture for general cognition. A pioneer system in AI, Soar is the first problem-solver to create its own subgoals and learn continuously from its own experience. Its ability to operate within the real-time constraints of intelligent behavior illustrates important characteristics of human cognition.

Soar as a Unified Theory of Cognition Spring 1990

Author : Richard Lewis
File Size : 41.61 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 257
Read : 223
Download »
Soar is a theory of cognition in a computer system. In 1987 it was used as the central exemplar to make the case that cognitive science should attempt unified theories of cognition (UTC). Soar research encompasses artificial intelligence and human computer interaction (HCI) as well, which we will largely ignore here. Since then, much research has been done to move Soar toward being a real UTC, rather than just an exemplar. Figure 1 lists the relevant studies. They have been done by a broad community of researchers in the pursuit of a multiplicity of interests. This paper provides additional breadth and context and presents four of these studies to convey the current site of Soar as a UTC. Keywords: Soar architecture, Natural language, Reactive environment, Concept formation, Series completion. (Author) (kr).

Soar A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective

Author : J.A. Michon
File Size : 31.44 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 641
Read : 1287
Download »
Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective represents a European perspective on Soar with the exception of the special contribution from Allen Newell arguing for Unified Theories of Cognition. The various papers derive from the work of the Soar Research Group that has been active at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, since 1987. The work reported here has been inspired in particular by two topics that precipitated the group's interest in Soar in the first place -- road user behavior and the temporal organization of behavior, more specifically planning. At the same time, the various contributions go well beyond the simple use of Soar as a convenient medium for modeling human cognitive activity. In every paper one or more fundamental issues are raised that touch upon the very nature and consistency of Soar as an intelligent architecture. As a result the reader will learn about the operator implementation problem, chunking, multitasking, the need to constrain the depth of the goal stack, and induction, etc. Soar is still at a relatively early stage of development. It does, nevertheless, constitute an important breakthrough in the area of computer architectures for general intelligence. Soar shows one important direction that future efforts to build intelligent systems should take if they aim for a comprehensive, and psychologically meaningful, theory of cognition. This is argued in a powerful way by Newell in his contribution to this volume. For this reason, the Soar system will probably play an important integrative role within cognitive science in bringing together important subdomains of psychology, computer science, linguistics, and the neurosciences. Although Soar is not the only `architecture for intelligence', it is one of the most advanced and theoretically best motivated architectures presently available. Soar: A Cognitive Architecture in Perspective is of special interest to researchers in the domains of cognitive science, computer science and artificial intelligence, cognitive psychology, and the philosophy of mind.

Toward a Unified Theory of Immediate Reasoning in Soar

Author :
File Size : 34.10 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 801
Read : 222
Download »
Soar is an architecture for general intelligence that has been proposed as a unified theory of human cognition (UTC) (Newell, 1989) and has been shown to be capable of supporting a wide range of intelligent behavior. Polk & Newell (1988) showed that a Soar theory could account for human data in syllogistic reasoning. In this paper, we begin to generalize this theory into a unified theory of immediate reasoning based on Soar and some assumptions about subjects' representation and knowledge. The theory, embodied in a Soar system (IR-Soar), posits three basic problem spaces (comprehend, test-proposition, and build-proposition that construct annotated models and extract knowledge from them, learn (via chunking) from experience and use an attention mechanism to guide search. Acquiring task specific knowledge is modeled with the comprehend space thus reducing the degrees of freedom available to fit data. The theory explains the qualitative phenomena in four immediate reasoning tasks and accounts for an individual's responses in syllogistic reasoning. It represents a first step toward theory of immediate reasoning and moves Soar another step closer to being a unified theory of cognition. Keywords: Syllogisms; Wason task; Unified theories of cognition; Reasoning.


File Size : 26.88 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 995
Read : 301
Download »

Anxiety and Cognition

Author : Michael Eysenck
File Size : 78.70 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 660
Read : 250
Download »
It is argued in this book that there are three major approaches to anxiety. First, there is anxiety as an emotional state. Second, there is trait anxiety as a dimension of personality. Third, there is anxiety as a set of anxiety disorders. What is attempted is to produce a unified theory of anxiety which integrates all these major approaches. According to this unified theory, there are four sources of information which influence the level of experienced anxiety: (1) experimental stimulation; (2) internal physiological activity; (3) internal cognitions, (e.g., worries); and (4) one's own behaviour. The unified theory is essentially based on a cognitive approach. More specifically, it is assumed that individual differences in experienced anxiety between those high and low in trait anxiety depend largely on cognitive biases. It is also assumed that the various anxiety disorders depend on cognitive biases, and that the main anxiety disorders differ in terms of the source of information most affected by such biases (e.g., social phobics have biased interpretation of their own behaviour). In sum, this book presents a general theory of anxiety from the cognitive perspective. It is intended that this theory will influence theory and research on emotion, personality, and the anxiety disorders.

Precis to a Practical Unified Theory of Cognition and Action Some Lessons from EPIC Computational Models of Human Multiple Task Performance

Author :
File Size : 90.11 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 908
Read : 678
Download »
Experimental psychology, cognitive science, and human factors engineering have progressed sufficiently far that a practical unified theory of cognition and action is now foreseeable. Such a theory soon may yield useful quantitative predictions about rapid human multiple task performance in applied settings. Toward this end, an Executive-Process/Interactive-Control (EPIC) architecture has been formulated with components whose assumed properties emulate fundamental perceptual, cognitive, and motor processes. On the basis of EPIC, a theorist may construct detailed computational models that characterize multiple task performance under both laboratory and real world conditions. For example, EPIC computational models provide good accounts of response latencies and accuracies from the psychological refractory period procedure, aircraft cockpit operation, and human computer interaction. As a result, major commonalities in performance across various task domains have been discovered, and efficacious principles for designing person machine interfaces have been identified. The substantive and methodological lessons learned from these advances constitute an instructive precis to further utilitarian theoretical unification.

The General Unified Theory of Intelligence

Author : Morton Wagman
File Size : 40.92 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 252
Read : 1123
Download »
The general unified theory of intelligence addresses the cognitive functions of thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. At an abstract level, this theory construes the intellective functions of humans and computers as, respectively, restricted and directed forms of the logic of implication. In other words, human intelligence operates according to production rules. Here, Wagman presents the central tenets and research elaboration of the general unified theory of intelligence that embraces both human and artifical intelligence across the cognitive domains of scientific discovery processes, inductive and deductive reasoning, and the mechanisms basic to analogical thinking and problem solving.

On Building Integrated Cognitive Agents a Review of Allen Newell s Unified Theories of Cognition

Author : Barbara Hayes-Roth
File Size : 31.54 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 773
Read : 374
Download »

Mind Matters

Author : David M. Steier
File Size : 22.51 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 916
Read : 1232
Download »
Based on a symposium honoring the extensive work of Allen Newell -- one of the founders of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and the systematic study of computational architectures -- this volume demonstrates how unifying themes may be found in the diversity that characterizes current research on computers and cognition. The subject matter includes: * an overview of cognitive and computer science by leading researchers in the field; * a comprehensive description of Allen Newell's "Soar" -- a computational architecture he developed as a unified theory of cognition; * commentary on how the Soar theory of cognition relates to important issues in cognitive and computer science; * rigorous treatments of controversial issues in cognition -- methodology of cognitive science, hybrid approaches to machine learning, word-sense disambiguation in understanding material language, and the role of capability processing constraints in architectural theory; * comprehensive and systematic methods for studying architectural evolution in both hardware and software; * a thorough discussion of the use of analytic models in human computer interaction; * extensive reviews of important experiments in the study of scientific discovery and deduction; and * an updated analysis of the role of symbols in information processing by Herbert Simon. Incorporating the research of top scientists inspired by Newell's work, this volume will be of strong interest to a large variety of scientific communities including psychologists, computational linguists, computer scientists and engineers, and interface designers. It will also be valuable to those who study the scientific process itself, as it chronicles the impact of Newell's approach to research, simultaneously delving into each scientific discipline and producing results that transcend the boundaries of those disciplines.