Search results for: when-the-sahara-was-green

When the Sahara Was Green

Author : Martin Williams
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The little-known history of how the Sahara was transformed from a green and fertile land into the largest hot desert in the world The Sahara is the largest hot desert in the world, equal in size to China or the United States. Yet, this arid expanse was once a verdant, pleasant land, fed by rivers and lakes. The Sahara sustained abundant plant and animal life, such as Nile perch, turtles, crocodiles, and hippos, and attracted prehistoric hunters and herders. What transformed this land of lakes into a sea of sands? When the Sahara Was Green describes the remarkable history of Earth’s greatest desert—including why its climate changed, the impact this had on human populations, and how scientists uncovered the evidence for these extraordinary events. From the Sahara’s origins as savanna woodland and grassland to its current arid incarnation, Martin Williams takes us on a vivid journey through time. He describes how the desert’s ancient rocks were first fashioned, how dinosaurs roamed freely across the land, and how it was later covered in tall trees. Along the way, Williams addresses many questions: Why was the Sahara previously much wetter, and will it be so again? Did humans contribute to its desertification? What was the impact of extreme climatic episodes—such as prolonged droughts—upon the Sahara’s geology, ecology, and inhabitants? Williams also shows how plants, animals, and humans have adapted to the Sahara and what lessons we might learn for living in harmony with the harshest, driest conditions in an ever-changing global environment. A valuable look at how an iconic region has changed over millions of years, When the Sahara Was Green reveals the desert’s surprising past to reflect on its present, as well as its possible future.

Challenges of a Changing Earth

Author : Will Steffen
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This volume is based on plenary presentations from Challenges of a Changing Earth, a Global Change Open Science Conference held in Amsterdam, The Neth- lands, in July 2001. The meeting brought together about 1400 scientists from 105 co- tries around the world to describe, discuss and debate the latest scientific - derstanding of natural and human-driven changes to our planet. It examined the effects of these changes on our societies and our lives, and explored what the future might hold. The presentations drew upon global change science from an exceptionally wide range of disciplines and approaches. Issues of societal importance – the food system, air quality, the carbon cycle, and water resources – were highlighted from both policy and science perspectives. Many of the talks presented the exciting scientific advances of the past decade of international research on global change. Several challenged the scientific community in the future. What are the visionary and creative new approaches needed for studying a complex planetary system in which human activities are in- mately interwoven with natural processes? This volume aims to capture the timeliness and excitement of the science p- sented in Amsterdam. The plenary speakers were given a daunting task: to reproduce their presentations in a way that delivers their scientific messages accurately and in sufficient detail but at the same time reaches a very broad audience well beyond their own disciplines. Furthermore, they were required to do this in just a few pages.

Climate Change in Human History

Author : Benjamin Lieberman
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Climate Change and Human History provides a concise introduction to the relationship between human beings and climate change throughout history. Starting hundreds of thousands of years ago and going up to the present day, this book illustrates how natural climate variability affected early human societies and how human activity is now leading to drastic changes to our climate. Taking a chronological approach the authors explain how climate change created opportunities and challenges for human societies in each major time period, covering themes such as phases of climate and history, climate shocks, the rise and fall of civilizations, industrialization, accelerating climate change and our future outlook. This 2nd edition includes a new chapter on the explosion of social movements, protest groups and key individuals since 2017 and the implications this has had on the history of climate change, an improved introduction to the Anthropocene and extra content on the basic dynamics of the climate system alongside updated historiography. With more case studies, images and individuals throughout the text, the second edition also includes a glossary of terms and further reading to aid students in understanding this interdisciplinary subject. An ideal companion for all students of environmental history, Climate Change and Human History clearly demonstrates the critical role of climate in shaping human history and of the experience of humans in both adapting to and shaping climate change.

Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change

Author : Lindsey Gillson
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Ecosystems today are dynamic and complex, leaving conservationists faced with the paradox of conserving moving targets. New approaches to conservation are now required that aim to conserve ecological function and process, rather than attempt to protect static snapshots of biodiversity. To do this effectively, long-term information on ecosystem variability and resilience is needed. While there is a wealth of such information in palaeoecology, archaeology, and historical ecology, it remains an underused resource by conservation ecologists. In bringing together the disciplines of neo- and palaeoecology and integrating them with conservation biology, this novel text illustrates how an understanding of long-term change in ecosystems can in turn inform and influence their conservation and management in the Anthropocene. By looking at the history of traditional management, climate change, disturbance, and land-use, the book describes how a long-term perspective on landscape change can inform current and pressing conservation questions such as whether elephants should be culled, how best to manage fire, and whether ecosystems can or should be "re-wilded" Biodiversity Conservation and Environmental Change is suitable for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in conservation ecology, palaeoecology, biodiversity conservation, landscape ecology, environmental change and natural resource management. It will also be of relevance and use to a global market of conservation practitioners, researchers, educators and policy-makers.

Desert animals in the eastern Sahara status economic significance and cultural reflection in antiquity

Author : Heiko Riemer
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Between Worlds

Author : Yasna Bozhkova
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This book provides a new critical reappraisal of the work of modernist writer and artist Mina Loy. Primarily known for her daring and difficult poems, Loy was also the author of a dazzling variety of other literary and visual artworks in different genres and media. My reading demonstrates the richness and complexity of her work beyond the more often-explored path from Futurism to Dada to Surrealism, emphasizing the importance of her perpetual travel between disparate aesthetics. Engaging in a close analysis of her poetry, essays, manifestoes, and novel Insel, I unearth a multiplicity of hidden literary and pictorial intertexts in her works. Tracing the origins of Loy’s often puzzling imagery, I examine the complex strategies of collage, condensation, distortion, and displacement through which she conflates multiple allusions in enigmatic constellations. I challenge T.S. Eliot’s claim that Loy lacks an œuvre, claiming that there is an aesthetic project, or at least a paradoxical unity in her famously fragmented work. I show how her writings critically engage with the turbulence of avant-garde innovation of her time, pinpointing the essential ephemerality of the avant-gardes and their tendency to become dogmatic ideologies. Through a perpetual shift of the aesthetic paradigm, Loy’s work creates dialogic exchanges between different experimental aesthetic programs. Thus, the book positions Loy not only as an important artist, but also as a major theorist of modernist and avant-garde aesthetics.

Plan B 3 0 Mobilizing to Save Civilization Substantially Revised

Author : Lester R. Brown
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Provides alternative solutions to such global problems as population control, emerging water shortages, eroding soil, and global warming, outlining a detailed survival strategy for the civilization of the future.

Vegetation Climate Interaction

Author : Jonathan Adams
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An accessible account of the ways in which the world's plant life affects the climate. It covers everything from tiny local microclimates created by plants to their effect on a global scale. If you’ve ever wondered how vegetation can create clouds, haze and rain, or how plants have an impact on the composition of greenhouse gases, then this book is required reading.

A History of the Western Sahara Conflict

Author : Michael Baers
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The conflict in Western Sahara has endured for nearly half a century, yet remains little known on the world stage. Drawing on multiple sources, this book presents an expansive history of both the conflict and the region, encompassing the history of the early Moroccan empires, the successive migrations of Arab nomads across the Sahara, the age of European exploration and colonialism, and the postcolonial period, when the conflict erupted out of a complex set of forces that include longstanding regional tensions, North Africa’s colonial legacy, the instability of post-independence Morocco, and diplomatic intrigues on the part of Western powers during the Cold War period. While it does not address the history of the conflict following the UN-mandated ceasefire of 1991, the book provides an overview for readers interested in both the conflict itself and the history of African nationalism in the post-war period.

Natural Climate Variability and Global Warming

Author : Richard W. Battarbee
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Whilst there is now overwhelming evidence that greenhouse-gaspollution is becoming the dominant process responsible for globalwarming, it is also clear that the climate system varies quitenaturally on different time-scales. Predicting the course of futureclimate change consequently requires an understanding of thenatural variability of the climate system as well as the effects ofhuman-induced change. This book is concerned with our currentunderstanding of natural climate change, its variability on decadalto centennial time-scales, the extent to which climate models ofdifferent kinds simulate past variability, and the role of pastclimate variability in explaining changes to natural ecosystems andto human society over the later part of the Holocene. The bookhighlights the need to improve not only our understanding of thephysical system through time but also to improve our knowledge ofhow people may have influenced the climate system in the past andhave been influenced by it, both directly and indirectly. This ground-breaking text addresses predictable modification inthe climate system in the context of global warming. Ideal forresearchers and advanced students, it explores current thinking onnatural climate change. Addresses the natural variability of the climate system in thecontext of global warming Contributes substantially to the ongoing discussion on globalwarming Integrates state of the art research and brings togethermodeling and data communities in a balanced way Considers questions of climate change on differenttime-scales “Natural climate variability and global warming isclearly an important book, well-focused and distinctive, withfundamental things to say about Holocene science and its interfacewith the practical problem of global warming. It is anauthoritative, up-to-date summary and synthesis of currentknowledge in this area and is attractively produced with clear,colour illustrations throughout. It is a ‘must’ for alluniversity libraries and our private book collections.”The Holocene, 2009.